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g^ft of 
The Stillman Family 
















\Y. Snorri Sturlason: 

: Family, xvii — Character of his father, xvii-xviii — 

Oddiy marriage, xviii-xx — First entry on public 

alÍÐgs with ms uncle Thord Bodvarson, xxi — 

1 Walrus, xxi-xxii — Children in and out of wed- 

— ^Removal to Reykholt,xxii — Acquisition of the 

\velliiig8, xxiii — Speaker-at-lawfor the first time, 

t mux Magnus the Good, xxii-xxiv — Relations 

1 Galimi, xxiii-xxv — In Norway for first time, 

^ifts lavished on him, xxv-xxviii — Sæmund of 

ird Swinefelling, xx — Sæmund and the Biorg- 

ii— ^Snorri's return to Iceland, hostility with 

ned, fickle treatment of Lopt Paulson, xxviii- 

etker again, friendship re-established with 

^i,fint meeting with Hallveig Orm's daughter, 

and Thorvald Snorrison of Wate^rth, 

Snorri gives his daughter Ingibiorg in mar- 

Vwaldson, brings Hallveig to his house, 

dicmy saii — Snorri and Thord in conflict 

Si^mt and his son Sturla over the godord 

miii-xxxv — Jon Snorrison, xxxvi-xxxvii 

''la Sighvatson*s dealings in respect of 

of the sons of Thorvald of Waterfirth, 

Inorri and Kolbein the Young, xxxiv^ 

—Bishop Gudmund Arison, xxxix-xl — 

oumey to Norway and Rome, xH-xlii — 

TOiri, idui-xlvi— Snom s^ond time in 

'-^ Simla's fall 



at the battle of Orlygstead, xlvi-xlix — Snorri's return to 
Iceland, xlix-l — Snorri's last attendance at the Althing; 
death of Hallveig; dispute with her sons, 1-li — Snorri's 
visit to his nephew Tumi Sighvatson; return to Reykholt, 
li — King Hakon orders Kolbein the Young and Gizur 
Thorvaldson to send Snorri to Norway or else kill him; 
he is murdered by Gizur Thorvaldson's orders, 1-li — His 
character, liii-liv. 

II. The Author : The historical school of oral tradition, liv-lvii 
— The era of letters; writers known before Snorri: Sæmund 
Sigfusson — Ari Thorgilsson — Eric Oddson — Odd Snorrison 
— Gunnlaug Leifson, Ivii-lxv — Snorri's works: E^da, Ixv-lxxiii 
— Heimskringla: MSS. of, Ixxiii-lxxvi — Sources, Ixxvi-lxxx 
— Egil's Saga, Ixxx-lxxxi — Relation of the Saga of Olaf the 
Holy to the other Sagas of Heimskr., Ixxxii-lxxxv — Snorri as 
historian and stylist, Ixxxv-xc. 
Kings of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, xc-xcii. 

Index I. Names of Persons and Peoples, 1-238. 

— — II. Names of Places, 239-292. 

III. Subjects, 293-515. 




At last, ten years after the publication of the third volume of 
the Heimskringla, and nine after the death of the originator of 
the SAGA LIBRARY, the indexes to Snorri's work see the day. 
No one can r^et the extent of this delay more keenly than I 
do myself, especially as I do not pretend to be personally free 
from all blame in the matter. In the main, however, it has been 
due to causes over which it was not in my power to exercise 
any control. 

The Saga Library was an idea conceived by William Morris, 
suggested to and tsJcen up by the late Mr. Quaritch. The work 
on it was divided between Morris and myself in the following 
manner: Having read together the sagas contained in the first 
three volumes, Morris wrote out the translation and I collated 
his MS. with the original. For the last two volumes of the 
Heimskringla the process was reversed, I doing the translation, 
he the collation ; the style, too, he emended throughout in ac- 
cordance with his own ideai. Morris wrote pp. v-xiijg of the pre- 
face to vol. i ; the rest of it was drawn up by me, as was also 
the preface to the second volume and submitted to Morris' 
revision. Indexes, notes, genealogical tables I took in hand, 
also the drawing of the maps which Morris had printed in his 
own way. 

As to the style of Morris little need be said except this that 
it is a strange misunderstanding to describe all terms in his 
translations which are not familiar to the reading public as 
* pseudo-Middle-English.' ' Anyone in a position to collate the 
Icelandic text with the translation will see at a glance that in 
the overwhelming majority of cases these terms are literal trans- 

* Corpus poet Boreale I, cxv. I will not attempt an analysis of the breath- 
Jess eloquence of the anathema of the Corpus, for the good reason that I 
Uó\ to make out the sense of it. Middle-English scholus who in the 3rd 
plur. pres. dene (fiidunt) detect Icel. £&^f= clown, cad (Dictionary s.v. dim) 
are apt to have strange M. E. visions. 


viií Preface 

lations of the Icel. originals, e.g,^ by-men — byjar-menn = town's 
people; cheaping — kaupangr » trading station; earth-burg — 
jariS-borg = earth-work ; shoe-swain — skó-sveinn = page ; out- 
bidding — út-bo^ = call to arms, etc. It is a strange piece of 
impertinence to hint at '/x^f^iC-Middle-English ' scholarship in 
a man who, in a sense, might be said to be a living edition of 
all that was best in M.-E. literature. The question is simply 
this : is it worth while to carry closeness of translation to this 
length, albeit that it is an interesting and amusing experiment? 
That is a matter of taste; therefore not of dispute. But when 
the terms complained of are indexed and explained as they now 
are the inconvenience to the reader, real or imaginary, is reduced 
to a minimum. 

A subject of great difficulty was the question how to deal with 
the proper names of places. We took the course of translating 
them wholly, when practical, or else, partly, or not at all; in 
which case the vernacular form is retained shorn of its inflective 
termination if it had one. This method, we were quite aware, 
was not satisfactory; but unless all attempt at translation was 
given up and the names were retained in their vernacular form, 
it seemed to be the only one open to us. To follow the latter 
alternative would serve two ends: it would present to the reader 
at first sight the native forms of the names, and it would ensure 
self-consistency throughout. But in an English translation the 
names in their native dress would jar on the reader's feelings ; 
to get out of them anglisized forms (without translating them) 
after the manner in which they are swedisized and danisized by 
modem Scandinavians is, I think, impossible on account of the 
more distant speech affinity. In the ' Origines Islandicae ' I see 
that a method almost identical with ours has been adopted. 

In respect of the present volume I have but a few remarks to 
make. Indexes I and II are meant to be complete as to matter 
and exhaustive as to references. Some people may find the 
former full to a fault ; I hope, however, not to the extent of 
materially interfering with its usefulness. For the benefit of 
those who are interested in the study of that extraordinary lore, 
the by- and nicknames of the Scandinavians, I have added to 
this index a list in alphabetical order of the vernacular forms. 
Presumably it adds a not unwelcome supplement to similar lists 
in Flatey book iii. 657-663 and Sturlunga ii. 467-468. With 

Preface ix 

regard to Index III, I must observe that a register or a dictionary 
of terms illustrative of the culture of the life of the ancient 
Scandinavians (and Icelanders) has been for a long time a 
keenly felt desideratum. This want, so far as the Heimskringla 
is concerned, ought now, approximately at least, to have been 
supplied; for I trust that nothing of real importance has been 
overlooked, nor any item included of no importance at all. 
General dictionaries do not supply this want. They are con- 
cerned with the meanings of words; not with the relations in 
which the things signified by the words stand to the environ- 
ment of life, or with the functions they perform in its organism. 
For the student of the history of human culture they are there- 
fore always insufficient guides, always, naturally, deficient in 
copiousness of references to the sources. In order to make this 
index still more useful I have added to it a complete list of the 
vernacular terms in alphabetical order. 

To these prefatory remarks I will add the following notices, 
illustrative of Morris' relation to Icelandic literature, as a supple- 
ment to the Memorial at the end. 

It will, no doubt, be remarked, how, in a great number of 
cases the rendering of the verses of Heimskringla presents a 
certain stiffness that was altogether foreign to Morris' fluent 
versification. The reason of this is twofold : In the verses he 
wanted to be as honestly literal as in the prose: This principle 
involved a literal rendering, as far as possible, of the various 
links that served to make up the ' Kennings,' or poetical peri- 
phrases, all the less obvious forms of which will be found ex- 
plained in the notes appended to vols, i.-iii. The quaint vivid- 
ness of fancy that manifests itself in these ' kennings ' appealed 
greatly to Morris' imaginative mind, and he would on no ac- 
count slur over them by giving in the translation only what they 
mcant^ instead of what they said. This, of course, renders it 
necessary to read the verses with some closeness of attention by 
the aid of the notes. A very similar treatment to the verses has 
been given by Dr. Hildebrand and Professor Storm in their 
translations of Heimskringla. Morris was so taken with the 
workmanship of the ' kenning ' that once — we were doing the 
verses of the Eredwellers' saga — he said it was a task we must 
address ourselves to to bring together a corpus of the kennings 
with a commentary on their poetical, mythical, legendary, and 

X Preface 

antiquarian significance, when we should find leisure for it. 
Through his manner of dealing with the 'kennings' in this 
saga, it is easy to see that his own version meant to be a fore- 
runner to such a work, for it is both a translation and a sort of 
commentary throwing out their picturesque points to the fullest 
extent ; hence his choice of the long metre in order to have a 
freer play with this element in the verses. 

Morris has described in an admirable manner his apprecia- 
tion of Icelandic literature in the preface to the first volume of 
the Saga Library. Through him more than anyone else interest 
for it has spread into wider circles, in this country, and will 
continue still to do so, for the * Lovers of Gudrun ' and * Sigurd 
the Volsung ' will long continue to be read by Englishmen who 
delight in grand stories told with consummate skill. He always 
maintained that the realism of the Icelandic sagas would secure 
for them a perennial popularity in England and that here a 
much wider interest would always be taken in them than in 
romantic Germany, though the scientific study of the language 
would probably never be carried so far here as there. Personal 
feeling, however, may have unduly affected his judgement on 
this point 

That the Icelandic saga was such a constant source of pleasure 
to Morris was in a large measure owing to the vividness and re- 
tentiveness of his memory. This I will take the opportunity of 
illustrating here with a story from our travels in Iceland in 187 1. 
The plan of our journey required going west to the extremity of 
Snæfells-ness along the southern shore of Broadfirth. Hearing 
this our host in Stykkisholm let fall words to the effect that he 
hoped none of us suffered from giddiness standing on the verge 
of a precipice, overhanging the sea, at an elevation of some 
350 feet. Morris felt nervous. He resolved at first to go with 
me a long circuit round so as to avoid the perilous place ; but 
afterwards made up his mind to run the risk. The place in 
question was the notorious headland of Búlandshöf %i, which is 
only passable in summer. Along the ledge of the precipice runs 
a very narrow bridle-path. Above it is a scree, reaching up to 
the top of the mountain, only a few degrees out of the per- 
pendicular, composed of disintegrated loose conglomerate. We 
passed the perilous place and rejoicingly celebrated the event 
in a grassy dene on the side of safety and Morris was very merry 

Preface xi 

and full of good talk. We reached late at night the church- 
stead of IngjaldshóU and made ourselves snug in the Church. 
After the day's excitement Morris was not inclined to sleep and 
proposed to tell us a story, and we were all ears at one. He 
b^an the short Saga of Bjöm, the champion of the Hitdale-men, 
and went on with it to the end, only once hesitating about a 
personal name. This was to me the more wonderful that we had 
only once read the saga together and he was not at all taken 
with it as a piece of literature. 

In the following obituary notice * on Morris I find nothing to 
alter. I give it a place here as a special Memorial on William 

I shall not attempt to assign to this truly great man his place 
in the literary and artistic Ufe of England at the close of the 
nineteenth century. Others, far more competent than I am, 
have been, are still, and will yet for a while be busy on that 
problem. Mine shall be the more congenial task of recording 
a few facts illustrative of such phases of W. Morris' life as I had 
an opportunity of observing during a period of close intimacy 
extending over seven-and-twenty years. 

When I opened the paper on Monday, the 5th of October, 
and learnt that Morris' eye of ever-sparkling life was closed in 
death, I felt with Burnt Nial, when bereft of a dear relative, as 
if the * sweetest light of my eyes had gone out.' I had lost in 
him a friend ' true as the loadstar' \ an instructor whose mind 
was a mine of information on the most heterogeneous subjects; 
a fellow-worker as utterly regardless of self as he was cheerfully 
congenial, untiring, considerate, and communicative of the most 
varied lore as we sped industriously on at our labour of love. 

I went up to see him after his relapse on the return from 
Norway, and found the stout and sturdy form of former days 
reclining on an easy chair in his beloved library, sadly reduced 
in body, but with a face the emaciation of which, it seemed to 
me, had added a still loftier grandeur to the expression of his 
alwa3rs noble forehead. Now for the first time I heard him utter 
in a hollowly feeble voice the familiar greeting, ' How are you, 
old chap?' I tried my best to be cheery. In an inexpressibly 
sad tone he sighed: ' But this is such a weary work! My left 

* Printed in the " Cambridge Review " of November 26, 1896. 

xii Preface 

lung is gone and we are now trying to stop the mischief there 
by drying it up.' * But,' he added, as by way of self-comfort, 

* many a man lives comfortably enough with only one lung to 
breathe with.' His voyage to Norway had done him no good ; 
he had even lost flesh on it. Still he was feeling better, he said, 
and seemed to cheer up when I remarked how very slight a 
change his illness had wrought in the features and expression 
of his face. He could not resist giving me some impressions of 
his journey, and especially graphic was his description of the 
forbidding grimness of the black wall of precipices that hems in, 
in places, the waters of Sognef jord. I took the opportunity of 
congratulating him on the Kelmscott Press edition of Chaucer; 
and for the last time I saw a flash of enthusiasm fire the whole 
frame of my dying friend. He lifted his right hand and let it 
fall heSavily on his knee, and said in a voice faltering with 
emotion : ' It is not only the finest book in the world, but an 
undertaking that was an absolutely unchecked success from 
beginning to end. On the day we went to press I came down 
in the morning and said to the chaps waiting: " I feel as if I 
had proposed a coach and four-in-hand journey to Norwich, and 
found on starting but four-and-twenty mice in the traces." ' He 
rose from his chair, as if he wanted to have a walk round in the 
old fashion, when the topic ran on an interesting subject, and 
went with his right hand through the still copious crop of his 
gray-besprinkled hair, a familiar habit of his when in an ex- 
hilarated mood, but he only stood still for a moment, then sank 
down again on his couch uttering in a whisper, as if talking to 
himself, a northern proverb that once greatly took his fancy: 

* Youth romps, said the Carline, she sprang over a "haulm- 
straw." ' My allowed time was up. We talked business for a 
while on the ' Saga Library,' and shook hands for the last time 
in life. 

Our acquaintance b^an first in August, 1869, through the 
medium of one of his partners whom I had accidentally met 
out at a party. I made my appearance on the day appointed, 
and met in the hall of 26 Bloomsbury Square my new acquaint- 
ance who, with a cordial ' come upstairs,' was off at a bound, I 
following, until his study on the second floor was reached. I 
had before me a ruddy-complexioned, sturdily-framed, brawn- 
necked, shock -headed, plainly dressed gentleman of middle 

Preface xiii 

stature, with somewhat small but exceedmgly keen and spark- 
ling eyes ; his volubility of speech struck me no less than the 
extensive information he displayed about Iceland and Icelandic 
literature generally, acquired, of course, at second hand. Alto- 
gether, what with his personal appearance, his peculiarly frank 
manner, his insatiable curiosity, exuberant hilarity and trans- 
parent serious-mindedness, I felt I had never come across a 
more attractive personality. 

At dinner I had the first glimpse of Morris' family life, and 
wondered not how in all his ways he betrayed the air of a 
supremely happy man. The one unchanging life-long delight 
of his inmost heart were his truly charming wife, in the first 
instance, and his very clever two daughters in the second. This 
reminds me of a touching incident from our travels in Iceland. 
We were the cooks of the expedition, Morris head-cook, of 
course. Once as we were engaged in preparing dinner in the 
kitchen of a farmhouse, I observed my robust-minded friend so 
entranced in thought as not to heed what he was doing; on my 
asking what was the matter, he answered, with that inexpressibly 
sweet smile that transfigured his face when he was intensely 
delighted, * I was dreammg of my love-nest at home.' In the 
presence of Mrs. Morris' dignified calm and gentle demeanour 
the Thor of the study and the workshop, where, at times, 
thundering was not unknown, was always the tender, devoted, 
worshipping husband. His attachment to home and family was 
a passion, not a routine observance with him. And here among 
his treasures of art and literature he spent the happiest hours of 
his busy and almost abstemious life ; for as to food and drink 
he was a man of strict moderation. 

His first taste of Icelandic literature was the story of ' Gunn- 
hing the Snaketongue.' I suggested we had better start with 
some grammar. *No, I can't be bothered with grammar; 
have no time for it You be my grammar as we translate. I 
want the literature, I must have the story. I mean to amuse 
myself.' I read out to him some opening passages of the saga, 
in order to give him an idea of the modem pronunciation of 
the language. He repeated the passus as well as could be ex- 
pected of a first b^inner at five-and-thirty, naturally endowed 
with not a very flexible organ. But immediately he flew back 
to the beginning, saying : ' But, look here, I see through it 

xiv Preface 

all, let me try and translate.' Off he started, translated, blun- 
dered, laughed; but still, he saw through it all with an intuition 
that fairly took me aback. Henceforth no time must be wasted 
on reading out the original. He must have the story as quickly 
as possible. The dialect of our translation was not the Queen's 
English, but it was helpful towards penetrating into the thought 
of the old language. Thus, to give an example, leiiStogi, a 
guide, became load-tugger (load = way, in load-star, load-stone; 
togi from toga to tug (on), one who leads on with a rope) ; 
kvænask (»kvæna sik from kván=3queen, woman) to bequeen 
one's self = to take a wife, etc. That such a method of acquiring 
the language should be a constant source of merriment, goes 
without saying. In this way the best of the sagas were run 
through, at daily sittings, generally covering three hours, already 
before I left London for Cambridge in 187 1. And even after 
that much work was still done, when I found time to come and 
stay with him. During the seven-and-twenty years over which our 
work on Icelandic literature extended never a high word was 
uttered; our differences, what few there were, found always a 
speedy settlement in appeals to grammatical logic, to adducible 
illustrative passages or other linguistic evidence of mutually ac- 
knowledged weight. To real cruxes we both respectfully bowed 
and passed on, leaving uncertain guess-work alone. 

What charmed Morris most was the directness with which a 
saga-man would deal with the relations of man to man ; the 
dramatic way in which he arranged the material of his story ; 
his graphic descriptions of the personal appearance of the 
actors, and of the tumultuous fray of battle; the defiant spirit 
that as unflinchingly faced wrong-idoing as open danger, over- 
whelming odds, or inevitable death. In fact, he found on every 
page an echo of his own buoyant, somewhat masterful mind, a 
marked characteristic of which was a passionate intolerance of 
all interference with natural right and rational freedom, and 
especially of any contradictory attitude towards a subject of the 
reality or truth of which he felt convinced himself. 

Much delight as he took in the Sagas, the work that fetched 
Morris most was the Elder Edda, especially the cyclus of heroic 
lays that deals with the grim tragedy of the Volsungs and 
Gjukungs. In the death-fain sorrow of Brynhild, in Sigrun's 
death-ignoring love of Helgi, in Gudrun's lofty grief for Sigurd 

Preface xv 

and gruesome hate of Atli, passion measures on a scale that 
only the highest poetical genius knows how to handle so as, in 
spite of its enormity, to preserve an intensely human character. 
Many a time as we were struggling through these old lays Morris 
would rise and pace his room, discoursing on the high art these 
old poets possessed, in never allowing the description of these 
volcanic passions to pass into mere grandiose platitudes, al- 
though clearly the temptation lay near, seeing that hard and 
fast Fate, concealed in the background, was the real author of 
the huge-featured tragedy. 

From the very first day that I began work with William Morris 
on Icelandic literature the thing that struck me most was this,' 
that he entered into the spirit of it not with the pre-occupied 
mind of a foreigner, but with the intuition of an uncommonly 
wide-awake native. I therefore soon made up my mind to per- 
suade him to give to certain subjects of the literature his own 
poetical treatment. When we had done the * Story of the men 
of Salmon-river-dale* (Laxdœla), and when the lays on the 
Volsungs and Gjukungs were finished, I gave it him as my 
impression, that the life of Gudrun Osvifr's daughter, and the 
life of Sigurd Fafner's slayer were dealt with, in the old records, 
so fragmentarily and, at the same time, so suggestively, as to 
leave a poet like himself, steeped in the lore of the Middle 
Ages and possessed, at first hand, of full mastery of these sub- 
jects, a wide field open for poetical treatment after the manner 
of the tales of the Earthly Paradise. He was then too full of 
first impressions to entertain the idea. He even went so far as 
to say that these matters were too sacred, too venerable, to be 
touched by a modem hand. The matter dropped in each case, 
after some argument on either side, by my suggesting that he 
might think it over. After a month, or perhaps more, in either 
case, I had the pleasure of finding the poet, one day, unex- 
pectedly, in a state of fervid enthusiasm, declaring that he had 
made up his mind to write a new poem : *The Lovers of Gudmn ' 
— * Sigurd the Volsung.' In each case the subject-matter* had 
taken such a clearly definite shape in his mind, as he told me, 
that it only remained to write it down. This illustrates the 
poet's method of working and accounts for the fact, that the 
MS. of all his work shows such a slight amount of correction 
or alteration. In both these noble monuments to Morris' poet- 

xvi Preface 

ical genius, when critically compared with the onginal sources, 
there are many points of excellence yet undiscovered by his 

I have already proceeded to such a length that I must pass 
over our travels in Iceland in 1871. Those travels are best de- 
scribed in Morris' own yet unpublished diary of them. 

By his life's labour William Morris secured for himself a 
unique position in the whole Anglican world ; and about his 
labour he did not go after the ways of ordinary men. Of free 
choice he never spent time on any thing but what he embraced 
with interest But taking interest in a matter meant with him 
throwing himself heart and soul into a subject and doing it 
altogether in his own way. Thus, in order to secure the highest 
excellence in the way of fast colours to his textile fabrics, he 
studied the subject of dyeing scientifically to the very bottom. 
One of the most interesting discourses he ever treated me to 
was one on dyeing-stuffs, delivered among dye-vats in the cellars 
of his old house in Bloomsbury Square. On heavy sabots of 
French make, aproned from the armpits, with tucked-up shirt- 
sleeves, his fore-arms dyed up to the elbow, the great man 
lectured most brilliantly on the high art of dyeing, illustrating 
his lecture with experiments in the various dyes he wanted for 
his silks and wools. In the afternoon of the same day I found 
him busy on illuminating a MS. he intended as a present for a 
friend, for he was a first-rate calligraphist ; and at night * I must 
leave him alone' with his Sigurd the Volsung! He could never 
be idle, yet he always proclaimed himself as the most idle of 
men. But his work must be ' amusing*', it must have the char- 
acter of artistic beauty. And the key-note of Morris' life was 
* amusement ' : enjoyment of what the world had to show in 
the way of beauty in the arts, in literature, life and nature. To 
some extent this accounts for the purity and guilelessness of 
his character, his broad-minded fairness towards adversaries — 
enemies he could have had none, for he knew not how to hate 
— his knightly frankness and conciliatory disposition which 
never deserted him, not even when he felt compelled to thunder 
down an unreasonable opponent 



October, 1905. 


Snorri Sturlason, statesman, poet, scholar and, above all, 
historian, was the youngest son of Sturla Thordson of Hvamm 
in Hvammsfirth, western Iceland, and his second wife, Gudny, 
the daughter of Bodvar Thordson, who was the ninth lineal de- 
scendant of Kveldulf the grandfather of Egil Skallagrimson. 
Sturla himself was also a man of good birth, and could claim 
relationship to the important family of the Thorsnessings, being 
sixth in descent from the * deep ' magnate Snorri godi,* some of 
whose less recommendable traits of character had descended in 
an accentuated form on the aggressive lord of Hvamm. One 
incident in Sturla's life, at once illustrative of his character and 
explanatory of the event that was to determine the future 
destiny of Snorri, may be briefly touched upon. 

Sturla had taken sides with his father-in-law, Bodvar Thord- 
son, of 6æ in Borgfirth, in a case of inheritance against the 
priest, Paul Solvison of Reykholt, who was married to Thorbiorg, 
the daughter of Biom and sister to Helga the wife of Brand 
Sæmundson, Bishop of Holar. After several futile attempts at 
settling the dispute the parties agreed to have a meeting at 
, Reykholt, after Michael mass, 1180, for the purpose of peace- 
I fully coming to terms. Sturla was present at the meeting and 
stubbornly supported his father-in-law although he had the law 
against him. Thorbiorg, a savage-tempered virago, losing patience 
over the slow progress of the proceedings, rushed at Sturla with 
a dagger, crying she would make him like to the one he wanted 

* For the secular sovereign chiefs of the country we retain this vernacular 
title, or else ' chief,* the translation priest in the christian age being mis- 

VI. b 

xviii Introductory 

most to resemble — Odinn (one eyed), and wounded him in the 
face. Priest Paul was forced to agree to leaving it to Sturla to 
make his own award for the injury done. Sturla's terms, how- 
ever, proved so exorbitant, that the priest did not see his way 
to complying with them.^ He took his case to the mightiest and 
most influential chief of the country, Jon Loptson of Oddi, and 
asked for his protection and award, to which Sturla, however 
reluctantly, had to consent To smooth the way of the negotia- 
tion the diplomatic lord of Oddi offered to Sturla to take into 
fostering his youngest son Snorri. From such a chief as Jon this 
was an offer most highly flattering to the vanity of the father, 
for in the ordinance of social precedence the common say held 
good in Iceland still, that ' he who fosters a child acknowledges 
himself the father's inferior.* ' Jon further invited Sturla to a 
banquet on the " Church-day," or anniversary of the consecra- 
tion of the church of Oddi (July 8th, 1181), requesting him to 
bring his son with him, an invitation which Sturla seems to have 
accepted readily ; so that from this date begins the period of 
Snorri's sojourn at Oddi.* Jon awarded Sturla but one twelfth 
part of his claim, and how the latter bore the humiliation came 
out when he heard the news of the death of Thorbiorg. As was 
his wont, when he took matters very sorely to heart, he went to 
bed, suffering with painful disappointment because the chief 
excuse for wreaking revenge on Thorbiorg's sons had now been 

By common consent Stiu-la was a man of unscrupulous char- 
acter, masterful, vindictive, imfair, and grasping.* With his wife 
he had three sons, the famous ' Sturlusons,' Thord, bom 1165, 
Sighvat, 1 1 70, and Snorri, 11 78. 

Three years of age, then, Snorri went, on the 8th of July, 1 181, 
into fostering at Oddi, a place made famous in the annals of 
Iceland by Sæmund Sigfusson the Learned, ' who has been the 
best clerk in Iceland.' • The school of Oddi, under Sæmund 
and his son Eyolf was perhaps the most popular centre of leam- 

^ He claimed 3 x 120 x 120=28,800 elk' worth which, if an ells' worth, 
at a low estimate, is calculated to equal i/. ^cL in present money, would 
amount to ;Í2i6a— Sturlunga, Vigfússon's ed. i. 76-82. 

» Cf. Heimskringla, i. 140« «.97 

» SturL, L 84, 195. * ^^'^ i- 84-85. Ibid., i. 83. 

• Kristni Saga, Bisk. Sögur, i. 28. 

Introductory xix 

ing in the land, and is called the ' highest head-stead ' by the 
author of Thorlak the Holy*s saga,* a title that mdicates both 
the wealth of the house and its educational illustriousness. That 
the tradition of the school was kept up by Jon Loptson is clear 
from what is stated about his bastard son. Bishop Paul, who 
was brought up at Oddi: *He was of nimble mind and well 
educated (lær^r) already in the age of youth.' ' That Snorri went 
here through a course of education is clearly to be inferred from 
his preface to the Heimskringla, where he says he has been 
* taught ' (besides other things, of course) ancient genealogical 
lore.' Critics have speculated a good deal as to whether he knew 
Latin. Taking into account the fact that hours were said and 
sung in Latin daily in the church, that Latin must have been 
the principal subject of instruction at the school of Oddi as at 
any other mediæval school ; that the rich library at Oddi must 
have been principally in Latin, it would seem to be simply a 
foregone conclusion that such a brilliantly gifted boy as Snorri 
could not help learning Latin. 

Of Snorri's life during his stcUus pupillaris we know absolutely 
nothing beyond the fact that, in 1183 when he was five years of 
age, he lost his father ; that his portion of the inheritance was 
left in the charge of his mother, a gay widow and a thriftless 
manager ; * and that his stay at Oddí covered the last sixteen 
years of his fosterfather's life, who died on the ist of November, 
1 197, when Snorri was nineteen.' 

From that time the sources of the story of Snorri's life flow 
abundantly ; chiefly from the Islendinga Saga (Sturlunga Saga, 
vol. i., Vigfusson's edition), a most important record due to the 
great talent and industry of Snorri's own nephew, the justiciary 
(lögma^r) Sturla Thordson ; and to some extent from Hákonar 
Saga (Icelandic Sagas, Rolls Series, vol. i.) ed. by Gudbrand 
Vigfusson, also due to the pen of Sturla Thordson, as well as 
from Biskupa Sögur (Stories of the early bishops of Iceland), 
vol. i. Space precludes that anything beyond a mere sketch of 
Soorri's life should here be attempted. 

After his fosterfather's death Snorri remained with his foster- 
brother Sæmund, Jon Loptson's son, for another year or two 
until Sæmund in company with Thord, Snorri's eldest brother, 

* Bisk. Sögor, i. 90. ' Ihid,^ i. 127. * Heimskringla, i. 3,9 

* SturL, L, 165. " IHd,^ i. 202. 

XX Introductory 

had successfully arranged a marriage between him and Herdis, 
the very rich daughter of Bersi the Wealthy, a priest of Borg,* 
the well-known manorial seat of the descendants of Skallagrim. 
Snorri himself was left without means, as his mother had dissi- 
pated all his inheritance ; but in return she now settled on him 
towards his marriage the land of the family manor of Hvamm. 
The wedding took place at Hvamm in 1199 and an under- 
standing was arrived at to the effect that Snorri should keep 
house at Hvamm conjointly with his mother. In the autumn 
following the wedding the newly married couple went on a visit 
south to Oddi where they tarried probably till 1201.' 

This year (1199) Snorri, now twenty years of age, got mixed 
up in public business for the first time. The east-country chief 
Sigurd Ormson of Swinefell had taken in hand the case of cer- 
tain of his liegemen who were the lawful heirs of a person 
named Glædir. This Glædir had settled his property on Jon 
Loptson, and to that bequest Sæmund succeeded at his father's 
death and laid claim to it. On Glædir's death, on the other hand, 
Sigurd had appointed as steward of the property a person named 
Kari, and relying on promises of support from Snorri's brother 
Sighvat, and his brother-in-law, the powerful north country chief, 
Kolbein Thumison, he refused at the Althing to accede to 
Sæmund's proposal to submit the case to arbitration. Late in 
the winter of 1 200 therefore, Sæmund, accompanied by Snorri, 
went with thirty men to the east, slew Sigurd's steward and ap- 
propriated the property in dispute. In the spring Snorri sum- 
moned Sigurd Ormson to the local Thing (court) of Thinghalls 
(J?ingskálar) on the eastern side of the river Ranga the Western- 
most, where Sigurd lost his case through the failure of support 
from his friends and through Snorri's energy m whipping up 
throughout Borgfirth the liegemen of Sæmund, and marshalling 
them to the Thing. In execution of the judgement Sæmund 
marched to the east at the head of a band of 700 men-at-arms, 
but Sigurd mustered only 200 to oppose to him. Through the 
prompt intercession of men of good will the end of the matter 
was that Sæmund's brother, bishop Paul, by mutual consent, 
settled the case by arbitration, and in such a manner that his 
brother had the honour of it, but Sigurd was * contented.' * 

^ Sturl., i. 195, 202. ' IHéU^ i. 202. 

' Ibid,^ i. 202-203 ; Biskupa Sögur, i. 458. 

Introductory xxi 

Priest Berse, Snorri's father-in-law, died 1201, and Snorri 
through his wife stepped into all his wealth and set up house 
at Borg, where he remained for some winters. At that time 
there Uved at Gardar on Akraness, the southern boundary of 
Borgfirth, Thord, son of Bodvar, of Bæ, brother to Gudny, the 
mother of the Sturlusons. He had many liegemen about the 
countrysides neighbouring on his nephew Thord Sturluson's 
godord of Snæfellsness, and realized that Thord's influence on 
them had the effect of rendering them neglectful of debts owing 
and services due to their liege-lord, so he handed one half of his 
godord ^ (the godord of the Lund-men) to Snorri Sturlason on 
condition that he should protect his liegemen against Thord his 
brother. But when Snorri had taken this charge over, Thord 
deemed his liegemen were still more ill-used than ever they were 
before by Snorri's brother." 

While Snorri dwelt at Borg it happened that a merchant-man 
from Orkney, commanded by Thorkel Walrus, a son of Kolbein 
Carle and nephew of the Orkney Bishop, Biami, a famous poet, 
hove into Whitewater-haven, in Borgfirth, and wintered in Ice- 
land. The Captain took quarters for the winter with Snorri, 
most likely at the latter's request, but failed to get on with his 
host. In the course of the winter Snorri seized a certain quantity 
of flour belonging to Thorkel and, in his capacity of godi, exer- 
cised the right of fixing the price of the article; but Thorkel 
claimed for himself the privilege of selling his own wares at his 
own price. The flour was taken from the store-house (at Borg) 
where it had been kept, and Thorkel stood by, making as if he 
knew naught of what was going on. Snorri's half-brother Svein, 
lying then on his deathbed, deprecated this proceeding severely, 
saying that such a thing would not have been done if he had 
been on his legs and adding that no honour would accrue to 
Snorri firom this seizure. Next summer Thorkel Walrus slew 
the deacon Gudmund, who had been the most active executor 
of Snorri's orders. The outraged godi answered by summoning 
to him his brothers Thord and Sighvat and urging them to set 
on the disrespectful Orkneyings who, in the meantime, had gone 

* We use this vernacular technical term rather than attempting any Eng- 
lish translation of it, when the domain and jurisdiction of a secular chief, 
godiy is in question. 

' Sturlunga, i. 209-210; Bisk. S., i. 486. 

xxii Introductory 

on board their ship and lay ready to depart in mid stream in 
Whitewater. The attack failed, and the Sturlungs retired dis- 
comfited. Thorkel set sail for the main, but was driven by 
stress of weather in autumn back to Eyrar in Olfus, in the south 
of Iceland, an easy day's journey to the west of Oddi. Imme- 
diately on landing Thorkel rode to Oddi, praying for Sæmund's 
protection, which was readily granted, chiefly on account of 
Sæmund's friendship for Thorkel's uncle, Bishop Biarni. Three 
hired assassins sent out by Snorri failed of their errand and 
Thorkel escaped from the country in the course of the next 

After some years* sojourn at Borg Snorri, having taken great 
fancy to the church-stead of Reykholt, the family seat of priest 
Magnus, the son of the above-mentioned Paul Solvison, managed 
to obtain the consent of the heirs to the property to his securing 
the freehold of it. This he effected by persuading the ageing 
priest Magnus with his wife to become his .pensioners, and by 
promising to help their sons to become men of such quality as 
circumstances should favour." 

With his wife, Herdis, Snorri had two children who reached 
years of maturity: Hallbera, the eldest, and Jon Murtr (Small 
Fry) the youngest.' The marriage was not a success ; they lived 
in a state of separation possibly from the time that Snorri re- 
moved to Reykholt, as Herdis is never mentioned in connection 
with that house. Snorri's biographer observes discreet silence 
on the subject. But in describing the unhappy Hallbera's move- 
ments in 1229 he states that she, having come from the north, 
probably in company with her husband Kolbein the Young, of 
Willow-moor (Ví^imýrr), stayed in her father's booth at the 
Althing, and accompanied him to Reykholt, when her husband 
rode away and deserted her. After a while Snorri had her 
escorted to the north country and she stayed a short while at 
her home at Willow-moor and then left the North for Borg to 
live with her mother. This shows that at that time, at any rate, 
they had separated.* 

Snorri must have removed to Reykholt before 1209, because 
that year Bishop Gudmund, of Holar, spent the winter there 
with him.' * He now became a great chieftain with ample means. 

* Sturl., i. 210-211. * Ibid,, 211. • Ibid,, L 211. 

* Ibid., i. 293. " /feV/., 222-223. 

Introductory xxiii 

He was the greatest man of business (f jáigejrmsluma^r). He 
was fickle of mind in respect of women, and had children with 
other women besides Herdis: a son, named 'Oraekia by Thurid, 
daughter of Hall, son of Orækia; several children by Gudrun, 
daughter of Hrein Hermimdson, of whom Ingibjorg alone 
reached years of maturity; Thordis, by a woman named 

About 1205 the chieftainship of Snorri was further increased 
by his receiving as a gift from Thorstein Ivarson his share in the 
so-called Avellings' godord, or chieftainship of Willowdale and 
Midfirth, in the north country. About 12 14 Snorri was called 
upon to settle a silly quarrel between his liegemen (the Avel- 
lings) of Midfirth and of Willowdale, but so little account did 
they make of the authority of their godi that before his very face 
they fell to fighting, and some of his men heaped reproaches on 
him for not striking in and settling matters by force of weapons. 
However, his wary attitude resulted in his succeeding in award- 
ing justice to offenders and settling peace between the angry 
factions of the godord.* 

In 1215 Snorri was elected speaker-at-law, at the early age of 
thirty-seven, for the usual term of three years. It was possibly 
during his first year of office, while attending to his duties at the 
Althing, that the following incident happened. Some of his men 
went to a heap of wood which belonged to Magnus the Good, 
a sister's son of Sæmund of Oddi, and cut for themselves clubs, 
' which then it was customary to carry in going to the courts.' 
The cook of Magnus objected to their ma^ng so free with his 
master's fuel, and a scuffle ensued. Magnus went to stay the 
brawl and was wounded. Sæmund, his uncle, now called upon 
his men to interfere, while, on the other hand, Snorri summoned 
his brothers to his support, and presently the whole assembly 
was in a state of great excitement, taking sides according to 
allegiances, but Sæmund showed as by far the most numerously 
attended chief. Thorvald Gizur's son of Hruni went between 
these madcaps and brought about a truce to last while the con- 
tending sides should call out a muster of men-at-arms from the 
country ! The end, however, of the silly affair was that it was 
agreed that Sæmund should award fines on the misdemeanants, 

* SturL, i. 2II-3I2; Bisk. S., i. 487. ' StnrL, L 229-231. 

xxiv Introductory 

outlawry being excluded. 'These brothers (the Sturlungs),' 
said Sæmundy when the matter was over, ' are so overweening 
that scarcely any man is able fully to hold his own against 

In 1 216 Snorri took an opportunity of revenging himself on 
Magnus the Good. Jorun the Wealthy, a widow who lived at 
Gufuness, in the neighbourhood of Reykiavik, died intestate, 
and there were * no men of account ' lawfully entitled to her 
property as heirs. She had dwelt within the godord of Magnus, 
and he proposed to appropriate to himself the bulk of her 
property, but to leave the rest to such of her helpless heirs as 
he chose. On hearing of this, Snorri sent one Starkad Snorri- 
son south into the neighbourhood of Gufuness to find an hek 
to Jorun, and he returned with a certain vagabond called Kod- 
ran, * whom Snorri called the heir of Jorun,* and who handselled 
Snorri his case in respect to his claim to Jorun's wealth. Coming 
with a band of eighty men suddenly upon Magnus, Snorri sum- 
moned him, declaring a guilt of full outlawry (skóggangs sök) 
against him and charging him to take his trial at the Thing 
(local court) of Thvera, in Borgfirth, within Snorri's godord. At 
this Thing Magnus was condemned to full outlawry, but he 
appealed to the Althing, where Snorri himself appeared at the 
head of a band of six hundred armed men, eighty of whom were 
* all-shielded,' and where he was supported by his brothers with 
a large following. The bishop of Skalholt, Magnus Einarson, 
came forward to bring about peace between the parties, which 
was effected by Magnus the Good's giving up a property to which 
he had no right. With something like a sigh of relief Snorri's 
historian, his nephew, Sturla Thordson, remarks here : * Snorri 
reaped honour from this affair, and through this matter increased 
most the esteem he was held in here in the land.' ' 

* Snorri,' remarks the historian further, * now became a good 
Skald. He was also deft at anything he put his hand to, and 
gave the best direction about anything that had to be done.' 
About this time he made a poem on the earl Hakon Galinn, 
and the earl sent gifts in return : a sword, a shield, and a byrny. 
The earl wrote to Snorri asking him to come abroad, and gave 
him to understand that he would do great honour to him if he 

» Sturl., i. 234-235. ' Ibid., i. 235. 



i^e. Snorri liked the idea very much, but just at the same 
time the earl died, and Snom*s journey abroad was deferred for 
some time.^ 

In the summer of 1218 Snorri went abroad to Nor way ^ 
leaving his house of Reykholt £0 his mother to manage, and all 
his property and his godord in the charge of his eldest brother 
Thord. The year before he had married his daughter Hallbera 
to Ami Unread 5? ('Oreíík), the son of Magnus Am undison, the 
newly married couple taking up their abode at Reykholt, as 
Hallbera would live nowhere else. They separated after seven 
y^u^ of unhappiness.^ 

In Norway Snorri was received with open arms by Earl (later 
Duke) Skuli, and he remained with the Earl through the winter. 
In the spring following he went east to Gautland to Lawman 
Askel and Christina his wife, who had been formerly the wife of 
Hakon Galinn. At the request of Hakon, Snorri had wrought 
a poem on lady Christina, which he called ' Andvaka/ and the 
lady received Snorri very cordially, bestowing on him many 
gifts, amongst others the standard which once upon a time had 
belonged to the Swedish king, Eric Knutson. In the autumn 
Snorri returned to Earl Skuli and tarried another winter with 
him. During this stay the sovereign Icelandic ' godi ' allowed 
him&elf to be appointed a page or gentleman in waiting at the 
tables of Earl Skuli and King Hakon,'' apparently accounting 
the promotion a great distinction. 

In order to understand more clearly the attitude of Snorri at 
the court of Norway we must give a short account of incidents 
which brought the family of Oddi into a hostile relation with 
the commercial community of Biorgvin in particular. In the 
jear 1215 Sæmund of Oddi and Thorvald Gizurson of HrunÍ 
had, according to law, set up a fixed price list for the wares 
that certain Norwegian traders from Biorgvin had brought to 
Eymi*. The merchants must have had some ground of com- 
plaint, for the matter roused much indignation in Biorgvin. 
Keict year (1116) Paul, the son of Sæmund, went to Norway. 
In Biorgvin he was received with much insulting mocker>% The 
Biofgvíníans reproached him with aiming at becoming Earl, or 
c:ten King, of Norway, and some of them assumed a threatening 

_' SruxL* L 21s 

^ /Wrf., i. 237, 266. ^ Ihid,^ 237-238, 

xxvi Introductory 

attitude, maintaining that it was unwise to wait in quiet until he 
should have got up one more revolutionary band in Norway.* 
Of course, the young man was quite innocent of any such inten- 
tion, but the reproaches stung him the more keenly that it was 
a well-known fact that he was the great-grandson of Thora, a 
daughter of Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway. 

In order to escape further insults from the Borgvinians, Paul 
took berth in a ship of burden for Thrandheim, where he pro- 
posed to pay his respects to King Ingi Bardson. Overtaken by 
storm off the Cape of Stad the ship was lost with all hands on 
board. When Sæmund heard the news of his son's treatment 
and tragic end he was excessively grieved and incensed, and 
would have it that the men of Biorgvin had been instrumental 
in the fate of his son. At the time it so happened that some 
merchants from Biorgvin again were engs^ed in business at 
Eyrar. So Sæmund, at the head of a large gathering of armed 
men, peremptorily demanded of these innocent tradesmen that 
they should by way of atonement pay him as high a fine as he 
himself should fix. Many men of moderation and good-will in- 
terceded on behalf of the merchants, in particular, Sæmund's 
noble-minded brother, Orm, ' the fairest minded of all the men 
of Oddi.' This was of no avail, and Sæmund seized by force a 
large quantity of goods from the traders in compensation for his 
son.' In the year 1218 there hove into the Westmen's isles a 
large ocean-goer from Hardanger, in Norway, the masters of 
which were named Grimar and Sorli. * On these as on others ' 
(/>., from Norway) Sæmund levied a fine that suited his lust for 
revenge and wealth. Sorli was a winter guest of Sæmund's 
brother Orm, who dwelt at Brei^abólsta^ (Broadlairstead) in 
the Fleet-lithe. He had bought from these men timber for 
church repairs, and when he went out to the islands to fetch his 
purchase, Grimar seized the opportunity of wreaking his revenge 
on the Oddi family, and slew Orm and his son, both not only 
perfectly innocent, but Orm noted for his intercession with his 
brother in favour of the Norwegians.' Grimar's misdeed natur- 

^ Sturl., i. 236. 

^ The goods confiscated amounted to the value of three-hundred hundreds 
of ells=3 X 120 ells x 120=43,200 ells, making in present currency, if the 
value of an ell of wadmal was u. 6^., the exon)itant fine of ;f 3,24a 

' Sturl. , i. 236-237; Hakon's Saga, pp. 49-50. 

Introductory xxvii 

ally served to add fuel to a fire which before was burning high 
enough. In revenge for Orm, his son-in-law, Biorn Thorvaldson, 
of Hnini, had a Norwegian who had sought asylum in the 
church of Bjarg, in Midfirth, dragged out of it and slaughtered.^ 
Snorri Sturlason knew nothing of the slaying of Orm till he 
came to Norway. In that country opinion was as severely con- 
demnatory of Sæmund's outrageous proceedings as those in 
authority were unwilling to make an atonement for Orm. The 
rulers of Norway now were Earl Skuli and his young son-in-law, 
Hakon Hakonson, the King (12 17-1263). Indignation in Nor- 
way went so high that an armed naval expedition to Iceland 
was decided on by Skuli. But many of the wisest men in Nor- 
way were imfavourable to such an undertaking, and advanced 
many reasons against it; Snorri himself in particular. He main- 
tained that a wiser course would be to secure the friendship of 
the best men in Iceland, and added that he would be able to 
persuade the Icelanders that the best thing to do would be to 
yield obedience to the lords (rulers) of Norway. With the ex- 
ception of Sæmund, he averred, there were in Iceland no men 
of greater influence than his brothers, and they would readily 
follow his counsel when he came upon the scene. Earl Skuli's 
militant ardour was lulled by Snorri's persuasive language, and 
the Earl suggested that the Icelanders should ask King Hakon 
to pray him, on their behalf, to give up the expedition. The 
King was young, and Dagiinn, his chief counsellor, the greatest 
friend of the Icelanders, was got by Snorri and other Icelanders 
to persuade Skuli to desist from the proposed raid. A meeting 
between Skuli and the King was arranged, at which Hakon 
pleaded the cause of peace so earnestly that Skuli gave up his 
plan. The Earl and the King made Snorri their ' landed-man,' 
and * that was,' says the historian, his nephew, * chiefly arranged 
between Snorri and the EarL' * Now for the first time was it 
suggested by the Earl that Snorri should bring about the subjec- 
tion of Iceland to Norway,' and Snorri was charged with trying 
to bring the Icelanders into the obedience the Norwegian rulers 
wanted of them; he was also to send to Norway his son, Jon 
Small Fry (Murtr), to be a hostage with Skuli ' until that which 
was bespoken should come to an issue." 

^ Sturl., i. 237. ' /W., i. 243-244; Hakon's Saga, pp. 51-52. 

xxviii Introductory 

The statement that Snorri was created a landed-man (cf. index, 
iii, s. V.) at the same time that it was proposed to him ' to bring 
about the subjection of Iceland to Norway' is much more 
significant than critics of the history of this period seem to be 
aware of. The bearer of the title was the highest administrative 
official in the state, and his principal duty was to watch over 
the political interests of the Kingdom (of course, he had other 
duties — fiscal, military, etc. — to attend to). Snorri's appoint- 
ment had nothing to do with Norway. The title seems never to 
have meant a mere honorary distinction with no official duties 
attached to it The bestowal of it must have been closely con- 
nected with the political plan unfolded by Skuli and Hakon ; 
for how, from their point of view, could such an undertaking be 
embarked upon with a prospect of success but by one who was 
raised by the King himself to a state of dignity above the level 
of his fellow commoners? We know what happened when a 
landed-man was created. He took the landed-man's oath to the 
King, and in return for yielding the King certain services he 
received at his hands lands for his maintenance. In Snorri's 
case, where were the lands ? To this there seems to be only one 
answer: his own lands in Borgfirth in Iceland, which, ' merely 
as a matter of form,' he gave up to the King who again instantly 
conferred them on Snorri, as a royal grants all in strict analogy 
with the precedence of Harald Fairhair's treatment of hersirs 
and kinglets who gave themselves up to him and became his 
landed-men. This would naturally explain both why Hakon 
accounted it a treason in Snorri to go to Iceland, 1239, in spite 
of the King's prohibition, and also why, after Snorri's death, he 
claimed as his Snorri's lands in Borgfirth and elsewhere. If this 
explanation of an hitherto entirely neglected incident in Snorri's 
life is true, it must be confessed that he committed something 
more than a blunder — he forged his own fate. 

Snorri set sail for Iceland (1220) in a ship, the gift of Earl 
Skuli, who had honoured him with fifteen great gifts in all. 
In his ship, unmasted by stress of weather, he arrived in the 
Westmen's Isles late in the season. When the news spread of 
his arrival, and all the honours that had been heaped upon him 
in Norway, the men of the south country, especially the allies 
of Sæmund, received him with much ill-will, suspecting that he 
was commissioned to oppose all endeavours on the part of the 

Introductory xxix 


kinsmen of Orm to obtain atonement for him. The south- 
luiders made much mockery of the poems he had wrought in 
lunour of Skull, a parody of one stanza being still preserved. 
Soorri landed with twelve men all bearing fine ornamented shields 
and went on his journey to Skalholt where he was a guest of 
Bishop Magnus Gizurson. Here he was overtaken by Biom 
Thorvaldson, Orm Jonsson's son-in-law, who went straight up 
to Snorri asking if he meant to debar his relatives from obtaining 
honourable atonement for Orm. Snorri disavowed any such in- 
tention ; but Biom, not being satisfied with the answer, assumed 
1 threatening attitude, whereat the Bishop interceded and 
ayerted acts of violence ; their parting greetings were curt and 
Snorri proceeded to his manor of Reykholt* 

It was a custom of Sæmund's to give a banquet every year on 
the day of the Patron Saint of the church of Oddi, St. Nicholas, 
December 6th, to the more notable men of the neighbourhood 
who were in friendship with him. Such a feast he also gave 
122 1 and invited to it, among others, Lopt, his nephew, the son 
of Bishop Paul, and Biom, son of Thorvald, the son-in-law 
of Sæmund's brother Orm. The drinking was hard, and the 
tongue was loose; and between Lopt and Biorn there arose 
utterances and repartees of exasperating character, so much so, 
tíiat they parted the greatest of foes. Lopt sent men to Snorri 
to complain of his case *and it is the say of some men that 
Snorri letted Lopt but little from rising up against Biorn.' In 
the following spring Snorri sent his man Valgard, the son of 
Styrmir, south to Lopt where he tarried for a while. At that 
time Lopt sent a man to Biom at Brei^abólsta^ to announce 
to him that he intended to pay him a visit in the second week 
of summer, when he proposed that an end should be put to their 
quarrel. Lopt kept his word, though not punctually as to time, 
fought with Biorn and slew him, June 1 7th. After this meeting 
Lopt went to see Snorri Sturlason who promised him his sup- 
port in the blood-suit, if Sæmund, who was Lopt's uncle, and 
other chiefs should side with him. The reason for Snorri's atti- 
tude was that the family of Orm, the men of Oddi, in common 
with the majority of the Southlanders, were hated of him ever 
since their unfriendly reception of him on his return from Nor- 

^ Sturl., L 244-245. 



way. Snorri's action was, perhaps, also prompted by a desire to 
be able to report to Earl Skuli that he had effected revenge for 
the innocent Norwegian whom Biom had killed north in Mid- 
firth, which would be taken as a proof of his looking after the 
interests of Norway in Iceland. But although Snorri had given 
his promise of support to Lopt, his brother Sighvat managed to 
persuade him to leave him in the lurch, and the end of the matter 
was that Lopt had to hand over to Thorvald Gizurson, Biorn's 
father, self-judgement in the case.* This fickleness on Snorri's 
part was evidently a topic of conversation and was looked upon 
as evidence of weakness of character, as his brother Sighvat 
even hinted afterwards to his friends : * When we met, Snorri 
had an axe aloft over his shoulder so keen that it looked as if 
it would cut everything through; then I took forth from my 
pouch a hone and drew it along the edge, and so blunt was the 
axe that it smiled on me before we parted.' * 

This same year (1221) Snorri sent his son Jon Small Fry to 
Earl Skuli according to the compact of the preceding year. 
Jon was accompanied by Ami Unready, Snorri's son-in-law, 
and he proceeded to the court of King Hakon who was a bosom 
friend of Ami's.' 

In 1222 Snorri was elected Speaker a second time and was 
re-elected three times successively, if not four, which shows in 
how high an esteem he was held for his knowledge of the law, 
and the impartiality of his decisions. 

In the autumn of this year, on the 7th November, Sæmund 
Jonson died at Oddi, and declared as his last will that his 
daughter Solveig should take an equal share with his sons in 
his property. Solveig went to her mother, Valgerd of Keldur, 
and mother and daughter placed themselves under the guardian- 
ship of Thorvald Gizurson in respect of Solveig's heirship, while 
the many sons of Sæmund agreed to ask Snorri Sturluson to 
share the property among them, binding themselves to abide 
by his decisions. He went to the south accompanied by a brave 
following, and on his way put up at Keldur, where he was 
lovingly entertained by mother and daughter. Solveig accom- 
panied him to Oddi, and Snorri took much delight in convers- 
ing with her. On their way they met a woman, accompanied 

^ Sturl., i. 245-250. 

/M(/., i. 249. 

* Jbid.y I 244, 251. 

Introductory xxxi 

'by a single male attendant; she had on a felt cloak, the felt 
being * sewed to her head' and serving for a hood. This 
woman was Hallveig, the daughter of Orm Jonson, a niece of 
Saemund of Oddi, and widow of Biom Thonpaldson, who, as we 
have seen, was slain by Lopt Paulson; she was accoimted of 
as the wealthiest woman in Iceland. Snorri made merry over 
her odd way of travelling; but later on, Hallveig's wealth 
taii^ht him to turn towards her more sympathetic regards. At 
Oddi Snorri treated Solveig with such favour that he allowed 
her to have whatever she chose of the inheritance within the 
limits of her share. 

The same year Solveig married Sturla, son of Sighvat, 
Snorri's nephew. 'And when Snorri heard of the marriage,' 
says the historian, ' he was unpleasantly surprised (var% far um), 
and men would have it that his intentions had pointed in an- 
other direction,' a hint that Snorri had intended to marry the 
£uciiiating girl himself, perhaps more Danico,^ 

This same year (1223) Snorri brought forward against the 
turbulent chief Thorvald Snorrison of Waterfirth a charge for 
brigandage. Snorri's son Oradkia, a lad of fourteen, prosecuted 
the case with such effect, that Thorvald was sentenced to out- 
lawry with forfeiture of all his property and his godord to boot. 
This, says the historian, was regarded as news of the gravest 
import, and likely to lead to the greatest trouble. Snorri's 
nephew, Sturla Sighvatson had entered upon the most intimate 
friendship with Thorvald, and now besought his father to inter- 
cede for the condemned brigand chief with Snorri, and have the 
sentence altogether annulled. In this Sighvat succeeded so well, 
that Snorri consented to full reprieve in respect of the outlawry, 
and to a private understanding with his brother, that Thorvald 
should neither pay fine nor forfeit his godord.-^Shortly after- 
wvds (1224) Thorvald sent friendly words to Snorri to the effect 
that his desire was to become allied to him by marriage, and 
ðiiis bound to him by firm bonds of friendship. To this Snorri 
netumed such a favourable answer that Thorvald deemed he 
mderstood that Snorri would be ready to advance his honours 
m every way, provided he would bind himself to do whatever 
Sáorri demanded of him, no matter with whom they should 

^ Sturl., i. 262-263. 

xxxii Introductory 

have to deal. In the spring Thorvald went south to Borgfirth, 
Snorri's own country, and wooed formally Snorri's daughter 
Thordis, to which Snorri readily consented, and their marriage 
was celebrated with due pomp in the autumn of the same year.* 

In the spring of this same year Snorri had ridden from Borg- 
firth into the south country, in which journey he paid a visit to 
Thorvald Gizurson of Hnmi, * and much the two had to talk of.' 
Shortly before this had died the very wealthy magnate Kolskegg 
Ericson from Dale * below the Isles'-Fells ' (undir EyjafjöUum) ; 
his sister and heiress was Thora who had been a concubine of 
the above-mentioned Orm Jonson, and with whom she had had 
a son, Jon, and the daughter Hallveig, whom Snorri had met 
the year before and made some fun of. Hallveig was to inherit 
her due portion of her mother's great property. The two chiefs 
bound themselves in mutual friendship, by Snorri promising his 
base-born daughter Ingibiorg in marriage to Gizur Thorvald's 
son, while Thorvald bound himself to persuade his widowed 
daughter-in-law, Hallveig, to join Snorri and become his house- 
keeper (fara til bus me^ hónum). It was bespoken that the 
wedding of Gizur and Ingibiorg should take place at Reykholt 
in the autumn (1224). The wedding feast was a most glorious 
one. Just before the wedding took place Snorri brought to his 
house Hallveig and made a contract with her that each should 
own one half of their joint property. He also undertook to 
manage the property of her sons Klæng and Orm. Thord, 
Snorri's brother, was heavy of heart about this matter, prophesy- 
ing that from it Snorri would come to the end of his days, as 
indeed in a way came true.* 

Lopt, who at the instigation of Snorri had set upon and slain 
Biom Thorvaldson, and had consequently been banished from 
the country for three years, now came back again before having 
served his full term of exile; and finding the country-sides of his 
own kindred in the south too unsafe for him, stiU an outlaw, 
to sojourn in, he went to Snorri, who so managed Lopt's affairs 
as to find him an estate in the west country, and a purchaser 
to his own manor^ Skard, in the South-land.' 

At this time some estrangement prevailed between the brothers 
Thord and Snorri, the cause being their maternal inheritance. 

* Sturl., i. 263-264. * Ihid,^ i. 266. • IbiéL^ i. 265. 

Introductory xxxiii 

Gudny, their mother, who died in Snorri's house^had bequeathed 
all her chattels to her grandson, Sturla Thord's son (the author 
of Islendinga Saga), but the whole of it, which was of great 
value, Snorri had appropriated to himself. 

Snorri, knowing the peaceful ways of Thord, invited him to a 
feast after the Aldiing (1224), and told him he wanted to drop 
all estrangement and take up loving brotherhood, adding that 
they would never come to quarrel over money matters. But he 
hinted that his nephew Sturla Sighvatson stood in the way of 
their honour, in that Sighvat, who had kept to himself, ever since 
the death of their father, the godord of the 'Snorrungs' (Snorri 
godi's kin), had now given it to his son Sturla as a marriage settle- 
ment^ The formal claim to the godord was made at the Althing, 
1225, by Snorri, who demanded his nephew's consent to his de- 
ciding the case in question alone. Besides by others, Snorri was 
supported by his brother Thord in this matter; but Sturla answered 
that he would not concede sole decision to his uncle, the less so 
that it came to his father to answer the claim, for from him he had 
received the godord.^ Out of this great enmity arose between all 
these kinsmen. In 1 227 Thord Sturluson formally ' took up ' the 
ancestral godord of the Snomings, retaining one third of it for 
himself, but the other two thirds of it were appropriated by Jon 
Snorrison, his nephew. Thord's honest meaning was that he, with 
his two brothers Sighvat and Snorri, should share it equally. As 
he purposed not to ride to the Althing so as to be present at 
the beginning of it, he sent his son Sturla to his brother Snorri 
* with his godords,' i>., leaving his thing- (or liege-) men in his 
brother's hands. On 24th June Sturla Sighvatson went with an 
armed band to the house of Thord, committing murderous out- 
rages on the household, but sternly enjoining respect for his 
uncle's person. Sturla, according to his own men, seemed 
heartily ashamed of his performance, and instead of carrying 
further his deeds of outrage he sent a proposal of truce to his 
uncle which was accepted and fixed to last till midsummer. 
Immediately after this Thord rode to the Thing and told his 
brother Snorri how he had been treated. Snorri offered him to 
proceed with an armed host at once against his turbulent 
nephew, but Thord declined the service while the truce was 

^ Sturl., i. 265. * Ibid,y i. 271-272. 

VI. € 



still in force/ The affair was submitted to arbitration and Sturla 
had to pay heavy damages for what he himself even called * a 
foolish outrage' (1228).^ 

In 1228 a new alliance by marriage gave fresh increase to 
Snorri's already wellnigh peerless power and influence. Kolbein 
the young, son of Amor Tumison, a great chieftain in Skaga- 
firth in the north country, wooed for wife Snorri's daughter 
Hallbera, the divorced wife of Ami Unready, and they were 
married immediately after the betrothals. Hallbera went to the 
north with her husband and died after three years of another 
unhappy marriage. This year, Snorri, who had been a second 
time Speaker-at-law since 1222, and continued in office till 1231, 
rode ' as usual ' to the Althing. It was generally supposed that 
he and Sighvat would discuss the sore matter of the godord, 
but nothing happened, although Thorvald of Waterfirth, Snorri's 
son-in-law, made an attempt to bring the matter to a head. A 
story is told of Snorri, after his return to Reykholt how, when 
sitting with his favourites in his bath, he was congratulated on 
being a peerless chieftain in the land, no lord therein being 
in a position to contend with him on account of his powerful 
marriage alliances. Snorri accepted the compliment, saying that 
his kinsmen-in-law were no puppets. But when the priest, Sturla 
Bardson, who had kept watch at the bath, led Snorri home, he 
sang so that Snorri might hear: 

You have but such alliance 
As had in ancient story 
The famous lord of Hleidra — 
Iniquity breeds evil.* 

This summer Snorri made earnest of settling the affair of the 
godord and went to see his brother Thord and told him he 
purposed to march with a band into the Dales (up from Broad- 
firth), where Sturla Sighvatson held sway, and Thord agreed to 
join him in order * to mend matters between them.' Snorri went 
with some 360 men, but Thord sent word to Sturla who the 
year before had paid Thord the visit described above, to warn 
him not to be in his uncle's (Snorri's) way. Sturla took the hint 

^ Sturl., i. 276-277. » Ibid,^ i. 278-279. 

' Sturl., i. 279-280.—* Lord of Hleidra ' : Rolf Kraki, Kin^ of Denmark, 
betrayed by his vassal-King Hjörvar9, through the machination of his wife 
Skuld, Hrolfs half-elfin sister, Fornaldarsögur, i. 96-109. 

Introductory xxxv 

and left his manor of Saudafell in good time. But Snorri sum- 
moned together a meeting of Sturla's Thingmen, and took oaths 
of them whereby they all declared themselves liegemen of Snorri.* 

Thorvald Snorrison of Waterfirth, Snorri Sturluson's son-in- 
law, was about the vilest character in the Sturlung drama. His 
neighbouring godi, Hrafn Sveinbiomson of Eyr, in the west of 
Iceland, was without exception the noblest type of man in Ice- 
land at the same time. He was exceedingly popular, and very 
powerful through the multitude of his liegemen. Thorvald bore 
him implacable hatred for no other cause than his goodness 
and greatness, and after a long series of insulting acts, and at- 
tempts on Hiafn's life, succeeded at last to surround him in his 
house and slay him, 12 13. For fifteen years the sons of Hrafn 
maintained themselves in spite of Thorvald's ceaseless endeavours 
to put an end to their existence, and this year, 1228, they suc- 
ceeded at last in ridding themselves of him by burning him to 
death within the homestead of Gillistead. After the deed they 
set speedily off, throwing themselves under the protection first 
of Sturla Sighvatson, and then of Sighvat his father, in the north 
country. In revenge for this act of Sturla's, the sons of Thor- 
vald, Thord and Snorri, went with an armed band to Saudafell, 
Sturla's manor in the Dales, where, in his absence, they com- 
mitted the most brutal excesses, robbery, maiming, and man- 
slaughters. Sturla suspected his uncle of Reykholt to have had 
a hand in the dreadful deed, and Snorri's own and other poets' 
utterances on the event would tend to show that Snorri was not 
an utter stranger to the expedition from the beginning, though 
he must be acquitted of all responsibility for the execution of it. 
The sons of Hrafn were prosecuted under Snorri's auspices by 
his son Jon Small Fry and were sentenced guilty. The sons of 
Thorvald of Waterfirth were also proceeded against and sen- 
tenced guilty of brigandage. Execution courts were to finish 
these affairs, but were not called into action.' 

The hostilities between the sons of Thorvald and Sturla con- 
cluded nominally by his inflicting heavy fines on them, under 
conceded self-award, at Holt in Onundfirth, 1230.' 

During the winter, 1 229-1 230, Sturla kept quiet and sat at 
home, and now the bitterest enmity between him and his uncle 

^ SturL, i. 280-281. * Ibid,^ i. i8l-i86, 285-292. * Ihid,, L 297-298. 

xxxvi Introductory 

Snorri * began somewhat to abate.* That summer Snorri did not 
ride to the Thing, but sent as deputy with the speakership-at- 
law, priest Styrmir the son of Kari, historian and friend of Snorri, 
and perhaps an inmate of his house at this time. 'Now,' says 
the historian, Sturla Thordson, 'matters began to amend between 
Snorri and Sturla, and Sturla was frequently at Reykholt and 
took great interest in having Saga-copies taken of the books 
which Snorri composed.^ 

In 1229 Snorri's son, Jon Small Fry, having had some dis- 
agreement with his father respecting a marriage settlement for 
him, for he had purposed to woo him for wife Helga the 
daughter of Sæmund Jonson, decided to go to Norway. His 
father gave in on the point of dispute, but Jon went abroad as 
he had purposed, and repaired to Earl Skuli, who received him 
in a right friendly wise, appointing him one of his body-guard 
and page-in-waiting at his table, thus distinguishing the young 
man of little worth in the same manner as his illustrious father 
some years before. Whether Jon acted under his father's advice 
or no^ we cannot tell; if he did, his reception at Skull's court 
would seem to indicate that the good understanding between 
Snorri and Skuli still held on, though the 'landed- man' of 
Reykholt had done nothing in redemption of his pledge. This 
youth of intemperate habits had already before spent three years 
(1221-1224) at the court of Earl Skuli, under the contract made 
by his father, 1220 (p. xxv). Jon and Gizur Thorvaldson, 
Snorri's son-in-law, spent the festive Yule season with King 
Hakon, and one evening, as they were going to bed, Jon, being 
drunk and disorderly, came to words with Olaf Black-Poet, who 
was living on what alms Jon, himself pinched for money, could 
afford him. Jon seized a stick and struck Olaf, whereupon Gizur 
laid hands on him and held him while Olaf, catching up a 

* hand-axe,* drove it into the head of Jon, and gave him a wound, 

* apparently not a great one.' Jon turned swiftly, asking Gizur 

* why he held him under blow.* Olaf escaped into the darkness 
of night. Heedless of himself Jon went on drinking, and wound 

^ 'At lata rita sögubœkr eptir bókum þeim er Snorri setti saman,' 
literally : to have writ Saga-books after the books that Snorri put together. 
I do not see that this means anything more than that Sturla laid himself 
out for securing for his library copies of his uncle's historical (and other?) 
writings.— Sturl., i. 298-299. 

Introductory xxxvii 

up the day's doings by taking a bath ; thereupon the wound 
inflamed, and he died shortly afterwards. Gizur went to Iceland 
the next summer with the story of Jon's death and what things 
of value he left behind. He did not himself in person bring 
the news to the bereaved father, but sent a messenger to tell 
him the story. On hearing the messenger's tale reported again, 
Gizur considered it altogether unfair to himself. Rumour was 
busy with scandal, and when Thorvald heard thereof he arranged 
a meeting between Snorri and Gizur at which Gizur swore the 
so-called * fifth-court oath ' (Grágás la, 78), to the effect that he 
had concerted no plan with Olaf against Jon, nor connived with 
him in any way. And Snorri was perfectly satisfied with Gizur's 

Ingibiorg and Gizur now went to live together. Their matri- 
monial life was alway a troublous one, and, according to rumour, 
more through her faults than his. Snorri and Thorvald did all 
they could to right matters between them, but to no avail.* 

At the Althing in 1231 there was, at last, a brotherly entente 
between Sighvat and Snorri, and between Sturla and Snorri 
there was * dear friendship ' (all-kært). At this Thing all three 
kinsmen made alliance against Orm Jonson, surnamed * Swine- 
felling,' who had caused to be slain by a hired assassin an out- 
law named Dagstyggr (Dayshy), to whom Snorri had extended 
his protection. The matter ended by Sighvat persuading Orm 
to handsel sole judgement to Snorri, who inflicted on Orm a 
fine of 4,000 ells' worth (by a low estimate = ;£^3oo).* 

This same year Snorri entertained his brother Thord with his 
son Bodvar at a splendid feast, to which also Sturla Sighvatson 
was invited. He wanted to bind trusty friendship with Thord 
and Bodvar, because he had now a dispute with Kolbein the 
Young relating to the estate of Hallbera and the godord in the 
north country. Behind the invitation to Sturla was the desire 
to ensure safety to the sons of Thorvald of Waterfirth, whom 
he wanted to see in the Lent season; for though Sturla was 
formally at peace with them after their having paid him the 
fines he imposed on them at Holt in Onundfirth, 1230, for their 
outrageous raid on Saudafell,' Snorri knew his nephew's temper 
well enough to misdoubt how far he thought full satisfaction 

' Sturl., i. 299-300, 302. * Ibid,^ i. 300-301. * Ibid,, i. 298. 

xxxviii Introductory 

had been given to his pride and lust of revenge. Therefore 
Snorri wanted him to give him fresh assurance that he would 
not set upon them in their journey to him as arranged. Sturla 
replied that Snorri knew well enough they were at peace ; but 
Snorri objected that all sorts of rumours were floating to the 
effect that Sturla did not consider the peace of Holt holden to 
carefully in all points. * I see/ answered Sturla, * that it is your 
own conviction that they have not kept the peace in all things 
— well, I will let you now see to the truce, and I give you my 
hand thereon.' So Snorri pronounced the' formulary of truce 
and afterwards Thord, who was present at Snorri's pronounce- 
ment, said to his brother: ' I did not think our kinsman Sturla's 
expression was very satisfactory while the truce was being con- 
cluded.' * He will hold the truce, sure enough,* was the answer, 
and on the strength of the truce Snorri invited the Thorvaldsons 
to him, with the result that in their journey Sturla slew them 

For this breach of faith Sturla sent word to Snorri offering 
peace and asking for truce in return. Snorri gave truce as far as 
he himself and his heirs were concerned, but said he would not 
come to peaceful arrangement on behalf of the Waterfirth family 
until he knew their views. They put their case into the hands 
of Snorri for arbitration with a view to peace, and he spoke 
favourably about making terms of peace between them, for he 
was anxious to retain the support of Sturla in view of the coming 
contest with Kolbein at the next Althing. In the spring the 
peace settlement was agreed upon, Snorri and Sighvat, his 
brother, being appointed arbitrators for either side." 

The case of Kolbein terminated on the whole in Snorri's 
favour. Snorri was to possess one half of such godord in the 
north as Kolbein was rightly owner of, but Kolbein should 
retain rule over them and yield his support to Snorri at Things; 
he should also pay at his ease money to Snorri if he claimed it. 
Further, Kolbein was to consent to giving his sister Ambiorg in 
marriage to Snorri's son Orækia, etc. As to this settlement it 
was remarked that, while Kolbein's assent to Snorri's terms was 
being sought by Thorvald Gizurson and Thord Sturluson, he 
was utterly unamenable to any terms, but suddenly came round 

' Sturl., i. 303-312. » Ibid,y i. 312-313. 

Introductory xxxix 

when these peacemakers, hopeless of bringing about an agree- 
ment, had withdrawn from the case. Thorvald then asked 
Thord what his opinion was on this sudden change in the dis- 
position of Kolbein. * I know not surely,' said Thord, * but it 
misdoubts me that brother Snorri has now made an exchange 
of friends and has sold the friendship of Sighvat and Sturla for 
that of Kolbein, from whom I fear we kinsmen will have to 
sustain the heaviest brunt ere all be over.' Thorvald answered: 
* That seems a wonder to me that Kolbein is willing to give his 
sister of legitimate birth to the bastard son of Snorri ; but true 
is the saw: Owners know best what kind of goods they sell.** 

After this Thing Snorri went west to Waterfirth, and all the 
goodmen through Icefirth became his liegemen. Olaf of Eider- 
isle came to Snorri to atone for misconduct with his daughter 
Thordis, resulting in the birth of a child; and for the disgrace 
inflicted on the family of a godi he had to pay as penalty his 
island property.* 

In the autumn of this year (1232) Kolbein the Young was 
busy preparing the wedding feast of his sister and Orsekia, 
counting for certain on Snorri's attendance. But instead of 
putting in an appearance, he sent two deputies on his behalf, 
and omitted to confer on Orækia the godord in Midiirth, which 
had been stipulated for at the peace-meeting in the last Althing. 
Kolbein was incensed at what he called betrayal all round on 
the part of Snorri; but Thorleif of Gardar, one of Snorri's 
deputies, handselled Kolbein on Snorri's behalf ' two hundred 
hundreds ' and the manor of Staf holt, declaring that he had in 
commission from Snorri to make this offer in case Kolbein 
should complain of Snorri's pledges being broken. Kolbein 
agreed and the wedding took place.' 

This same autumn letters arrived from the new Archbishop 
of Nidoyce, Sigurd ' Tafsi,' son of Eindridi Peini, summoning 
Sighvat and Sturla to his presence to answer for their high- 
hsmded dealings with the Bishop of Holar Gudmund Arisen. 
This prelate had now for nearly thirty years been at constant 
feud with the chieftains of the land from various causes, chief 
among which being the immunity from the jurisdiction of secular 
courts which he claimed for his clergy, after the example of St. 

* StvrL, L 313-314. * ^d,, i. 314. * JHd,, i. 314. 

xl Introductory 

Thomas of Canterbury/ This claim was in direct conflict with 
the constitution of the land, according to which all breaches of 
the law must be dealt with by tne judicial authority of the courts 
of the Althing. The chiefs who regarded themselves rightly as 
the guardians of the constitution opposed the prelate's pretences 
not only by argument, but, when he remained obdurate, with 
armed force as well. Bp. Gudmund was a man of singularly 
narrow mind and an ideal bigot. He had a singular fancy for 
the class of people he called * God's alms,' meaning alms people, 
and they flocked to him in most embarrassing numbers whereso- 
ever he was and went. They were received by him without dis- 
crimination, and when they had devoured his own substance, 
made unceremoniously free with the means of his neighbours, 
for, indeed, a large proportion of them consisted of vagrants 
and vagabonds. Such treatment of their liegemen the neigh- 
bouring chiefs could not tolerate. But on remonstrating with 
the prelate and demanding the dismissal and dispersion of the 
* alms,' they were answered with instant excommunication. This 
punishment the prelate dealt out so mechanically and with so 
lavish a hand that its value sank to nothing ; it was disregarded 
and laughed at by priest and laic alike. The exasperated lords 
of the north country had fights with him and his men repeatedly, 
drove him from his see, and as a fugitive he wandered, accom- 
panied by his *alms,' through the land, and sought the hospital- 
ity, now of one, now of another chieftain within the diocese of 
Skalholt, and always met with sympathy from Snorri Sturluson. 
This deadlock between the authority of state and church in the 
northern diocese suggested a mutual appeal to the archbishop 
of the province at Nidoyce, in Norway, who eagerly availed 
himself of the opportunity to further King Hakon's political 
plans in Iceland, which aimed at the subversion of the constitu- 
tion of the commonwealth and the submission of the island to 
the crown of Norway." 

While Sturla, in obedience to the archbishop's summons, was 
making arrangements for his journey abroad, which did not take 
place till the summer of 1233, Snorri was busy in settling afiairs 
with his son Orækia in respect of his matrimony. Orækia 
desired above all things that his father should settle on him the 

^ See Thomas Saga (Rolls Series), ii. xxiv ff. 
^ Sturl., x, passim ^ Biskupasc^r, i. 488-558. 

Introductory xli 

Manor of Stafholt, but Snorri ordered him to go to Waterfirth 
and to take possession of that property and the godord of the 
Waterfirth chiefs, to which Einar, son of Thorvald and Thordis, 
yet a minor, was the heir. And * as Snorri willed so things had 
to be.' Orækia went with his wife to Waterfirth, forcing his half 
sister Thordis to quit the place. He gathered round him a 
multitude of retainers far beyond his means, and, as was usual 
in the house of Waterfirth, household provisions had soon to be 
procured by harsh methods.^ 

Snorri rode this year to the Thing as usual, * for he had the 
speakership-at-law.* After the Thing he invited to a feast his 
brother Sighvat with his son, Thord Kakali, and others. At this 
feast Snorri and Sighvat made a final award in Sturla Sighvat- 
son's affairs with the Waterfirthers and * were well agreed,' and 
Snorri saw Sighvat off with the gift of a gold-adorned spear.* 

This summer Sturla Sighvatson sailed for Norway, and on 
making land went first to the haven of Borgund, near where now 
is the port of Aalesund. Here he met Earl Skuli's brother-in- 
law, Alf of Thomberg, who urged him much to go see the 
Earl : he would make him the most of men, seeing how greatly 
he excelled all other men, the Earl, moreover, being the greatest 
friend of the Icelanders, and of the Sturlungs in particular. 
Sturla, knowing that severely strained relations now existed 
between the King and the Earl, took his party and went to the 
King. After staying on in Bergen till the beginning of winter 
he went south to Rome, where he received absolution himself 
and procured the same for his father, having to undergo severe 
penances; for he was led from church to church in Rome and 
flogged before the door of most parish churches. He bore him- 
self manly. Most people flocked out wondering, smiting their 
breasts and sorrowing that so goodly a man was so grievously 
dealt with. Returning to Norway Sturla met King Hakon in 
Biorgvin and accompanied him to Tunsberg ; he was very well 
received by the King and he tarried here long; the second 
winter he spent in Norway (1234) he and K. Hakon were 
always conferring.* The King was much troubled on hearing 
from Sturla the account of the great disturbances that prevailed 
in Iceland. The King asked what obstacles there would be in 

> Sturl., i. 315. ' /^.. i. 316. » Ibid,, i. 318. 

xlii Introductory 

the way of introducing a monarchical form of government in the 
island, for it seemed to him that there would be a more 
peaceful state of things in the land if there was one supreme 
ruler over it. The rash and reckless Sturla took the matter 
lightly, and said the difficulty would be slight, if he who under- 
took the charge was a man of resource and unsparing of hard 
dealings. The King then asked if he was ready to undertake the 
task. Sturla answered that he would risk it under the King's 
advice and direction, in the hope that in return he should be 
the recipient of such honours as the King deemed him worthy 
of in case of success. The King laid down that he should not 
attempt the subjection of the land by manslaughters; he should 
rather secure the person of the chiefs and send them abroad or get 
hold of their godord in some other way, if that could be brought 
about. Sturla was often with the King discussing this matter.^ 

Sturla returned to Iceland in the summer of 1235. In his 
absence the turbulent Orækia had in various ways oppressed 
and mishandled his liegemen, and when at last he gave himself 
time to think of his day of reckoning, he saw it his wisest course 
to try to secure for himself peace from Sighvlt To this the 
latter was not adverse, but he made it an express condition that 
whatever Orækia had done to offend Sturla should await settle- 
ment until he came back from Norway. Sighvat got secret news 
of the sudden arrival of his son and persuaded Orækia to be off 
by a route where he should not meet Sturla. For Snorri Stur- 
luson these two years had been a season of anxiety and worry. 
He had taken in two fugitives from Kolbein the Young's domain 
whose death Kolbein had decided on, and at the Althing of 1234 
Kolbein would have settled matters with Snorri by the sword, 
if the bishop of Skalholt and other men of moderation and 
influence had not interceded and extracted from Kolbein a 
promise to keep peace at the Althing.^ The affair thus stood 
open for further treatment. In the course of this summer 
Kolbein and Sighvat, by the advice of mutual friends, agreed, at 
a meeting in Horgardale, to make up their differences and to 
desist from worrying each others' liegemen wherein Kolbein 
particularly had been busy of late. Sighvat was to declare the 
award in this case, but deferred it to another time. But this 

^ Hakon's Saga (Rolls ed.), p. 158. ^ Sturl., i. 326-32S. 

Introdtictory xliii 

was not all The two agreed that Kolbein, in company with 
Kolbein the son of Sighvat, should go with a band of more 
than 120 to the south country, and quarter themselves upon 
the manors owned by Snorri Sturluson at Dale * *neath the Isles'- 
fells' and at Leira-bank, and elsewhere. 'They sat in the 
summer for a very long time at Leira-bank and behaved riot- 
ously in many ways and robbed far and wide.' — This was the 
first outcome of Sturla's compact with King Hakon, and shows 
clearly that Snorri, in the first instance, was to be the special 
victim of Hakon's unscrupulous policy towards Iceland. As 
summer advanced Snorri sent for Orækia to join him with as 
many men as he could muster, for he intended to march against 
the ' Northlanders,' who had quartered themselves upon his 
properties. He gathered himself a force of 600 men and went 
into the disturbed parts. Before Orækia and other allies of 
Snorri had time to join their forces with his, a word came from 
him to say the two Kolbeins had left and gone to the north, 
after having inflicted very severe losses on Snorri and damage 
to his properties.* 

After the session of the Althing, 1235, the two brothers 
Thord and Snorri had a very brotherly meeting at the place 
called Hraun in the district of Mjhrar ; they talked together all 
day, and vowed to each other Livelong friendship, and this 
bond was made still firmer by an arrangement whereby Thord's 
son Sturla, the future historian of the family, now twenty-one 
years of age, should go to live with his uncle Snorri.* 

Snorri Sturluson must have suspected Sturla Sighvatson of 
having entered into some ominous alliance with King Hakon 
who, Snorri was well aware, meant to effect the subjection of 
Iceland to Norway by any means, fair or foul. He knew Sturla's 
impulsive and reckless character, his overweening ambition. He 
knew how brutally his son Orækia had treated Sturla's liegemen 
while he was abroad, and that he himself would also have to 
pay the penalty for Orækia's misdeeds. He was also conscious 
of having done nothing towards the fulfilment of the compact 
of 1220 with the rulers of Norway. So in the autumn of the 
year that Sturla returned Snorri sent word to his nephew 
Bodvar Thordson of Stad, requesting him to stay at Reykholt 

» SturL, i. 328, 329. * 7W/., i. 338. 

xliv Introductory 

during the ensuing winter. He came to Reykholt with eleven 
men and took up his quarters there. After Christmas, 1236, 
Sighvat and Sturla sent orders to their liegemen of Willowdale 
to shoe their horses and to be ready to take the field whenever 
the word of command should come to them. The Willowdale 
liegemen of Snorri sent him word of warning of what was going 
on. Then Snorri sent word to Orækia in Waterfirth to say that 
Sighvat and Sturla were calling out a muster of men in the 
north; they had better bestir themselves lest each of them 
should be penned up by himself. Orækia whipped up 600 men 
and went to his father's assistance, who had already been joined 
by his brother Thord and his cousin Thorleif of Gardar. At a 
counsel held by all these kinsmen Orækia advocated an imme- 
diate march to the north, but Snorri *was not prepared to 
march against his own brother in the season of the high 
festivals which were at hand ' (Easter).* 

In Palm-Sunday week news came from the north to the effect 
that all the country there was up in arms. Snorri now desisted 
from calling out a levy of his men, but left Reykholt and went 
south to Bessastead on Alptaness leaving Reykholt in the 
charge of his brother Thord. Sighvat and Sturla came down 
on Borgfirth at the head of an army of 1,000 men. Thord went 
out from Reykholt to try to mediate peace. He was in an in- 
dignant temper and upbraided Sighvat severely for setting on 
his own brother with an armed force in the midst of the festive 
season of the church; he, an old man, would surely have to yield 
sore penalties to God for such things. — Sighvat : * Neither of 
us need taunt the other with old age, or art thou turning out a 
prophet, kinsman?' — Thord : *I am not a prophet, but to thee I 
shall be one. So great as thou vauntest thyself now, trusting in 
the might of thyself and thy sons, there shall yet pass not many 
winters before it will be said that in your case a collapse of the 
greatest has befallen.' — Sighvat : * Wroth art thou, kinsman ; angry 
words go for naught; perhaps we shall get better on anon when 
we are both in a better temper.' Thord went away. Sturla went 
to Reykholt and behaved as if the whole property was his own; 
he made his own the whole district of Borgfirth and Thorleif 
of Gardar assented to every order issued by Sturla.* 

* Sturl., i. 340-341. 

' JHd,^ i. 341-342, Hakon*s Saga, 158. 

Introductory xlv 

This unceremonious confiscation by Sturla of all his uncle's 
landed property in Borgfirth seems incomprehensible except on 
tbe ground that King Hakon explained to him that these lands 
he lud conferred as a royal grant on Snorri when he accepted 
Úie position of the King^s Manded-man ' in 1220. At any rate, 
after Snorri's death Hakon * maintained that the former's herit- 
a^ had come to him together with all lands that he possessed 
on his dying day, and he charged Snorri's grand-nephew, 
Thoigils Skardi, to prosecute the case and to settle it in accord- 
ance with what the law should provide in respect of the manage- 
ment of that property.' * If Snorri held his lands of Hakon as 
a royal grant, the King's claim was legitimate. In no other case 
did he, while he was subduing the godar of Iceland, advance a 
daim of this nature. But possibly this was Hakon's own con- 
straction of the significance of the act of grace; it is scarcely 
conceivable, if it was frankly explained to Snorri that this was 
the meaning of the conference on him of the title, how he 
could ever have been vain and weak enough to consent to 
accepting it If he did, then surely the dreadful penalty he in- 
curred was in a measure his own fault. 

When Snorri heard that Sturla had appropriated the whole 
Borgfirth district he left Bessastead and went first to his manors 
in the south country and then east to Orm Swinefelling, who 
dwelt at Skal, in what now is called western Skaptafells-sysla, 
and here Snorri spent the summer. In Snorri's absence Sturla 
dealt with men and matters in Western Iceland just as he 
pleased. Orækia he forced to go abroad, 1236, after having 
dealt in a most masterful manner with him, though the story 
related of the mutilation inflicted on Orækia at his behest must 
be a fiction.' 

When Snorri heard, while he was still at Skal, that between 
Sturla and Thorleif of Gardar friendship was waning in conse- 
quence of the arduous services exacted by Sturla, he opened 
secret communications with Thorleif and with other relatives in 
the west. He himself left Skal first for his manor of Dale and 
then for Reykir in Olfus, the home of Gizur, his son-in-law ; he 
further extended his journey even west to Bessastead. But later 
he returned to Gizur and remained with him through Lent, 1 237.* 

* StorL, iL 116. * Ihid.^ L 345-346. ' 1^*% i. 347. 

xlvi Introductory 

Sturla Sighvatson, suspicious of Snorri and Thorleif planning 
an up-rising against him, called a muster of his liegemen through 
the Westiirths and got together a band of 600 strong. During 
Passion- Week Snorri came from the south from Reykir, and he 
and Thorleif gathered men from all the Nesses south of Borg- 
firth, and had a force of 480. At Mid-Thwaites (MiíSfitjar) in 
Borgfirth they held a counsel of war and Snorri was now all for 
a surprise night attack on Sturla. Thorleif feared that the great 
odds against them would tell disastrously. Then Snorri ad- 
vocated turning back, which Thorleif deprecated ; and when 
Snorri further asked him what plan he favoured, he suggested 
they should push up farther inland and there build them a fort, 
and defend themselves or attack as opportunity should serve. 
Snorri answered that he would take care not to fall into the 
power of Sturla, or of any other of his enemies whatever else 
might betide him. After much talk he parted from Thorleif and 
went south to the Nesses.* 

All of a sudden he now resolved to go to Norway, and em- 
barked at Eyrar in the south of Iceland. It seems obvious that 
this resolve was taken because Snorri felt nowhere safe for 
Sturla. He may also have speculated in the chances that would 
open in Norway for supplanting Sturla whose course of violence 
was distasteful to King Hakon.^ He remained through the en- 
suing winter at Nidoyce with Peter the son of Duke Skuli, while 
the Duke together with King Hakon spent the winter in Oslo ; 
but Orækia dwelt the same winter in the house of Duke Skuli.' 

After Snorri's departure Sturla Sighvatson had a busy time 
in Iceland, but we must pass over most of his doings, noticing 
briefly only those which in particular concern the man he now 
most feared in Iceland — Gizur Thorvaldson, hitherto particularly 
noted for his inscrutable neutral attitude in his father-in-law's 
contests at the Althing. In the early winter of 1237 Sturla 
managed to get himself mixed up in affairs in which the still in- 
fluential family of Oddi were interested. The actual case con- 
cerned a man named Kol the wealthy. He had promised Orm 
Swinefelling a considerable sum of money for having Dagstyggr 
Jonsson slain by a hired assassin (p. xxxv), but when the deed 
was done he refused to pay. Orm appealed to Sturla for help, 

Sturl., i. 352-353- * Hakon's Saga, p. 167. » Sturl., i. 356. 

Introductory xlvii 

but Kol threw himself under the protection of Biom, son of 
Sæmund (of Oddi), who sent men with friendly messages and 
goodly gifts to Sturla asking him not to undertake the case 
against Kol. Sturla refused the gifts and sent an angry and 
threatening answer. In the spring of the next year, 1238, he 
sent messages to Gizur to notify that he intended to come to 
the south country to exact from Kol the promised payment (for 
the assassination of Dagstyggr). His father, Sigh vat, warned him 
seriously against this plan and said : * Thou hast an evil errand 
on hand, for here there is money in question from which great 
harm will befall many a man.' In due time, however, he set 
out with a band of 360 armed men; but when he came to 
Ravenbergs (Hrafnabjörg), east of Thingvellir, a messenger 
from Gizur brought him the information that the Kol afifair was 
settled in a peaceful manner, and Stiurla might therefore return, 
if it seemed good to him. Evidently Gizur was apprehensive 
lest sinister things might lurk behind Sturla's journey. Sturla 
said the Southlanders should not drive him about like a herd 
to pasture, and sent word to Gizur to meet him at Apewater. 
Sturla asked what news there were. * Peace,* said Gizur, * and no 
need of going with a band of armed men to where there is no 
warlike gathering.' But Sturla pretended to have misgivings as 
to the trustiness of the Southlanders, and at last, after much 
deceitful talk on his part, he had Gizur laid hands on and his 
forty followers disarmed. On Gizur's wondering at this treat- 
ment in the circumstances, Sturla bade him have no doubt that 
he intended for himself a share of power greater than that of 
any other man in Iceland, * and I deem when thou art over- 
come all the rest is, for thou art the only man in Iceland I fear 
if matters go not smoothly between us.' Then a book (a plenary, 
probably) was handed to Gizur, and Sturla ordered him to swear 
an oath that he would go abroad and remain faithful to him. 
Said Gizur : * Shall I swear a Norwegian or an Icelandic oath ?' 
Sturla said he might choose. * Then / swear the Norwegian^ 
since to Norway I must go ; but with this promise I will preface 
my oath that, not being in drink, I shall never speak a dis- 
paraging word of you} The Norw^ian oath-formulary was not 
law in Iceland, so that in strict law no oath was sworn. What 
Giziir said about words slily excluded deeds^ as time proved. 
* SturL, i. 357-361. 

xlviii Introductory 

Sturla handed Gizur over to Orm Swinefelling to keep him 
as a prisoner until he should go abroad. But Gizur managed to 
send letters to faithful friends that they should come and meet 
him if his kinsmen should be able to gather together any con- 
siderable force. They got together a company of eighteen who 
rode east to Orm Swinefelling and persuaded him to let Gizur 
off; once more a free man he departed with his friends riding 
west until he came to Beitiwalls (Beitivellir, east of Thingvellir) 
where he joined the forces of his kinsmen and those of Kolbein 
the Young who now was recruiting in the south country, open 
hostility having broken out between him and Sturla in the north. 
After various futile attempts at coming to blows with Sturla, 
Kolbein and his ally Gizur succeeded in drawing together an 
army of some sixteen hundred fighters with which they marched 
against the combined forces of Sighvat and Sturla stationed at 
the homestead of Willow-walls in Skagafirth, and fought on 21st 
August, 1238, with them the memorable engagement of Orlyg- 
stead in which Sighvat and Sturla, besides three more of Sig- 
hvat's sons were slain and the dominion of these able, even 
popular, but reckless men was destroyed for ever.* 

When the news of this event came to Norway it created a 
great impression. King Hakon was foiled once more in his 
attempt at subduing Iceland. But for so astute a politician as 
he was the experience gained by Sturla's failure was anything 
but discouraging. He could not mistake the fact that a wave of 
reckless ambition swept over the * godar ' of the land. Left to 
themselves they would go on fighting, confiscating each other's 
properties and *godord/ until the most successful of them should 
find himself one day in possession of all the * godords ' in the 
land, and in the position of supreme ruler. Even the sequel 
to the fight of Orlygstead gave an unmistakable hint in this 
direction. Kolbein the Young, now the most powerful chief in 
the north, * laid under him ' the whole of the North Quarter of 
the island;^ and had there been no Hakon Hakonson in Nor- 
way there is no telling how far Kolbein might have carried his 
conquest. Hakon saw the trend of the chiefs' aims and took 
his measures accordingly. 

On hearing the news Snorri took sorely and sincerely to heart 

^ Sturl., i. 362.381. « Ibid,, i. 381. 

Introductory xlix 

the loss of his brother and four nephews, and in a verse he sent 
to Thord Kakali, Sighvat's son, he gives expression to his sym- 
pathy, and to his sorrow at the fatality that besets his family.^ 

During the winter, 1 238-1 239, Snorri, Orækia and Thorleif 
of Gardar remained with Duke Skuli, while Thord Kakali stayed 
with King Hakon. The relations between the Duke and Snorri 
seem to have been as cordial as ever.' In the spring, by the 
Duke's advice, his guests chartered a ship for Iceland. But when 
they were ready and had gone from Nidoyce out to Monkholm in 
the bay of Thrandheim messengers came from the south with a 
letter ^om the King wherein it was written that he forbade all 
Icelanders to leave Norway that summer. They showed the 
letter to Snorri and received the laconic answer: *I will out!' 
When they were 'allboun ' the Duke invited them to a farewell 
banquet; and few men were present at the conversation of Snorri 
with the Duke. Amfinn Thiofson, afterwards Skull's marshal, 
and Olaf White-Poet, Snorri's nephew, were with the Duke, 
while with Snorri there were Orækia and Thorleif. According 
to Amfinn's relation, the Duke conferred the title of Earl on 
Snorri.' But Snorri's biographer, his nephew Sturla Thordson, 
the singularly accurate and impartial author of Islendingasaga 
(Sturl.), says: * However, none of those Icelanders confirmed 
that to me.'* There is only one historical evidence which, in 
some way, seems to support the statement of Arnfinn. Sturla 
says that, in putting down the obituary of Snorri, Styrmir the 
historian, Snorri's friend, entered him as * Snorri Fólgsnarjarl,* 
which, by the spelling of the word, should mean ' Secret Earl; ' 
but Vigfusson (Sturl., i. 384, footnote 4) takes Folgsnar to be the 
genitive of the name of the island of Folksn (Folkn, Folsn), 
now Stor-Fosen, outside the mouth of Drontheim Firth. Skuli 
should accordingly have made Snorri an earl of this small island, 
which, of course, is impossible. This story about Snorri's earl- 
dom tells of a most improbable if not an impossible act. No 
one could appoint an earl for Iceland except the King himself. 
Of course, Skuli could have given Snorri a promise of an earldom 
when he should be in a position to confer it on him, i>., when 
be should have succeeded in wresting the crown from Hakon. 
In such a case those in the secret might have given Snorri the 

* Sturl., L 381. * Hakon's Saga, pp. 171, 172-173. 

» SturL, L 384; Hakon's Saga, 173. * SturL, 1. 384.385. 

VI. d 

1 Introductory 

title ' Secret Earl.' But is it likely that Skuli should have given 
an outsider such a sure key to his harbouring treason against 
his king, and to one, moreover, who the next moment would be 
entirely beyond his control? On the whole this story seems 
deserving of no credit. 

Snorri with his companions set sail for Iceland and arrived 
in the Westmen's isles in due time. He next went to Brei^a- 
bólsta^ in Fleetlithe and met there his partner Hallveig; they 
went together west to Reykholt and set up house there once 
more. The rest of this year Snorri spent in legal business 
arising out of Sturla's raids in the west country, and particularly 
out of an armed encounter which took place at By in Borgfirth, 
1237, in which Thorleif of Gardar, Snorri's faithful friend, had 
been defeated by Sturla. In these matters Snorri delivered his 
award in the spring of 1240/ After the Althing of this year he 
helped Solveig, the widow of Sturla, to arrange her affairs in 
view of a journey abroad on which she had decided." 

This year Eyvind Bratt and Ami Unready came from Norway 
to Iceland, being bearers of a letter from King Hakon. At first 
* this letter was held little aloft.* They also told the news of 
the turmoil there had been through the winter, and how Duke 
Skuli had been slain in his attempt to seize the crown of 

Before the Althing of 1241 words went between Snorri and 
Gizur Thorvaldson to the effect that Snorri should bring with 
him to the Thing Tumi the son of Sighvat and settle peace for 
him and award him atonement for his father. Snorri came to 
the Thing with a retinue of 120 men, but on the following day 
Kolbein the Young appeared suddenly at the Thing with a 
following 600 strong. Of this Snorri and Tumi had had no 
warning. They went forthwith into the church and spoke from 
the inside whatever they had to say ; but Snorri's men stood in 
a crowd outside the church. Kolbein's men flew madly hither 
and thither about the thing-meadows, and behaved in a most 
riotous manner. Kolbein and Gizur had a long privy talk 
together, but nothing was said about peace. Kolbein's band 
did not unsaddle, and departed from the Thing the same even- 
ing. Thereupon Gizur went into the church and he and Snorri 

' Sturl., L 386. « IHd,, 387. » Ibid, 

Introductory lí 

held a long converse together, and everything went right orderly 
between them.^ 

Hallveig, Snorri's partner, died on the 2Sth of July this year 
and Snorri took his loss greatly to heart, *as well he might,' 
adds his nephew. When her sons Klæng and Orm heard of her 
death they repaired to Reykholt with a suite of retainers ; but 
when the talk came on the division of the property, divergences 
arose between them and Snorri. They held that one half of the 
whole property belonged to them in virtue of the settlement of 
1224 (p. xxx); but Snorri maintained, apparently unfairly, that 
Bluewood-heath (mountain ridge running S. and N. to the east 
of Thingvellir) should form the dividing boundary of the 
property (/>., tíiey should have all estates to the east, he all to 
the west of Bluewood-heath); other reservations to the dis- 
advantage of the young men Snorri carried through, taking 
advantage of his position and power. But books and trinkets 
they divided equally. Returning to their homesteads in the 
south country tiiey called on Gizur and told him how things 
stood between them and Snorri. He said he considered it 
• unbecoming * (ófallit) that they should not have their fair share 
of Snorri, and gave them to understand that he would be ready 
to lend them his support in the matter.^ 

Tumi Sighvatson took up his abode at Saudafell, formerly 
his father's, latterly his brother Sturla's manorial seat, in the 
Dales, and in the course of the summer, 1241, Snorri Sturlason 
rode west thither on a visit to his nephew. He sent word to 
Orækia, who then happened to be east away in Ramfirth, not 
far from Saudafell, that he desired to have talk of him. Coming 
to the place Orækia found his father in a merry mood. Snorri 
told them how matters had fared between him and the sons of 
Hallveig; he also brought with him a letter he had received 
from Odd Sveinbiornson of Alptaness, written in the character 
ddled 'Staff-carles' letters' which they could not make out, 
though they felt sure that it conveyed a warning of some kind. 
Snorri said he greatly distrusted the Southlanders (Gizur), * yet 
DOW I will ride south to see to my manors, and then I shall return 
to the west and stay alternately at Holar and Saurby .' And south 
he rode, but, apparently, no farther than Reykholt 

* SturL, L 39a " Ibid.^ 391. 

Hi Introductory 

Kolbein the Young and Gizur had a meeting about this time 
(late summer, 1241), in the upland wilderness called Keel, and 
there concerted their counsels, 'even as shortly became manifest/ 
For when Gizur came down from the Keel he summoned his 
liegemen to him, and among those who obeyed the summons 
were his nephews, the sons of Hallveig, Orm and Klæng. Now he 
held up the letter which Eyvind and Ami Unready had brought 
from King Hakon. In this letter the King ordered that Gizur 
should send Snorri abroad willing nilling, or else slay him, since 
he had presumed to leave Norway in spite of his prohibition; 
and the King described Snorri as traitor towards him. Gizur 
declared that on no account could he think of breaking the 
written orders of the King, but said he felt sure that Snorri 
would not go abroad of his free will. Thereupon Gizur gave it 
out that he meant to go *and seize the person of Snorri,' his 
own father-in-law ! Orm would have nothing to do with these 
counsels and rode away to his home at Brei^abólsta^. Gizur 
whipped up men and sent spies west to Borgfirth, and rode off 
with a band of seventy men-at-arms. 

He arrived at Reykholt during the night following Mauritius 
mass (22-23 September, 1241). They broke up the bower where 
Snorri was sleeping. He sprang to his feet and got out of the 
bower into * Little-Houses' which communicated with the bower. 
Here he met priest Arnbiom and had word with him and they 
agreed that Snorri had better go into the cellar which was under 
the floor of those houses. Gizur and his men went through the 
houses searching for him. Meeting priest Arnbiom Gizur asked 
where Snorri was; he said he knew not; Gizur said they could 
not come to terms of peace if they did not personally meet. The 
priest said that possibly he could be found if truce was promised 
him. Just about this nick of time they got to know where Snorri 
was hidden and entered the cellar, five together of Gizur's 
assassins: Markus, son of Mord, Simon Knout, Ami Bitter, 
Thorstein Gudinason, Thorarin Asgrimson. Simon charged 
Ami to strike him down. 'Strike not!' said SnorrL 'Strike!* 
said Simon. ' Strike not ! ' said Snorri. Thereupon Ami dealt 
him his death-wound, yea both of them, he and Thorstein, did 
for him.* 

* Sturl., i. 392393» Hakon's Saga, p. 237. 

Introductory liii 

Such, in brief, is this terrible story, as written by Snorri's 
nephew, the justiciary, Sturla Thordson. To carry it further 
here answers no purpose, nor does space allow it. 

This martyr to treachery was the unfortunate child of an evil 
age. Right was superseded by might. Success by any means, 
fair or foul, was honour. Laxity of morals, blind lust for wealth, 
power, and revenge, were qualities that made a mighty godi. 
The very constitution of the ' godar-doom ' (sit venia verbo) 
contained from the beginning the germs of the fatal disease that 
brought the so-called * free commonwealth ' into its grave in the 
thirteenth century; and would have done it anyhow, even if 
there had been no perfidious Hakon Hakonson of Norway. 
Personal rivalry among thirty-nine independent local chieflets, 
not devotion to law and order, was now the animating principle 
of that commonwealth. Patriotism had ceased to exist; family 
aggrandizement had taken its place. Purely insular, however, 
the process of dissolution was not. ' In this land all men deemed 
it a proper thing to follow the example set by Norway/ says the 
author of the Si^a of St. Thorlak, in dealing with Jon Loptson's 
opposition, in the matter of Jus patronatus, to the good bishop, 
whose own sister was one of Jon's sundry concubines.' It is not 
a piire accident that the social disorganization in Norway, brought 
about by the lawless factions with which one pretender after the 
other infested that unhappy land for a century, falls within the 
same period as the somewhat similar state of things in Iceland. 
It is not an accident that the concubinage of Norwegian Kings 
finds such a ready imitation among the little sovereign chiefs 
of Iceland. — This state of social and moral decomposition was 
not a soil likely to bring forth healthy produce. 

Though a man of business, Snorri was not a man of action. 
There is nothing in him of the rowdy brutality that characterizes 
so many chiefs of his time. Circumstances, rather than choice, 
drew him into the vortex of political strife. Appeals to arms he 
avoided as much as he could, employing methods of arbitration 
and compromise instead He was altogether a man of peaceful 
disposition. He was lacking in firmness at decisive movements. 
Vanity and adulation, coupled with weakness, seem to be the 
causes that underlie his fatal attitude to the Court of Norway. 

^ Bisk. Sögur, i. 284. 

liv Introductory 

The bestowal of the hand of his young daughter Thordis on the 
infamous Thorvald of Waterfirth just after Snorri had had him 
condemned for brigandage to full outlawry, and forfeiture of all 
his possessions together with his godord, — a sentence which 
Snorri speedily remitted altogether as soon as Thorvald hinted 
at marriage alliance — would be most reprehensible but for one 
reason: Snorri probably wanted to get rid of Thordis; for her 
after conduct proved that she was, even in her years of discre- 
tion, by no means a very heedful guardian of her own honour. 
Still the alliance does little credit to Snorri's sense of propriety 
in choosing means for the increase of his power and influence. 
Of the cause of the separation from the heiress Herdis nothing 
is known. Snorri's known relations to other women were a 
matter of aristocratic fashion at the time. His dealing with 
Thorkel Walrus was within the law. He had kiUed one of Snorri's 
men. Though not formally sentenced he was, ipso facto a wood- 
man (outlaw) of forfeit life, whom any one was free to kill. 
That Snorri from love of money sometimes could act in a mean 
manner we have seen in his dealing with his mother's bequest 
in favour of Sturla Thordson, but he never enriched himself 
by the viking methods of raiding and plundering. Though not 
blameless as a citizen, he really compares very favourably with 
the leading contemporary godar of the land, exceptionally so 
in respect of his sympathy for the luckless bishop Gudmund of 
Holar. The great fault of his life, his countrymen maintain, 
was his promise to bring Iceland into subservience to Norway. 
He rued the mistake and did nothing. He paid the penalty 
with his life. 


Snorri, as a writer, no less than as a chief, was a child — but an 
exceptionally brilliant one— of his age. 

He was born in the first century of the lettered era of Iceland 
— the twelfth — which, in respect of mental culture, stood, as we 
shall see, in a peculiar relation to the preceding — the eleventh, 
which was a really illiterate period, though runes were known 
and used for lapidary inscriptions, and sometimes, as we learn 

Introductory Iv 

from Egilssaga,^ for memorial songs cut on logs of wood. How- 
ever, the illiterate eleventh century forms a period the most re- 
markable in the history of Icelandic literature ; for, in the course 
of it the art of truthfully and attractively telling a story is so 
carefully cultivated as to be raised to a classical standard. A 
few words in explanation of this statement are in place here. 
The colonists of the country settled in it without any plan, ex- 
cept so far that the ultimate abode was reared on the nearest 
habitable spot to that where the sacred high-seat pillars, when 
such were on board, were washed ashore. A dreadful solitude 
prevailed throughout the land for a long time while the process 
of colonization was going on which lasted for two-thirds of a 
century.' The result was an imquenchable curiosity for news 
from without,' which grew into a national characteristic and re- 
mains so in the sparsely inhabited land to this day. The chief 
settlers were men of high birth, who had seen better days. They 
left behind lands, homes, kindred, environment; they took with 
them family traditions, family pride, martial mettle, uncurbed 
ambition. In the widely-scattered homes the family circle be- 
came the centre of orally rehearsed family stories during the even- 
ings of the long winter. These stories were easily learnt by heart 
by nimbleminded listeners. They were the first nuclei of the Saga 
of Iceland. They were recited at religious festivals which were 
presided over and conducted by the temple godi ; at wedding- 
feasts, and at Thing-motes and other popular gatherings. In 
course of time the nucleus expanded into a complex saga re- 
cording the acts of the colonists themselves and their dealings, 
hostile or friendly, with one another. Ultimately the Althing 
at Thingvellir, where the elite of the little nation congregated 
yearly, became the great centre for the display of the story-teller's 

* F. Jónsson's ed., p. 286. * An, Islendingabók, ch. 3. 

' Out of a great number of notices in the sources illustrative of this state- 
ment let me adduce one: Magnus Einarson consecrated Bishop of Skalholt, 
1 1 34, came back to Iceland, 1135, and rode straight-way to the Althing. 
A contested case at law was being argued before the court. ' Then some one 
came op to the court and said t£it now came Bishop Magnus riding up to 
the Thing. At this news all men were so glad that they went home (t./., 
left the court). The Bishop stepped forth unto the pavement in front of the 
dmith and told all the people the tidings which had befallen in Norway 
while he was abroad and all the people marveUed much at his eloquence 
and lordlinen.' Hungrvaka, ch. 13, Bisk. Sögur, i. p. 77. 

Ivi Introductory 

art, and from there the saga travelled into every part of the 
country, more or less £Edthfully remembered and recited to 
curious listeners.^ The interesting part of this business was that 
the teller of the story was, in most cases, placed face to face 
with critical audiences. The chiefs themselves, their children 

^ In illustration of the above review we may introduce here the remark- 
able story of the Icelandic Saga teller and Harald Hardready, Morkinskinna, 
p. 72-73 : So it befell, one summer, that a man of Iceland, young and brisk 
of gait, came to the King and prayed for his favour. The King asked if he 
knew anv lore, and he said he knew some sagas. Then the Ring said he 
would take him in, but he must be ready to entertain (skemta) always who- 
soever should ask him. And this he does, and is befriended bjr the court- 
folk, who gave him raiments while the Kixig furnished him with Weapons 
for his hand. Thus time wears away until Yule. Then sadness fell on the 
Icelander, and the King asked him how that came about. He said it rose 
from hb changeable temper. ' That will not be it,' said the King. ' I wiU 
make a guess. I ween,' sa^s he, ' that now thy sagas are at an end ; thou 
hast always entertained this winter any one who has asked thee, and thou 
art troubled of mind to think that they should give out just at Yule-tide.' 
' The matter is even as thou guessest,' said he. ' There is left yet only one 
more saga, but that I dare not tell here, for it is the story of thy journey 
abroad.' The King said : ' That, of all sagas, is the one I most should like 
to hear ; and now you shall give no more entertainment until Yule ; besides 
now the men have much work on hand. But on Christmas day thou shalt 
be^in this saga, and tell some part of it ; but together with thee I shall see 
to It, that the saga shall hold out as long as the Yiue-tide lasts. Now through 
Yule there are great drinkings going on, and people have but short time to 
sit listening to an entertainment ; but while thou art telling thou wilt not be 
able to find out whether I like it well or ill.' And now it comes to pass that 
the Ijcelander tells the story, beginning on Christmas day and goes on for a 
while until the King presently tells him to stop. The men fall to drinking 
and many of them make it a matter of talk that at any rate it is an over- 
boldness in the Icelander to tell this story, or, what would the King think 
about it ? Some of them thought the Icelander told the story well, others 
were less easily won over ; and thus the thing goes on through Yule-tide. 
The Kine saw to it carefully that the men ^ould give heedful hearing (to the 
saga) and by the King's watchfulness it so happened that the saga and the 
Yule-tide came to an end together. And Twelfth-night evening, the saga 
having been finished while it was daylight, the King said: 'Art thou, Ice- 
lander, not curious to know how I like the saga ? ' ' I fear me of it. Lord/ 
said the Icelander. ' I like it right well,' said the King, 'it is in no case 
worse than the deeds warrant ; or, who taught thee the saga ? * He answers : 
' It was a wont of mine out in Iceland to go every summer to the Althing 
and I learnt b^ heart each summer a part of the saga from Halldor Snom- 
son.' 'Then it is no wonder,' said the King, ' that thou knowest it well ; 
this will make thy good luck ; and be thou with me and be welcome; that 
offer thou avail thvself of whenever thou choosest.' The King fetched him a 
good store of trading goods and he became a man of substance. 

Introductory Ivii 

and relatives would in most cases be numbered among the 
crowd of interested listeners, and would be certain, if necessary, 
to interrupt and correct the reciter, whenever his delivery failed 
in veracity as to facts, or offended against fiadmess. In fact, the 
story-tdler was here at a school which enforced upon him the 
principle of impartiality and the duty of carefully collecting facts; 
for to them must be left the task of showing which side to a story 
was in the right, which in the wrong, and to what extent. In this 
manner it came about, that to tell a story fairly, i.^., truthfully, 
was a moral duty and the highest matter of honour, while telling 
a ' leaning story ' (halla sögu) was regarded as the meanest of 
actions, and more than once cost the perpetrator his life.* In 
the relation existing between reciters and their audiences lies 
hidden the cause of the faithfulness of the oral saga tradition of 
Iceland. In the fact that, in a martial age, the home was the 
cradle of this tradition, we have the explanation of so many 
Icelandic women being mentioned as sources of historical in- 

In the year 1056 the Christian Church, organized under a 
bishop, landed, pen in hand, in Iceland, and set to teaching the 
use of it to its illiterate children with such a success, that in the 
beginning of the twelfth century writing in Roman characters 
seems to have become a common item of culture. And now is 
manifested the peculiar relation, alluded to above, in which the 
twelfth stands to the eleventh century : the twelfth copies down 
the polished oral tradition of its predecessor, and produces the 
great bulk of the saga literature of Iceland. It did more. It 
produced brilliant scholars in the science of history, the earliest 
of whom, Sæmund Sigfusson the Learned, and Ari Thorgilson 
the Learned stand out in their high appreciation of accurate 
chronology, as disciples of the oral tradition school, imbued 
with its enthusiasm for the accurate preservation of the 
memorials of the past. 

SÆMUND, son of Sigfus Lodmundson, a priest of Oddi, 
was bom in 1056 and died 1 133 ; in early youth he went abroad 
and was lost sight of for a long time, until he was discovered, in 
1076, at Paris, studying under a great master of astronomy.* 
In referring to this event the Benedictine monk of Thingeyrar 

^ Njála, 1875, <^- I55b 9«* Olaf Holy's Saga, Heimskr., iL 222i«.,, 
* Jon's saga. Bisk. Sögur, i. 227-230. 

Iviii Introductory 

Gunnlaug Leifson observes, that Sæmund was ' one of the most 
profitable of men to the church of God in this land,^ while the 
author of Hungrvaka describes him 'as exceeding wise and of 
all men the most learned* ; " and Odd Snorrison as : * illustrious 
for wisdom * (*ágetr at speki').* That Sæmund must have been 
a great authority on the history of Iceland as well as that of 
Norway is clear from the fact that Ari submits to his inspection 
the first edition of his ' Islendingabók ' and relies on his chrono- 
logy in respect of the death of Olaf Tryggvison.* That 
Sæmund wrote a book^ is attested to by Odd Snorrison : * So 
has Sæmund written in his book (svá hefir Sæmundr ritaV . . . 
Í sinni bók)/ but we are in possession of but few particulars as to 
the contents of that book. It can hardly be doubted, however, 
that it was an historical account of kings of Norway up to 
Magnus the Good, paying close attention to chronology. This 
would seem to be borne out by the panegyric poem ' Noregs 
konunga tal ' addressed to Jon Loptson, Sæmund's grandson, 
in which the poet enumerates the rulers of Norway with their 
regnal years, and declares in the fortieth stanza that for the 
regnal years of the first ten of them, Harald Hairfair — Magnus 
the Good, both inclusive, he depends upon the authority of 
Sæmund.* That this book of Sæmund's was in Latin may be 
inferred from Snorri's preface to Heimskringla, where he states 
that Ari the Learned was the ^ first man of this land, who wrote 
down lore, both old and new, in the speech of the North? This 
statement gains all the more weight when we consider that a 
copy of Sæmund's book must have been found in the Library 
of Oddi, and Snorri must have been aware of its existence, nay, 
must have studied it there. This we infer fi-om Snorri's own 
words, where he says of Ari : * I deem his lore altogether most 
noteworthy (pykki mér bans sögn öU merkilegust).' ** In the 
period of the preface to Heimskringla where these words occur, 
Snorri is dealing with Ari's historiad (chronological) criticism. 
Before Snorri, only the two men Ari and Sæmund are mentioned 

^ Jon's Saga, Bisk. Sögur, i. 156-157. 

^ Hungrviuca, Bisk. Sögur, i. 67. 

^ Saga 01. Tivggv. s. ch. 32, Fomm. Sögur, x. 289. 

^ Islendincmbok, preface and ch. 7. * /. c, 

^ Fornm. Sögnr, x. 422-427, Corpus poet ii. 310-315. 

^ Heimskringla, i. 5. ^ /. c. 

Introductory lix 

as in a special sense historical critics. Both were cited as 
historical authorities in sources which Snorri himself made use 
of, and Sæmund especially by Ari himself, as we have seen. It 
would then seem an obvious conclusion that by the superlative 
* most noteworthy ' Snorri gives inferentially to understand that 
he rejects Sæmtmd, as an historical guide, in favour of Ari, 
where their chronological calculations do not coincide. And, 
as a matter of fact, strange as it may seem, he never mentions 
Sæmund in Heimskringla. The statement here in question 
seems to point to Snorri's having understood Latin. In the re- 
verse case he would hardly have laid himself publicly open to 
the retort that he acted discreetly in discarding authorities he 
did not understand. The statement may also point another 
way. It may be a veiled, unkind hint of Snorri's to his family- 
proud foster-brother, that great as people may consider the 
authority of his great-grandfather, he is not to be compared 
with Ari. In that case the preface to Heimskringla would be 
written down after 1220, when the relations between Snorri and 
the kindred of Sæmund Jonsson took such a hostile turn, but 
hardly after 1222, when they were all at peace again. And it is 
agreed on all hands that first after his return from Norway in 
1220 Snorri must have set to work on the composition of 
Heimskringla. However, although Snorri did not use Sæmund 
as a guide in writing his history, it by no means follows that the 
perusal of Sæmund's book in his studious days at Oddi did not 
exercise a permanent influence upon him as historian. 

ARI THORGILSON the Learned (1067-1148) preceded 
Snorri by only thirty years.* For this, the most careful of all 
historians, Snorri professes the highest admiration. Ari's method 
was to ascertain facts from the highest authorities he had access 
to: old men and wise, of faithful memory, and who themselves 
or their informants were separated in time by the shortest dis- 
tance from the events they attested to. This, no doubt, was a 
method inherited from the oral tradition school, to which all 
Ari's authorities belonged with the exception, perhaps, of 

' For the scanty information relating to his life we refer to Vigfusson's 
ed. of Storlunga, I. xxvii-xzviii. Vigfosson knows, as he says, the name of 
his wife and that of a daughter's of ms, bat gives neither name, nor a refer- 
ence to any source which has supplied him with the information. Diligent 
reiMicfa by scholars has failed to this day in unravelling this mystery. 

Ix Introductory 

Sæmund We are here concerned only with his ' Islendingabók,' 
of which only the second edition is still in existence, a tiny book 
of ten chapters besides preface and two genealogical appeiidixes 
of a later date than the rest. He tells in his severely concise 
manner the history of the origin of both editions as follows: * I 
wrought, for our bishops Thorlak and Ketil, Islendingabók, and 
I showed it to them and to priest Sæmund. And according as 
they were pleased to leave the matter as it was,^ or to add 
thereto, I wrote this one for the same period,^ leaving out 
genealogy and lives of Kings, and added what since (I wrote 
the first book) I came to know better, and which is now more 
fully set forth in this (book) than in that (other).* * 

It was the older edition, containing genealogy, in a collective 
sense, and lives of Kings, which Snorri depended upon when 
he wrote Heimskringla. When he says that he has written in 
this book besides tales of rulers in the north, ' also certain of 
their lines of kindred according a$ they have been taught to me^ * 
we may conclude that it is Ari's ' genealogy ' he is referring to, 
and that Islendingabók I was used as a text-book at the school 
of Oddi. Here a question arises. In saying that he wrought 
this book for the bishops Thorlak of Skalholt and Ketil of 
Holar, does Ari not plainly indicate that he wrote it to their 
order? The answer must be in the affirmative. We have not to 
deal with an author's spontaneous product which, as a matter 
of literary curiosity he submits to interested friends in order to 
have their opinion about it. On the contrary, he shows it to 
the Bishops in order to know if it may stand as he has written 
it They recommend excision of certain matters of foreign 
history, and Ari, in order that his book may the more properly 
answer the purpose for which it was required, undertakes the 
trouble of writing it over again on the lines indicated by the 
prelates. In a spontaneous product the excised matter would 
have been a most valuable addition to the information con- 
tained in the book, but in this instance it was not so, because 

^ ' Svá at hafk '=so to have = to let what was written stand as it was. 

' ' Of et sama far ' = over, (covering) the same course (of events), cf. 
* aldarfar,' ratio temparum, 

' 'IsL-bók, pref. — Libellus Islandorum in Origines Islandicae, i. 287. — 
The translation of this passage in Orig. does not tally with the text 

*• Heimskringla, i. p. 5. 

Introductory Ixi 

it did not answer the purpose for which the Bishops wanted 
the book. And what was that purpose? Obviously the Bishops 
commissioned the writing of the book in order to supply the 
need they felt of providing the youth at the cathedral schools 
with a primer in the history of their own land; and a primer, in 
the true sense, the book is throughout. For this purpose it was 
ordered ; corrected ; rewritten. Even its strange title Libellus 
Jslandorum^ with no indication of subject matter, points in the 
same direction. Lastly the list of chapters with contents indi- 
cated following the preface stamps the book formally as a school- 
Aw>&.— The purpose this book was meant to serve must be 
allowed to account, to some extent, at least, for its accuracy, 
which is unsurpassed by any other literary monument from the 
classic era. 

Dr. Finsen, the great authority on the laws of the Icel. 
commonwealth, drew in 1887 Vigfusson's attention to the un- 
technical nature of law-terms in this book, which no man 
familiar with the legal vocabulary could possibly have used. 
On grounds which deserve attention and áirther examination, 
Vigfusson came to the conclusion that Ari wrote his book 
originally in Latin (which seems also to have been Finsen's 
id^), and that the translator was ignorant of law.* 

Snorri's indebtedness to this author may be gleaned both 
from the preface to Heimskringla and from the references to 
his name in the body of the work. {See Index I, Ari Thorgilson.) 
To trace the actual amount of material Snorri may have fetched 
from Ari must be left unattempted here on account of want of 

Besides these two great historians of the twelfth century, four 
more older than Snorri are known by name, not as authorities 
on chronological criticism, which was regarded as settled for 
ever by Sæmund and Ari, but as simply composers of historical 
narratives. Of these the earliest seems to be : 

ERIC ODDSON, a younger contemporary of Ari; for aught 
we know he may have been his disciple ; as an historian, at any 
rate, he is a rigid adherent to Ari's method. Snorri calls him 
'a wise man' (the author of Morkinskinna: 'a wise man and 
sagacious ') and avers that ' he was a long time in Norway ^ 

^ Originesy i. 282-286. 

Ixii Introductory 

during the reign of the sons of Harald Gilli (1136-1161). He 
wrote a book called Hryggjarstykki (Backbone-piece), contain- 
ing the history of Harald, his two sons, Sigurd and Ingi, besides 
that of Magnus the Blind and Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 'some 
. . . from the telling of Hakon Maw, a landed-man of the sons 
of Harald; and Hakon and his sons took part in all their strifes 
and counsellings'; some from *wise men and proven true who 
were anigh, so that they heard or saw the things that happened, 
but some he wrote down from his own sight or hearing.' Here 
we see the method of Ari ideally realized in favourable circum- 
stances. For references to this source of Snorri's history, see 
Eric Oddson, Index I, p. 39; cf. also Morkinskinna, p. 210. 

KARL JÓNSSON, twice abbot of the Benedictine monastery 
of Thingeyrar in the north of Iceland (i 169-1 181 and again after 
the death of abbot Kári 1187, perhaps with a year's interval, 
till 1207, when he finally resigned the office and lived in retire- 
ment till his death, 12 13, having been for thirty-five years a con- 
temporary of Snorri). He went to Norway in 1 1 85 and remained 
there, until he returned to his monastery, engaged in composing 
the saga of King Sverrir (i 184-1202), the whole of which prob- 
ably is due to his pen. The first part was indited to him by the 
King himself, while the second was gathered ' from persons who 
remembered having themselves seen and heard the things that 
happened, while some of them had been present at the very 
battles described.' * — That Snorri must have known this pecu- 
liarly interesting saga is proved by the reference to Sverrir, 
Heimskr. Ill, 396 ; but the recension he knew of Sverrir's saga 
seems to have differed firom the present ; he had no occasion, 
however, to draw on it for the Heimskringla which terminates 
in 1 177 on the very eve of Sverrir's appearance as claimant to 
the crown of Norway. Whether it served him as a source of 
inspiration for his lost song or songs on Sverrir we cannot tell ; 
it is by no means improbable. 

Contemporary with abbot Karl was a monk of Thinge3rrar 
ODD SNORRISON, about whose life but little is known, ex- 
cept that he was descended from a settler named Steingrim who 
gave name to Steingrimsfirth in the Strands in north-western 
Iceland and made his own all the lands thereof. Odd wrote a 

' Sverrir's Saga, Fms. viiL 5 ; Konunga sögur, ed. Unger, 1873, P* '• 

Introductory Ixiii 

saga of Olaf Tryggvison in Latin, the original of which is lost, 
bat an Icelandic translation of it in three recensions still exists; 
of these recensions the two are defective, the third a mere frag- 
ment of two leaves.^ He has made use of Ari and Sæmund for 
chronological purposes. But the historical stuff he probably had 
firom the same persons who told a story of Olaf Tryggvison to a 
fellow * brother ' at Thingeyrar, Gunnlaug Leifsson. Those in- 
formants, again, must have known how to father their narratives 
on contemporary tellers of episodes in Olaf 's life ; of such Odd 
names several as witnesses to Olaf's sudden disappearance 
from his ship at the battle of Svold : Skuli Thorsteinson, Einar 
Thambarskelfir and Kolbiom the Marshal ; ' others, in support 
of the incredible stories that went about of Olaf 's escape from 
death and sojourn as monk in Greece, Palestine, and Syria ; 
stories which Odd says he believes himself, though he knows 
that same old men ( » sound historians of the old school) dis- 
credit them ; of these witnesses he names the two Astrids, wives 
of Erling of Soli and Earl Sigvaldi, besides (Upsala fragment) 
'a wise man called Soti the Skald.'* The fact of the matter is, 
that monastic studies in legendary and miraculous lore warp the 
historical judgement of Odd throughout As an historical critic 
he is therefore as worthless as the purely historical matter (the 
real tradition) in his book is valuable. Odd is one of the author- 
ities whom Snorri makes use of for his history, borrowing even 
some of his fantastic legends, but omitting the overwhelming 
mass of them, and in one instance giving plainly to tmderstand 
that he does not regard them as history.^ An analysis of Snorri's 
indebtedness to, and treatment of, this author would require 
much more space than is left at our disposal 

GUNNLAUG LEIFSSON, who died in 1 218 or 1 219, was a 
man of learning and, as it would seem, a churchman of liberal 
views, as he advised the clergy in the diocese of Holar to dis- 
regard Bp. Gudmimd's senseless excommunications and ana- 

' Theyareallon vdlum, Amam. 310 4^ Islandica, Royal Lib. Stockholm, 
JO 4* ColL Delagard. Upsala, 4-7 fol. (2 leaves). 

* AM. 310, Fms. X. p. 365-366, Stockholm, 20, Olaf Tryggvisöns Saga, 
ed. Mnnchy 1853, p. 01, Upsala fragm., f^., p. 69 (where Styrkarr a 
Gimsom is rabstitttted for Einarr ThambarskelBr). 

* A.M. 310» Lc.^ p. 370, Stockholm 20, Uc.^ p. '63, Upsala fragm., ib,^ 
p. 70-71. 

* Heimsk., toI. l, 334. 



themas. He wrote a saga of Jdn Bp. of Hélar, ito6-ii2i, a 
■ nova histona Sancti Ambrosii,* and translated mto Icelandic 
verse the prophesy of Merlin.^ He also wrote a saga of Ol 
Tryggvison in Latin. Of that work only fragments in Icelandic 
translation now exist, inserted in the great Oiaf's ^iga ii 
Fommannasogur (i-iii)i and the recension of that saga 
Flatey*book. Both recensions state that * the brothers * Gunii*j 
laug and Odd aver that ' these persons have told them most 
what they have put together and set forth in story about Olaf 
Tryggvison*; namely: Gellir þorgilsson, Asgrímr VetrliíSason, 
Biarni Berg]kSrsson Ingunn Amórsdóttir, Herdís DaíSadóttir, 
þorger^r f orsteinsctóttir.' * In the A.M, recension of Odd*f 
saga, ch, 75 winds up with : * Here now comes to an end the 
saga of Olaf Tryggvison,' Nevertheless there follow four more 
chapters, in the third of which we read : * This sag;a was told 
to me by abbot Asgrtm Vetrh&son and,' etc, (exacdy the same 
persons as above). Originally this never belonged to Odd's 
saga^ nof have these four additional chapters ever been com- 
prised in the recension represented by the UpsaJa fragment 
which exhibits the oldest texL This statement in A.M* 310 is 
therefore spurious, though it has found its way into MSS. of 
Odd's work already long before the sagas of Olaf in Flat, b, and 
Fomm, s, were compiled. It follows therefore that the above 
catalogue of informants is due to Gunnlaug only. It stands ta 
reason, however, that two authors living at one and the same 
time under one roof engaged in one and the same literary pur- 
suit should, each in his turn, draw information from the same 
body of authorities which stood at the other's disposal. Besides 
these authorities, Gunnlaug professes to have in particular made 
a careful use of the ' books ' of Ari.* He also says that he æA 
showed his book to Giiur Hail son who kept it for two years ; ^| 
on being returned to Gunnlaug he emended it in accordance 
with GÍ2ur*s suggestions.* 

Like Odd, Gunnlaug is too absorbed in legendary lore and 
belief in the miraculous and incredible to be able to realbe that 
in the history of such a champion of Christianity as Olaf, the 

Bisk, Sögur, L t5Mt2» lt5-ð6o, So*i ii- 77» Corpw* Poet, Bor,, iL 


Frtis., ui. 173» i^t* b,,i. 517. 
Fms., iiu 173, Flat K^Í, 517, 

Fins., iiL 163« 

Introductory Ixv 

dry, scientific method of Ari and Sæmund could do proper jus- 
tice to his hero. He copied the inditement of his authorities 
probably faithfully enough; but of criticism he was incapable, 
for he was writing not exactly in the interest of history, but espe- 
cially in that of the victoriously aggressive Christian cult — 
Snorri must, in all probability, have known Gunnlaug's work, 
which hardly could have added much of historical value to 
that of Odd ; whether he really made any extensive use of it for 
Heimskringla is a matter of uncertainty. 

There is no need for us here to enter into any special con- 
sideration of the vast body of anonymous saga-literature relat- 
ing to Iceland itself, which had found its way into writing before 
Snorri, or was committed to writing during his life-time; of 
the whole mass of these Sagas there is only one, the EgiPs 
Saga, that claims consideration in connection with Heimskringla. 
It will be most conveniently dealt with among the other anony- 
mous sources of that work, to which we draw attention further on. 

Of the works of Snorri, the first to be considered is the 

ED DA. The name as well as the authorship is attested to 
by old MS. authority. The codex Upsaliensis,* from ab. 1325, 
has the following heading to the whole work : ' This book is 
called Edda; it is put together by Snorri Sturlason after the 
manner herein set forth: First there is told of the Asfolk and 
Ymir, next comes Skaldskapar-mál (Language of poetry)," and 
appellatives of many things, and last (the poem) 'Key to metres' 
which Snorri wrought on King Hakon and Duke Skuli.' 

The meaning of the name Edda, as title of this book, is much 
disputed. Professor Konrad Gislason argued in ' Aarböger for 
nordisk Oldkyndighed,' 1884, that it was derivable from ' ó^r,' 
song, and meant ' poetik,' a derivation tacitly accepted by profs. 
A. Noreen, Finnur Jónsson, etc. I have shown * that such a 
derivation is untenable, because nogenuitic Icelandic root 'ó^' 
can go into 'edd-,' and have proposed, instead, a derivation from 
Oddi, according to which Edda must mean the book of Oddi, 
as, ^^., Vatns-hjma meant the book of Vatns-hom, a homestead 
so called. This derivation has found favour with such authori- 
ties as profs. Sijmons of Groningen, E. Mogk of Leipzig, and 
the late profound scholar. Dr. Jon ]?orkelson, whose view of 

' Edited in Edda Snorra Stnrlusonar, Hafniae, 1848-87, vol. ii., 250-396. 
' Saga-book of the Viking Club, 1896, vol. i., 2, pp. 230-232. 
VI. € 



the matter I subjoin/ The derivation from Old High Germ, 
*Erda ' (Corpus Poet. Bor, it, 514) cannot be taken seriously,' 
It is objected to my denvalion that the ancient sources afíbrd ] 
no evidence to show that the book ever was at Oddi, or was 
associated with that place. But these very sources state nothing 
to the contrary either ; and at any rate show clearly enough that 
the nimbleminded author lived at that place from infancy until 
he was of age. We do not want to be told in so many words 
that during this period Snorri conceived the idea, and laid the 
foundation of his future literary labours. It is an historical fact 
that he did so, though history does not expressly state it. In 
support of the 'ÓÍSr* derivation it is advanced that three poets 
of the fourteenth century, Eystein Asgrimson, canon regular of 

* In & letter, d * Reykjavik. I, júnf, 1896' he says: * Eg se ekkert því] 
til íyrirítQÍSu fxi málí^ s]onaniiiilit ^l£ orftiiS (Edda) sé luyndaS af Oddu , 
Hvort bredda cr komi^ af broddr læt eg osagt, Fri milsins hliiS er ekkert ' 
k mótí því. Mér finsi spurn ingin her vera^ hvort & A undan tvefoldum 
samhljóSaLnda gcti me1& i-hljótvarpi hreytst f /, Pai$ iínst tnér ^ hafa^ sarrit* 
afS me0 þeim dœmum, cr pí\ he6r Lílfc^rt, og Beirt dœtní má tit fee ra, Ld. 
>okkij þekkf, ^kkil^gr; boðslotUTf m,, boÆlett^, f., hrolir, hrellA. A0 { 
kecina bok við >aiin bœ, hiT sem bun átti heima^ var almenC, Par af em 
nöfnín Belgsdatsbók^ Boejaibokf KálfiLlœkjarbók, Staðarbólsbóki pingeyTa- 
bók. Ekkert er NÍ dBlUegra^ etin að kenna f^Í bok, setn átti heima { Odda ví0 
^nna bœ. Oddabok hefHi matt kalb hana, enn itafníð ' Edda ' er styttia 
og handhcEgra, eins og þu heíír tekið fram» Af ' óðr' getr * Edda^ eÍ£Í veritf 
komin, þa5 er moú öllum málreglum, Míg Jufílar a þvf, aff KonráS Gis* 
lason, sem venjulega er glöggsýnn mafír, skyJdi gcla lítJS sér dctU f 
hug aS koma frarn meíS ^á derívaiion,^ Le. !^From 3ie etymolccical point j 
of view I see nothing standing tn the way of the word * Edda * bemg formed j 
from 'Oddi', Whether ' bredda * (big knife) comes from * broddr' (goad) I 
I leave undecided. EtymologicaUy there is nothing {tgamst it. To me the 1 
question hereseemstobe,wbether<» before a d ou bte consonant can, hy 1 'Umlaut, ' 
change into i. This, it seems to me,, you have proved by the examples yoa i 
have adduced, and more such can be added, i,jf-, * i»okki* {favour), 'þekkr * 
(favoured), *|3ekkllegr* (acceptable); * boíslottr,* tn», *bo*5letu,* f. (a 
self-invited gue^t}; *bfolIr* (shudder), 'brclJa* (to grieve). To name a 
book after the house which was its home, was common ; whence the oamet 
Belgsdakbokt etc* Nothing is more natural, therefore, than (o name a book 
that had ita home at Oddi after that house. It could have been called 
' Oddabéky^ but the natne * Edda ' is shorter and more convenient, as you 
have observed. From ' ófSr * Edda cannot be derived : it is contrary to all 
rules of language (etymological principles). I wonder how Konrad Gís- 
ta^on^ usually such a clear-sighted man, could ever take ft into hts head to 
bring forwaid sucb a derivation > 

' Sftga^book of the Viking Clubj f^., pp^ aaj'áié. 


Thykkvibær in eastern Iceland, t 1361, Amgrim, abbot of 
Thingeyrar, in northern Iceland, t 1 361 and Arni Jónsson, abbot 
of Munkaþverá, northern Iceland, f 1 379» renounce respectively 
obedience to * Eddu regla,' rule of Edda; * regliir Eddu»* rules of 
£4da; * Eddu list/ art of Edda. We must first observe here that 

* regla, '*reglur/ Mist/ are synonymous terms for 'kenning/ poetical 
periphrasis, the principles of which are taught in a portion of the 
second section of Edda, the * SkaldskaparmáL' But the ' regla,* 
'reglur/ 'list,*íjrf/wí^ the third section of the Edda, the * Háttatal/ 
with its commentary, which is really the section that properly can 
be called * poetics/ because it deals with the intricate details of 
Icelandic metre. This section the poets never dreamt of disavow- 
ing anymore than of giving up breathing the native air. Nor, after 
al^ did they declare against the teaching of the * Skaldskaparmál/ 
except so far thai they, being Christian bards, were disinclined Eo 
make use of * kennings * made up of heathen elements.^ It is for 
their abandonment^ only to this extent, of Edda rules or Edda art 
that they apologize to their readers. And as the terms * Edda rules, ' 

• Edda. art/ only apply to certain details of one section of a book 
which for more than a century previous to these poets had gone un- 
der the name of Edda, it is an evident thing that by these terms 
the poets only mean rules, etc., found in the book called Edda* 

Snorri's Edda, as already indicated, falls into three parts: 
Oylfaginning (The Deception of Gylft), Skald skaparmál (Lan- 
guage of poetiy), Háttatal (Key to metres)^ with an elaborate 

GVLFAGINNING (The Deception of Gylfi) is the first sec- 
lioti of this book, and is so called because Gylfi^ a king in Swe- 
deni * a wise man and of manyfold knowledge,' hearing of the 
wondrous cunning of the Asfolk, went, in the guise of an old 
tDftiij to their city, Asgarth^ in order to find out the cause of the 
bresiitible success that attended this folk in all their undertak- 
ings. Coming to the dty he gave himself the name of Gangleri 
(Wayworn); but the Asfolk were so cunningwise that they knew 
beforehand all about his plan and dealt with him accordingly. 
He was shown into a great palace^ Háva-höU (High's*Hall), 
^here he saw before him three high seats, in each of which a 

* This wftS a tendency which already in the days of Olaf Ibe Holy began 
19 t nanife iat itscIf Tlie quotalion from Skaldakaparmál, below ^ shows that 
Snom ilio i«m9 f&miliar with it (p* Ixx}* 



person was seated; he who sat in the lowest seat being called 
Hárr (High), the next Jafn-hárr (Even-high), and he of the 
highest seat þriííi (Third). Having asked if there was any man 
of knowledge inside, Gangleri gets the answer from High that ^ 
he will not get out of the place but the wiser for coming. Then 
Gangleri starts his questioning. He is mostly answered by High; Í 
and the whole of the book consists of questions by Gangleri, \ 
and answers from the occupants of the high seats. 

Formallyp thereforej Gylfaginning is framed on the pattern of ^ 
the mediaeval schoolbook, and is evidently intended to serve 
the purpose of a text-book in northern mythology. And, as a 
matter of fact, the overwhelming mass of northern mylhs, 
mythic allusions and names are to be found in this singularly 
rich primer. 

Broadly speaking, the connecting thread on which are strung 
the stories that make up the contents of this work is somewhat 
the same as that which runs through the Völuspá from begin- 
ning to end: chaos — origin of things created ^ — giants— gods^ 
man — ^Iwarfs — elfs— Yggdrasill — catalogue of gods and god- 
desses — origin of evil (Loki)— Valhall and Einherjar '^(Death- 
less champions) [Sleipnir (Odin's horse) — SíkíSblaínir (Frey's 
ship) — Thor's journey to Outgarth-Loki^ to giant Hymirj- 
the Baldr tragedy — Loki's punishment — Ragnarok (end of the | 

The primer ends by Gangleri, like Thor at Oulgarth-Loki's, 
being suddenly undeceived, standing in the midst of broad 
plains and seeing no hall nor any of the surroundings he had 
been facing during his deception. Whereupon he returned home 
to his Swedish realm, telling of his experience a tale that spread 
thenceforth from man to man. 

Snorri's sources have been for the most part written records, 
notably mythic songs such as we find in the collection currently 
know as the * Elder * or * Poetical Edda * ; we meet here with 
copious quotations from Völyspá, Grímnismál and VaffriilSnis- 
mál, besides single references to four more Older Edda poems; 
in one case the author has from memorj' made up a single verse 
out of verses 21, 29 and 47 of Lokasenna. In many cases he has 
told his stories without mentioning his authorities, some of 
which are verifiable in the still existing Edda songs, others in 
court poetry or mythic songs not found in the now existing 

Introductory Ixix 

Edda collection. One, an otherwise unknown poem, he men- 
tions, Heimdallargaldr (song or incantation of Heimdall), but 
tantalizingly supplies only two lines of it; however they are 
lines of importance, conveying Heimdall's own statement as to 
his maternity : 

I am nine mothers' child, 

I am nine sisters' son. 

Of importance it is to notice that Snorri, in Chap. I quotes 
from Thiodolf of Hvin lines which, when he wrote Heims- 
kringla, he had come to know were really by Thorbiom Horn- 
klofi. This shows that, at any rate, this fírét part of Snorri's 
Edda was written down before Heimskringla, the Harald Hair- 
fair^s story of which was penned when Snorri had learnt the 
truth about the authorship of the poem Hrafnsmál, from which 
the quotation in question is derived. It would also seem a 
result of later and fuller information that Snorri, in hisYnglinga 
Saga has so much more to tell than in Gylvaginning about the 
war between the Vanir and the As-folk, about the mutual host- 
ages exchanged at the end of that war, in particular Hœnir 
and Mimir, and, above all, about Odin and his divine attributes. 

As a literary product the Gylfaginning is a veritable master- 
piece, not only as regards the author's command of the con- 
fused mass of material he had to reduce to order and system, 
in which, for a thirteenth century writer, he had eminently suc- 
ceeded, but also as concerns his command of the language in 
which he wrote. His style is one of dignified simplicity through- 
out, direct and crisp; and in the long story of Thor's bewildering 
and exasperating failures at Outgarth-Loki's rises to a point of 
inimitable perfection in descriptive power and subdued delicate 

2. SKALDSKAPARMÁL (Language of Poetry). The aim 
of this primer is best expressed in the words of the author 
himself: 'This I have now to impress on young poets who de- 
sire to learn the language of poetry, and to gather in a store of 
archaic terms, or are anxious to know how to unravel what is 
song with a hidden sense, that they master this book for the 
improvement of their mind and for amusement But it behoves 
not to unlearn or give the lie to these tales, in order to remove 
from poetry the ancient ' kennings ' which the great poets have 



been pleased to make use of; not that therefore Christian meol 
should believe in heathen gods or in the truth of these tales ifil 
any other way than the one indicated in the beginning of this" 
*book'^ (/>., the Preface to Gylfaginning where Snorri appears 
as a sincerely professing Christian). 

This primer, as the foregoing, begins by taking the form of 
question and answer. Ægir goes on a visit to Asgarth, andl 
meets there, at a banquet given to him by the As-folk, Odin'sj 
twelve Diar, or supreme judges, and eight of the goddesses, [ 
Among the Diar Bragi the poet undertakes to entertain ÆgirJ 
with many tales of adventures which had befallen the As-fo!k, ^ 
winding up with a long account of the events which lead up to' 
the drink of pmiry being robbed by Odinn from the giant 
Suttung for the everlasting benefit of the As-folk. 

Questioned Ægir: In how many ways do ye vary expressions 
in poetry, or how many kinds of poetry are there?— Answers 
Bragi; There are two kinds by which poetry divides*^ — Ægir: 
What two? — Bragi i Language and metre, — Ægir: What 
kind of language is employed in poetry? — Bragi: There is a 
threefold distinction applicable to the language of poetry. — 
Which ?^First: calling things by their mijn name; the second 
distinction is that which is called * fomofn,* vkariúus names^ 
pronomineUtom ; * the third is that which is called * kenning ' 
periphrasis ... as when we say sig-Tyr (Tyr of victory) or 
hanga-Tyr {Tyr of men hanged), and mean by it Odin (having —- 
given to him the name of another god associated with his owtifl| 
attributes or predicates). 

The whole primer, consisting of three divisions, is a collection 
of illustrations of these distinctions of poetical diction. Th^J 
first and longest deals with * kennings * for certain personaliiietl 
and a great variety of objects besides* We have kennings fori 
Odinn, and other gods and goddesses, for man, kings, Christ,! 
poetry, heaven, earth, sea, sun, summer, wind, fire, winter, goldf] 
battle, weapons, etc, — Secondly follows the section on hkena 
hiiti^ poetical appellatives, terms used in poetry for objects 
which commonly are called by other names, corresponding to! 
Bragi's first distinction of the language of poetry* Such, ^*^.,f 

* Snorri^s Edda, e<I. Finnur Tonssoo, p. 74- 

* Ai is, £.g.^ fa5ir, soiu:, br(>l^u, fraendi, standing for th« actu&t nAme 
of the penom thus de»igtmtedi 

Introductory Ixxi 

are the terms 'bragr/ 'hróíSr,' *ó1Sr,' 'mæríS,' *lof,' synony- 
mous with the common prose term ' skaldskapr,' poetry. A 
large number of examples are adduced in illustration of this 
synonymy. Thirdly follow the pronominations with no illustra- 
tions from poetry but plenty from prose. 

Snorri illustrates the ' kennings ' and the poetical appellatives 
with no less than 335 quotations, longer or shorter, from some 
seventy poets, which shows how well the library he had at his 
disposal was stocked with poetical literature, and how carefully 
he used it for a scholarly purpose. As a guide to young poets, 
this handbook must have admirably served the twofold purpose 
of stimulating their interest in collecting and preserving the 
old poetry, and of inspiring them with a desire to master the 
principles of the great coryphei from the age of court-minstrelsy, 
the golden period of which already now was on the wane. 

3. HATTATAL (literally * Tale of metres ')• This is a poem 
(or rather three poems) by Snorri Sturlason himself, consisting of 
102 stanzas in as many different variations of metre, the most 
extraordinary poetical tour deforce from the classic time. It is 
accompanied by a commentary very elaborate up to the 70th 
stanza, less so for the rest of the poem. This poem forms a 
direct continuation of the subject of Skaldskaparmál, and illus- 
trates the second point of Bragi's second answer to Ægir (above 
p. Ixx), namely, the formal side of poetry — Metre (háttr, pi. 

The poem falls into the following three sections: 

1. Stanzas 1-30, an encomium on the young King of Norway, 
Hakon Hakonson. 

2. St 31-67, an encomium on Earl Skull Bardson (1189- 
1 240), Hákon's father-in-law. This section winds up with a re- 
ference to the fall of Gunnar, son of Asa, whom Skuli overcame 
in a fight at Apaldrssetr (Appletree-seat), in Vetta-district of 
Ranrealm, in late autumn 1221 ; ^ so this poem could have been 
composed not before the summer of 1222, when the news of 
Skuli's victory first could have reached Iceland. 

3. St. 68-102, a panegyric on both lords. 

In the 69th stanza Snorri says: ' I wrought three poems, well 
known to people, on the brother of a king (i.^., on Skuli, brother 

' Hakon's Saga, p. 64. 



to K, Ingi Bardson); now shall • wade ' forth the fourth song of 
praise on the [fight-merry disturber of the peace of the water's fiery 
sheen] ' = vaUant scatterer of gold = bounteous lord = Earl SkulL 
The third of his poems to which Snorri refers here as * known 
to people/ must be that which makes the second section of 
Háttatal. For already on his return from Norway in 1320, we 
have it on the authority of his nephew, Sturla Thordson, that 
he had wrought two poems in praise of Earl SkuliJ And again, 
towards the end of the third section of Hattatal, Snorri himself 
says: * In bringing the lord of the Mere-folk (Skuli), fmir 
poems, T was mindful of the bounteous lord^s fifteen great gifts/' 
Thus the evidence is clear that Snorri wrought on Skuli two 
poems (lost except the 'split -refrain' Klofa-stef, of one)^ before 
1220, and two more (Háttatal^ sections 2 and 3) after that date. 
We have seen that the first and second poems of Háttatal can- 
not have been composed before the summer of 1222. The 
nearer limit for the composition of these poems may possibly 
be fixed by the fact that no allusion is made to the capitulation 
of Sigurd Ribbung to Skdi in the early spring of 1223, This 
was looked upon as ' the fairest victory won by Earl Skuli, as 
it established peace throughout all Norway/ Had Snorri been 
aware of this laudable deed of his much-lauded patron when he 
wrote Halt. 2, he would certainly not have passed it over in 
silence. To do so W'ould have amounted to an insult in a 
protege so tightly gift-bound to Skuli as Snorri was. The news 
of this event must have reached Iceland during the sailing 
season (summer + early autumn), of 1 223. Accordingly Hattatal 
2 must have been composed in the course of the months that 
covered the summer and winter of 1222, and the winter, spring 
and early summer of 1223. But as to his fourth poem on Skuli, 
Hátt- 3, we have the author's own statement, in the beginning 
of it, stanza 69, that he * wrought on the king's brother (SkuU) 
three poems known to " the public '* ^ {kunn þjólS). The third 
of these three must be Hátt, a. That by the time Snorri begins 
his fourth song on Skuli he should state that the third was al- 
ready known to people (generally), can have no other meaning 
than that between the composition of the third (Hátt, 2} and 
fourth (Hátt. 3) poems some considerable time had intervened. 

» Sturl-, L 244. » a. Sturh. ibid. » Ihid. 

^ II &k lull's Ságm, pp. 73-74, cf. Möbiu&» liáttatal I, pp* 33 -34^ 

Introductory Ixxiii 

We cannot see how, in the face of this evidence, the opinion 
can be held that the whole of Háttatal was written at one sitting, 
as it were, in 1223 or 1223. We have no means of ascertaining 
when the fourth poem was wrought; we can only say with cer- 
tainty that its composition must have taken place before 1237, 
when Skuli was created Duke, for in the Háttatal he is only 
referred to as earl, several times so in Hátt. 3, which winds up 
in these words: 

Abide hail age, 

In halls of plenty. 

King and Earl! 

So close my song! 
From Háttatal, as a poem, we learn what a peerless master 
of the technique of Icelandic poetry Snorri must have been; 
firom his commentary to it, what a training he has in exposing 
the prosodic intricacies of the interminable varieties of metres 
in which that poetry could be expressed. But it is not an easy 
matter to deal with the technical terms of this commentary so 
as to make them understood by foreigners. Like Skaldskap- 
armál, this is a work of the first importance, not only as a 
primer for the use of the generation of poets contemporary with 
Snorri, who looked upon his enunciations as law,' but really for 
all time, on account of the insight it affords the student of the 
ancient poetry into the amazing wealth of technical detail with 
which the laboratory of the old ' song-smiths ' was furnished 

In Skaldatal (Tale of Skalds), or catalogue of poets who in 
song commemorated the deeds of Princes, titled lords, and lesser 
Magnates in and out of Scandinavia down to the thirteenth 
century,' Snorri enters as a court poet of the Kings Sverrir 

* Cf. Snorr. Edda, Hafniae, 1848-87, II. 8: 'We may well follow them 
{the dd poets) in using ' kennings ' no further spun-out (reknar) than Snorri 
allows^' Cf. also Snorri's rule, Háttatal, comm. to str. 8.: 'the ninth 
IpoeticaJ Ucenoe) is to spin out a kenning to the fifth link (or constituent), 
Diit to cany it further is out of order ; which, even if it be found in works 
of ancient poets we now regard as of no worth.' Sn. Edda, F. Jónsson, 

P^ 153- 

* Found in A. M. 761 4^, copied by Arni Macpusson out of ' Codex 
AcademJcos primus ' as he called the MS. * Kringla, the best of the Heims- 
kringla MSS. (orig. lost); also in the Upsala Cod. of Snorri's Edda. Edited 
in 'Snorra E^^ Hafiiiae, 1848-87, Vol. III., pp. 251-286, and Möbius' 
Cttalqgas libromm Islandicorum et Norvegicorum ætatis mediae, Lipsiae, 
»«5^ PP- 169-194. 



to a Danish nobleman Otto Friis of Astnip (ob. 1699), but 
more properljr named, according to its heading; *Konungabók ' 
is a MS. of Heimsknngla from about 1300, preserved in the 
Arnamagnaean library under No, 45 fol. It omits OL Holy's saga, 
but contains, at the end, the saga of King Hakon Hakonson* 
From the saga of Harald Hardredy, the Heimskringia text is 
largely fused with that of Morkinskinna, so that that portion of 
the MS. cannot properly be regarded as at all a text of Heims- 
kringia* The whole MS, was edited by Unger, Christiania, 

HULDA, a fourteenth century MS,, A. M* 66 foU beginning 
Ln the sixteenth chapter of the saga of Magnus the Good, and 

HROKKINSKINNA (Shninkenskin), a fifteenth century 
codex, No, loio fol, in the 'Old Collection' of the TRoyal 
Library ' of Copenhagen, beginning with the saga of Magnus 
the Good, are really in no other sense Heimskringia texts than 
that they use the text as a source with which they mix stuff 
from other sources and thus produce a new variation of history 
on the period they cover. ^ 

This brief review of Heimskringia texts will presumably not 
be unwelcome to readers of the Saga Library, though it may be 
regarded as not very intimately connected with Snorri in his 
capacity of author of Heimskringia. 

Above we have indicated (pp. Ivii-lxv) the works by known 
authors that served Snorri as sources for this great work of his. 
We shall now, as briefly as possible, notice the anonymous 
works which served him in the same manner. 

HISTORL^ NORVEGI AE is the name of a Latin chronicle 
dating from the latter end of the twelfth (Storm) or the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century^ which deals with the history of 
Norway under her early kings down to the introduction of 
Christianity. It depends partly on older written records, partly on 
tradition. We mention it here because Professor Gustav Storm 
has shown that between this chronicíe and the Ynglijig saga in 
Heimskringia there are such points of affinity as in his opinion 
to warrant the conclusion that Snorri has borrowed from this 
source the information that goes beyond the contents of Thio- 
dolPs verses (the Ynglingatal).* This becomes doubtful in face 

^ Stonn, /.r., 210, F> Jónsson, /.r., xxi^udv. ^ Stoftiii /.r,, ^-7i> 
^ Stornij /.f,, 22-25. 

Introductory Ixxvii 

of Snorri's own words in the * Prologus ': 'After Thiodolfs tale 
are the lives of the Ynglings first written, and matters added 
thereto from the tales of men of lore/ as it is uncertain whether 
by talts^ sögn in the second instance, he means oral tradition 
or written record. It may even refer to information he drew from 
SKIÖLDUNGASAGA (Story of the Skioldungs, or early 
rulers of Denmark). This is a saga which but for small frag- 
ments (A. M. I, e, /3, i,^ and 20, 6, i, in folio) is now lost, but 
existed in Iceland even in the days of Amgrim Jónsson the 
Learned (lær^i) (1568- 1648), who drew upon it for a work which 
he called * Suplementum historiae Norvegicae,** at least for that 
part of it which treated of the mythic and legendary kings of 
Denmark. — In his account of the great battle on the ice of 
Lake Vener between King Adils of Sweden and Ali the Up- 
lander,' Snorri says: 'Concerning this battle is much told in 
the Story of the Skioldungs and also how Rolf Kraki came to 
Upsala,' etc.^ This saga therefore has been one of his sourcesi 
at least for the Ynglinga saga, but to what further extent cannot 
be stated with certainty. Both Storm and Jónsson agree that 
the episodes of Hugleik, Starkad and Haki, as well as the 
account of Ingiald Evilheart and Ivar Widefathom owe their 
- origin to Skioldunga saga.^ That the story of Rolf Kraki, both 
here and in Snorri's Edda, must come from the same source is 
pretty well proved by Snorri's own words cited above. The story 
of Sigurd Hart Snorri tells evidently on the authority of a written 
record: *So tells the tale,* *and long is the tale of him,* which 
most likely was the Skioldunga saga.' On this source of Snorri's 
work I refer for further information to Storm ^ and F. Jónsson.^ 
ÁGRIP af Noregs Konunga sögum, epitome of the sagas of 
the kings of Norway is a work preserved only in one MS., 
A.M. 325, ii. 4% dating from the first half of the thirteenth 

^ Edited as ' Sögubrot ' in Foraaldarsögur NoríSrlanda, i. p. 363-388. 
' Edited by Axel Olrik in Aarb^er for nordisk Oldlcyndighed og 
Historie, 1894. 

* Also told of in Snorri's Edda, Jónsson*s ed., 108. 
^ Story of the Ynglings, Heimskringla, i, 50. 

» Jhid.^ i, 37.38. 39-40, 55-64. 

* Story of Halfdan the Black, Heimskringla, i, 81. 
"^ Storm, /.f., 66-67, 109-111. 

* Den oidnord. og oldish litteraturs historie, ii. 2, 665-6. 



century, defective in capite ei calce. It was first edited hy Finn 
Magndsson in Fornmanna Sogur, x, 376-421, 1835/ and diplo- 
matically by Vemtir Dahlerup, K^benhavn, 1880. This epitome, 
as we have it now, begins in the last chapter of the Saga of 
Halfdan the Black> and goes down to the account of the sons 
of Harald GíllÍ, thus, in a way, covering the whole historical 
period of Heimskringla. The MS. is of Icelandic origin, a copy, 
according to Storm, of a Norse original ; the author, according 
to Storm, was a Norwegian ; according to Finnur Jónsson, in* 
dubitably an Icelander In that case he must have been a 
resident in Norway for a long time, for his work shows clearly 
that he was particularly conversant with local Norwegian tra- 
ditions, specially such as were current in Thrandheim. For 
ever)' saga contained in Heimskringla from Halfdan the Black 
down to Harald GÍllÍ's sons, Snorri has made use of this source 
of information.^ 

MORKINSKINNA (Rottenskin), a vellum thus called by 
Torfæus on account of its decayed state, is now preserved 
in the * Old Collection ' of the Royal Library of Copenh^en, 
No. 1009 fol.; it dates from the close of the thirteenth cen* 
tury, and contains sagas of the kings of Norway from the ac- 
cession of Magnus the Good, T055, to the death of Eystein 
Haraldson, 1157** This work depends for its contents upon 
older records, such as Agrip and Kric Oddson's Hryggjarstykki, 
besides a rich store of verses, the tenor, however, of which the 
author has not always been able to master. This is the first of 
the historical works relating to Norway which interlards the text 
with anecdotal matier mostly of a biographical character, the 
insertions sometimes going to a length which interrupts the 
historical nexus to a tantalizing degree. This is one of the 
sources on which Snorri has drawn for all the sagas of Heims- 
kringla, from that of Magnus the Good to that of Ingi Haraidson 
and his brethren.' 

JARLASÖGUR (Earl-tale^ '), or the sagas of the Earis of 

^ Trnmlalcd into Latin by Egilsson in Scnpta historit Islandorutn, x« 

J St€ Stonn, Lt^y 25*23; Finnur Jonsson, LitL hiiti iL 2, 618-^25, 

' Edited by C R* Unger, Christíanm, 1867, 

* Storm, Lu^ 21-3J ; Fintiur JoBison, Litl* hiit*j 615^6 ja 

" OUf the Holy's sagOj Heimskringla, ii. I St. 

Introductory Ixxix 

Orimey, commonly known as Orkneyinga saga, is yet a work 
which has served Snorri with historiod material. He has drawn 
on it for the sagas of Harald Hairfair, Hakon the Good, Olat 
Tryggvison, largely for that of Olaf the Holy, less for Harald 
Hardredy, Magnus Barefoot, Harald Gilli and Magnus Erling- 
son. About the authorship of the work nothing is known beyond 
the obvious fact that it must have been put together before 
Snorri b^an writing Heimskringla. It covers the whole period 
dealt with in Heimskringla, from Harald Hairfair to the year 
1 1 58, the death of Earl Rognvald Kali. It is of Icelandic 
origin, and is best edited by Vigfusson.' 

FÆREYINGA SAGA, which now is found split up into 
chronologically suitable sections in the Flatey book, but must, 
of course, have existed as a whole saga in Snorri's time, has 
been utilized by him for illustrating the uneven struggle that 
went on between K. Olaf the Holy and the Faro people in 
respect of the subjection of the islands to the Norwegian crown, 
1034-1026. It was edited by C. C. Rafh, Kjöbenhavn, 1832.* 

FAGRSKINNA (Fairskin) is a name by loose usage given 
to a work on the history of Norway, two recensions of which 
are now preserved in paper transcripts, A.M. 51 fol. 302, 4* 
(B) and 52 foL 301 and 303, 4® (A.); to the second of the two 
recensions (A) Torfasus applied this title on account of its fine 
binding; but the real title of the work was ' Nóregs Konunga tal' 
(B), or perhaps rather Ættartal Noregs Konunga (A). The B re- 
cension, of which one vellum leaf still remains, is of the thirteenth 
century, the A one of the fourteenth." The work has covered 
the time from Halfdan the Black to the reign of Magnus Erling- 
um^ the same period as the historical Sagas of Heimskringla. 
There is much divergence of opinion as to whether this work 
has been a source for Heimskringla or the reverse. Storm came 
to the conclusion that the former was the case;* while Maurer 
held that Fagrskinna borrowed from Heimskringla, at least from 

' Storm, /.f., 6i-d4— Icelandic Sagas (Rolls Series), i. 1887— Finnur 
JoostoD, Litt hist, ii. 2, 653-659. 

* QL Storm, /.r., 64^5, Finnur Jónsson, Litt. hist., ii. 649-653. 

' The work has been twice edited: i, on the. basis of A by Munch and 
Unger, Christíania, 1847. 2, on the bads of B by Finnur Jónsson, K^ben- 
havD, 1902-1903. 

• Storm, Lc,^ 43-45- 



the saga of Har, Hardredy and onward, Finnur Jónsson is of 
opinion that Fagrskinna could not have been written mudi 
before 1240/ and there are certain chronological facts which 
point in that direction. Knut, son of Hakon, is called * Earl/ 
which he was created 1239-1240; SkuU is called a Duke, which 
title was conferred on him 1237. Valdimar, Valdimars son, 
K, of Denmark, is mentioned in this way: *The children of 
K. Valdimar and Sufik wtn . , , King Valdinur/ which, in 
genealogical language, generally means that children so referred 
to were dead at the time they were thus entered in a genealogy. 
This King Valdimar died in 1241, the same year as Snorri. 
The chronological evidence must therefore be regarded as clearly 
against the theory of Professor Storm. The close affinity between 
the texts of Heimskr, and Fagrsk. must consequently be ac* 
counted for by the latter being the borrower, or being independent 
of Heimskringla and depending on a common source.^ One point 
we must regard as of striking significance- If Snorri, with his 
strong sense of the paramount importance of contemporaneous 
poems, made use of Fagrskinna, how could he have omitted 
from his text the magnificent Eiríksmál, especially when he was 
so badly off for poetical evidence for Eric Bloodaxe*s exploits, 
and, moreover, honoured his brother Hakon with the whole of 
Eyvind's Hakonarmál, admittedly an imitation of Eiríksmál? 

To the foregoing sources may still be added the JOMS* 
VIKING A SAGA, which originally took shape from the various 
narratives hrought to Iceland by Icelandei^ who had taken part 
in the fight of Hiorungwick, Snorri has made use of this saga 
only for Earl Hakon's history.* 

EGILSSAGA, commonly called EGLA has, till but very lately, 
been counted among the sources of Heimskringla. Now opinion 
in this respect has undergone a decided change. It was Dr. 
Vigfusson who first suggested the idea that this saga might be 
due to the pen of Snorri : ' The style is bold and vigorous, well 
suiting the subject, and resembling in a marked degree that 
of Snorri, who may well have felt an interest in the hero in 
whose home, Borg, he himself had dwelt, wielding the chieftain- 

> Ueb«r die AusdrUcke altnordUche . . . Spnche, etc, Mlincheo, tS&7^ 
4S Ann), 29. 
' Liu. hist., iL 2, öjcMíjgv 
' Cf» Slornig lu,^ 67^1 LitL bisL, ii. 2, 659-665. 

Introductory Ixxxi 

ship of the district as EgiFs political descendant.' * Since Vig- 
fusson wrote scholars have been half inclined to his idea (A. 
Gjessing, Finnur jiSnsson); but it was reserved for the profound 
scholarship of Dr. Bjöm M. Olsen to find what probably will 
remain a lasting solution of the question.' He comes to the 
conclusion that Snorri himself is the author of Egilssaga. Egils- 
saga, he shows, on comparison with the texts of L^ndnama, 
gives to Skalla-Grim wider lands and lordship than, on critical 
examination the Landnama, in its oldest form, warrants. In the 
same manner Egilssaga deals with the lordship of Tongue-Odd 
as compared with Landnama. Ot both these chiefs Snorri was 
the * political descendant,' having acquired the former's and his 
descendants' manorial seat, Borg, by marriage, and the hitter's 
godord by the purchase of Reykholt. Historically enhancing the 
importance of the chieftainship of these his predecessors could 
have interested no one at the time that Egilssaga was written, 
Snorri's own life-time, more than Snorri himself. Style, interest 
for antiquarian subjects, method of using verses in support of 
historical statements, fondness for the members of the family of 
the Mere-men, especially those from whom Snorri traced his 
descent, striking parallels between the texts of Eg. s. and 
Heimskr., exactness of topographical knowledge of Borgfirth 
and the countrysides round Oddi, as well as of the geography 
of Norway, etc. — all these matters. Dr. Olsen shows in detail, 
combine strongly in support of Snorri's authorship of Egla. A 
telling positive proof, too, he adduces from the Saga of Gunn- 
laug the Worm tongue j So say * fróíSir * (learned men) that many 
in the kin of the Meremen have been the goodliest of men, etc. 
The whole passage is borrowed from Egilssaga (Ch. 87, p. 321, 
F. Jónsson's ed.). An exactly analogous case is found in Land- 
nama (Sturla's recension, F. Jónsson's ed., ch. 90) : ' so say 
** íröVir " men that this summer xxv ships went to Greenland,' 
which in Hauk's book and Melabok texts, Landn., ch. 78, reads: 
' So says Ari Thorgilsson (hinn fróVi) etc' The author of Egil's 
saga, then, was called 'hinn fróVi'; so even was Snorri called. 
— Henceforward the Egilssaga will cease to be counted among 
outside sources supplying Heimskringla with historical material. 

^ StnrL, Prolegomena, xlviii. 

* In a contribution to Aarb^ger fornordisk Oldkyndighed 1904, pp. 167- 

VI. / 



It is necessary to add here some few remarks on the peculiar 
position occupied by the Saga of Olaf the Holy (O. H.) alone 
among all the sagas of Heimskringla* From the manner in 
which certain events, already dealt with in the Sagas of Hairfair, 
Hakon the Good, and Tryggvison, are again treated in O. H,, 
it seems to us that the conclusion is obvious that O. H. was 
written down before the historical sagas that precede it. 

In Hairfair's Saga we have the account of Earl Turf-Einar's 
dealings with Hakon Highleg and of Hairfair's treatment^ in 
consequence^ of the Earl and the Orkney people (i, 133-125, 
125*127). in O. H. (ii, 168) we have the same events rehearsed 
more briefly^ but without any saga cross-reference which in such 
a case is commonly employed, such as: *as is written before,* 
or the like. 

In Hakon the Good*s Saga {i. 15a) we have the story told 
how Eric Bloodaxe with wife and children fled to Orkney before 
Hakon. The same event is put on record in 0. H. (ii. 169) but 
without any allusion whatever to a previous mention of it. 

In Olaf Tr}'ggvison*s Saga (i. 241) and in O. H. (ii* i6g), the 
second flight of Gunnhild and her family to the Orkneys is told 
ofj but without any hint in the latter record to a previous men- 
tion thereof* 

Again in Tryggviaon's Saga there is (i. 290-291) a lengthy 
account of his call at the Orkneys on his way to Norway from 
the west, and of his enforcement of Christinity on Earl Sigurd 
Hlodvirsson and his people. This account is derived from a 
source which has been identical with that vellum of the Orkney 
saga which Vigfússon calls Á-/ which was rendered into Danish 
about 1570 by a Norweigan whose translation still survives in 
a transcript from 1615. The passage here in question will be 
found in Vigfösson*s re- translation into Icelandic of the Danish 
text in his edition of Orkneyinga saga, cL 12 (p. 14)* This 
same matter is put on record in O. H. (ii. 169,5.-^3), ^^^ ^"'X 
without any reference to its having been recorded already, but 
from a source diflcrent from the one already described. The 
two disagree in certain details. If the Sagas of O, T. and O* H, 
were written consecutively, surely Snorri would have drawn in- 
formation about one and the same event from one and the same 

' A very fragmcQtary triuiscrípt by Asgeir Jóctsson, A* M* 333 4% ts the 
only remjuning evidence of a former existence of this velium. 



source in both sagas, for the sake of self-consistency, unless he 
saw reason, on critical grounds, for modifying or altering in the 
second saga what, on insufficient knowledge, he had put down 
in the first. In this case the statement of the preceding saga 
shows ieself to be an expression of a fuller, more accurate 
knowledge than that of the succeeding, which therefore presum- 
ably was the first written down. 

In O. Tiyggvison's Saga (i. 33518.15)1 Thorarinn Nefiulfson 
comes into the story as if he had been mentioned before. And 
in O. H. (ii. 133) he is introduced to the reader with the ftill 
saga ceremonial adopted when a new person makes his first 
appearance : * There was a man named Thorarinn son of Nefiolf, 
etc.,' with no hint to the fact that he had been brought on the 
stage before. 

A telling case is that of Ketil lamti, whose tale is told in the 
Saga of Hakon the Good (H. G.) and O. H. 

H.G.(i, 1621^-). 

After describing Eystein the 
Evil-minded's war in, and ig- 
nominious treatment of the 
people of,Thrandheim, setting 
up his dog Saur for their king, 
the story goes on: 

'Ketil lamti, the son of 
Earl Onund of the Spar-biders, 
went east away over the Keel, 
and a great company of men 
with him, who had their house- 
holds with them. They cleared 
the woods, and peopled great 
countrysides there, and that 
was called sithence lamtland.' 


' Ketil lamti hight a man, 
the son of Earl Onund of 
Spareby, in Thrandheim. He 
had fled before King Eystein 
the Evilminded east over the 
Keel. He cleared the woods 
and built there, whereas it is 
now hight lamtland. Eastway 
thither fled also crowds of folk 
from Thrandheim before that 
unpeace; for King Eystein 
made the Thrandheim folk 
yield him scat and set up for a 
king there his own hound hight 

In H. G. Ketil comes in as if he had been mentioned before ; 
while in regular saga fashion he is in O. H. brought on the stage 
as appearing there for the first time, with no lunt whatever to 
the fact that the story had abready been told in H. G. It seems 
difficult to account for this except on the supposition that O. H. 
was written before H. G. 



The most striking evidence in support of our theory is aíTorded 
by the story of Harek of Thiotta in Olaf Tryggvison's Saga 
(O. T.) as compared with that presented by O.H. 

O. T. O. H. 

(Í- 30919.—) * King Olaf . . . 
stood north along the land, 
being minded for Halogaland 
to christen folk there. But 
when he came north to Bear- 
eres, then heard he of Haloga- 
land that they had an host out 
there and were minded to de- 
fend the land against the king. 
And there were captains of that 
host Harek of Thiotta . . .' 
(324-329) A long account of 
the kidnapping of Harek at 
Tryggvison's behest; how he 
enters into Olafs service and 
how they become the best of 

Here it is perfectly evident that in O. T. Harek comes in as 
a person already properly introduced to the reader. That intro- 
duction took place when the author wrote O. H., the composi- 
tion of which, therefore, must precede in time that of O. T. 

On the other hand, the following passages from O. H. and 
the Saga of Magnus the Good (M. G.), would seem to yield an 
additional proof of the correctness of the theory here advanced : 

(ii. 1 89JQ. — ) * Now there was 
a man named Harek, son of 
Eyvind Skaldspiller, who dwelt 
in the island of Thiotta, which 
lies in Halogaland' Then the 
story goes on describing his 
land-grabbing in the island 
(18924.32)» ^s wisdom and 
energy (139.2-1901), his hon- 
ours and high descent — age — 
preferments — friendly rela- 
tions with Olaf the Holy (1901- 


O. H. (ii. 267). 

* He (Knut the Mighty) set 
up behind him in Denmark 
Hordaknut his son, and with 
him Wolf the Earl, the son of 
Thorgils Sprakalegg. Wolf was 
wedded to Astrid, the daughter 
of King Svein and sister of 
King Knut, and their son was 
that Svein who was sithence 
King in Denmark.' 

M. G. (iii. 29). 

* A man is named Svein, the 
son of Earl Wolf, the son of 
Thorgils Sprakalegg. The 
mother of Svein was Astrid, 
the daughter of King Svein 
Twibeard. She was the sister 
of Knut the Rich, etc' 

Introductory Ixxxv 

If M. G. was written straightway on the conclusion of O. H., 
it does not seem in Snorri's style to repeat himself as he does 
here, introducing Svein as if he had never been mentioned 
before, which, as a matter of fact, he had been not only in the 
passage quoted, but also as intercessor for his father with King 
Knut (ii. 319). The natural explanation seems to be that when 
the passage in M. G. was penned, the author had forgotten, for 
the moment, what he had written in O. H., which was natural 
if a considerable period divided the composition of the two 
sagas, but scarcely explainable if M. G. was composed con- 
secutively on O. H. 

On the whole the conclusion seems warrantable, that the 
Saga of Olaf the Holy was the first penned instalment to 
Heimskringla. Its relation to the larger Olaf s Saga * is far too 
wide a subject to be taken up to discussion here. Our own 
opinion is that this larger Olaf's Saga is Snorri's first edition, 
and that it was incorporated in Heimskringla revised and shorn 
of matters which were dealt with in the other sagas of that 
collection. But, even if it were an expanded edition of O. H. 
in Heimskringla, it would not affect the theory suggested 

AVhen Snorri sets about writing the history of Norway, it 
presents to his mind the aspect of two great tableaux : the first, 
filled in with the progeny of Halfdan the Black down to Sigurd 
Jerusalemfarer, 1130; the second made up of that of Harald 
Gilli down to Ey stein Maiden, 11 77. These tableaux are fore- 
shadowed in dreams: the first, in dreams dreamt by Queen 
Ragnhild and her husband, Halfdan the Black; hers indicating 
the greatness of her descendants in general; his pointing in 
particular to Olaf the Holy as the most glorious scion of the 
stock. The second tableau is unfolded in a dream of Sigurd 
Jerusalemfarer's: darkness scudding up from the main Norway- 
ward showing, on nearer approach, a tree, the roots of which 
wade through the deep, while the branches overshadow it, 
breaking, on landing, into pieces which drift into every creek 
along the shore, * most smally but some bigger.* Snorri's busi- 
ness is pragmatically to unravel the relations in which the 
characters that fill both tableaux stand severally to each other. 

^ Edited by Munch and Unger, Christiania, 1853. 

Ixxxvi Introductory 

The materials at Snorri's disposal were: oral tradition;* 
written genealogical records; ' old songs or story lays such as 
Thiodolf's Tale of the Ynglings and Eyvind's Haloga Tale;' 
poems of court poets, i,e.^ historic songs, which people knew 
by heart all from the days of Hairfair down to Snorri's own 
time. * And most store,' he says, * we set by that which is said 
in such songs as were sung before the ckUfs themselves or the 
sons of them; and we hold all that for true which is found in 
these songs concerning their wayfarings and their battles.' ^ Of 
the written prose sources he drew upon he only mentions Ari 
the Leamed's * book,' /.«., the first edition of * Islendingabók,* 
probably, as it seems to us, because in the statements of that 
work he had as implicit a faith as in the other sources he men- 
tions, and found reason to alter nothing therein, while the 
sources he does not mention he silently criticises throughout, 
rejecting or altering them according as his critical faculty 

Before Snorri's time there existed only biographies, separate, 
disjointed biographical monographs, on Norwegian kings, 
written on the model of the family sagas of Iceland. Snorri's 
was a more ambitious task. Discerning that the course of life 
is determined by cause and effect, and that in the lives of kings 
widely ramified interests, national and dynastic, come into play, 
he conceived a new idea of saga-writing: the seed of cause 
sown in the preceding must yield its crop of effect in the suc- 
ceeding reign. This the writer of lives of kings must bear in 
mind. And so Snorri addresses himself to writing the first 
pragmatic history ever penned in any Teutonic vernacular — the 

In illustration of what we have now said we may begin by 
drawing attention to the reigns of Hairfair and his son Eric 
Bloodaxe. Harald had his sons fostered away from home 
mostly with their mothers and their kindred. They knew, there- 
fore, one another not as brothers do who are brought up at 

^ Preface, i. 3 : * tales ' . . . ' even as I have heard men of lore tell the 
same ' ; matters added to the lives of the Ynglings by Thiodolf ' from the 
tales of men of lore ' ; ibid,^ 4. Cf., however, p. Ixxvii. 

* Ibid, : Telling up of Forefathers wherein Kings and other men of high 
degree have traced their kin. 

^ Ibid,,i-^ * Ibid.,4'S' 

Introductory Ixxxvii 

home. What they knew well, and what their mothers and other 
fostering guardians did not fail to impress upon them, was that 
they were heirs to the great conqueror's power and possessions, 
each one considering his own birthright as good as that of any 
of his brothers. Most of them inherited the father's overween- 
ing ambition and physical prowess, and with irrepressible reck- 
lessness broke their father's laws as he had himself in youth 
ruthlessly broken the constitutional system of his nation. En- 
feebled by age he must pacify the unruly crowd and divide his 
realm among them. This caused a fatricidal state of things, 
with the effect that Eric, offending his brothers' kindred in every 
direction, loses all hold on the loyalty of the people and must 
seek safety in exile, when his youngest brother comes forward 
to claim die crown that Eric knew not how to wear with pro- 

Throughout the story of the sons of Eric we can see that the 
cause of their misfortunes is their mother Gunnhild, as she had 
been indeed to a large extent of those of her husband. At 
length she finds her match in Earl Hakon. Through her insti- 
gation her sons had murdered his father. For seven years he 
broods over his revenge and effects it in the end. That was 
the effect of Gunnhild's state-craft. 

Olaf Tryggvison slaps a dowager queen in the face with his 
glove. The result is a triple alliance against him and his fall in 
Uie battle of Svold. His saga forms the introduction to that of 
his kinsman and namesake Olaf the Holy, who becomes Nor- 
way's national saint merely by the accident that the body of 
Olaf Tryggvison was never found. At the horrible death of 
Earl Hakon of Ladir Snorri takes the opportunity of enunciating 
beforehand the text of both sagas in this way: * Most evil hap 
had such a lord in his death-day. And this brought it most 
about that so it was, that the day was come, when foredoomed 
was blood-offering and the men of blood-offerings and the holy 
faith come in their stead and the true worship.' On this text 
hinge both sagas of the Olafs, in which Snorri unfolds his 
highest qualities both as stylist and narrator. Olaf Tryggvison's 
is the proudest figure drawn in Heimskringla; Olaf Haraldson's 
the most carefully and S3naipathetically worked out. One feels 
that Snorri has greater admiration for Olaf the Holy than for 
any other character he depicts. It may very well be on religious 

Ixxxviii Introdiictory 

grounds, although he makes no great parade of religious senti- 
ments, the passage quoted above being about the only one that 
can be pointed out in that sense. Perhaps Olafs unswervingly 
evenhanded justice without r^ard of person was after all what the 
Icelandic lawyer and speaker-at-law admired most in his favourite 
hero. In his personal descriptions Snorri takes care to let the 
descendants of Hairfair present features of body or traits of 
character that remind of the ancestor — Magnus the Blind, a 
drunkard even in youth, does not come into consideration. 
They are goodly of aspect, martial, energetic, and masterful, 
with, as a rule, great capacity for government, and some of them 
for legislation and reform. Harald Hardredy adds to the family 
traits the gift of poetry, and Olaf, his son, a strong taste for art 
and refinement. He patronizes architecture, reforms the ar- 
rangements of the hall, introduces luxurious fashions in dress, 
and takes great interest in fostering sociability by means of 
gilds and Scot-houses. He is the only one of Hairfair's suc- 
cessors who on principle is opposed to war, and favours popular 
freedom : * Your freedom is my gladness ' are the proud words 
by which he enunciates the principles of his wise government. 

When the Gillungs, or race of Harald Gilli, come in, there 
comes also a change over Snorri's personal descriptions. No 
more do we find him alluding to kingly traits of character, nor 
even to any striking features of physical goodliness. With the 
exception of the cripple Ingi, for whom Snorri entertains sym- 
pathetic feelings, these Gillungs are mostly unprincipled rowdies 
and unkingly of conduct, with the result that as kings in the 
land they are a signal failure, and come to an end after an in- 
glorious run of seven and forty years. 

All students of Icelandic unite in admiration of Snorri's 
style. All through it is pervaded by an air of aristocratic dignity 
and that quietude and ease which result from supreme mastery 
of the subject. Yet with these qualities there goes a classic 
vigour unrivalled in the literature, except by the Nial's saga. 
The language is simple, but its simplicity is really due to clear- 
ness of thought and vividness of imagination. The periods are 
short; no involution is indulged in; they are graphic, pellucid. 
Speeches are abundant, after the fashion of the sources Snorri 
made use of, and are striking specimens of conciseness of argu- 
ment and concentration of point. Dialogue, too, is a device 

Introductory Ixxxix 

frequently made use of for the purpose of exhibiting a situation 
in stronger relief. This form of style Snorri handles with great 
skill, which especially shows itself in his tactful resistance against 
the temptation of out-running classical conciseness. We refer 
the reader to the masterpiece, vol. iii. 279-283. One noticeable 
point in Snorri's art of writing history is the employment of 
silence^ where the piquancy of a situation cannot fail to rouse 
the reader's reflection as to what really took place. A telling 
example is the story of Harek's kidnapping,* and the mysteri- 
ous loss of two ships sent to Faro by Olai the Holy,* for the 
purpose of persuading the people to give up their traditional 
independence. For humorous situations, too, Snorri has a keen 
taste, witness: Thorleifs advice to King Halfdan the Black 
how to procure a dream;' the story of the tongue-bound bon- 
ders at the Thing in Rogaland, intending to vindicate their old 
faith against Olaf Tryggvison:* Hallfred's conversion to Christi- 
anity;* the anecdote of the propensities of Qlaf the Holy's 
half-brethren;* Thorarinn Nefiolfson's wager anent the ugliness 
of his foot;^ the interview between Lawman Edmund and Olaf 
the Swede;® Thorarin Nefiolfson's tricks on Olaf the Holy for 
the purpose of saving the life of Asbiom Sealsbane;* Harald 
Hardredy's casting of lots with Gyrgir;*® Harald's girding at 
Earl Finn Amison, where, by the way, Snorri shows his refine- 
ment of feeling, by making an excuse for repeating a clever but 
coarse repartee of the Earl;" Olaf the Quiet and the sooth- 
sayer;" Sveinki and Sigurd Woolstring;*' King Magnus' negotia- 
tions for peace with Sveinki;" Gilford the Welsh knight;" the 
man-matching between Kings Eystein and Sigurd ; ** King 
Eystein's comforting of love-lorn Ivar Ingimundson;" Thorarin 
Curtfell at King Sigurd's court;** Harald Gilli's and Queen 
Ingirid's gifts to Bishop Magnus Einarson." — In dreams and 
wizardry Snorri seems to be an avowed believer (see Index 
III), as we must expect of a thirteenth-century author ; as a 

^ Hdmsk., L 324-326. 

» Jhid., u. 246-7. 249,0-250,, 269,-2741,. 

» JHd., i. 84. ♦ Ibid,^ i. 305. * IHd.y i. 337-339. 

• JHd,^ it lio-ill. ' Ihid,^ ii. 133-134. ■ Ihid,^ ii. 155-160. 

• Jkid.^ ii. 225-227. " Hnd,y iii. 60-62. " JHd,^ iii. 141. 

" Ibid,^ iii 199-201. " /W</., iii. 214-217. ** Ibid,^ iii. 217-220. 
" /*«/., iii. 23»'2%o, *• yW</., iii. 279-282. " /did., iii. 265-267. 
" Ibid., iii 286-2&. »• /bid., ui. 334-335- 



good churchman, too, he believes in miracles whert they are 
authenticated to his satisfaction. 

One striking quality of Snorri's style is impartiality, Abso* 
Ititely faithful to the tenets of the school of oral tradition, he 
lets facts deliver the verdict in each case, keeping his own judgrj 
ment for himselC In one solitary instance, however, he could 
not resist speaking out in decided condemnation of an act per-l 
formed, namely the sentence passed at a Thing with all duej 
formality of law on Earl Sigund of Reyr,^ Even his unmistak- 
able patriotism does not lead him astray in this respect. Butí 
we can see that in his strikingly eloquent account of the sue* 
cessful resistance of the Icelanders to the political plans ofj 
Olaf the Holy, he wanted to read his countrymen a useful 
lesson in face of the aggressive attitude of King Hakon. 

But free from blemishes our historian is not He has lacked 
chronicles both English, Francish, and others of still more 
distant lands, and therefore makes several mistakes in English, 
Nornian, German, and Sicilian history, attention to which is 
called in the indexes. Want of space precludes any attempt at 
giving a comprehensive account of the shortcomings of Snorri ; 
the wonder is that in so voluminous a work a thirteenth*century 
writer should escape with so few* 


Harald Hairfair 

Eric Bloodaxe 

Hakon the Good 

Harald Greycloak 

Hakon, Earl of Ladir 

Olaf Tryggvison 

Eric and Svein, Earls, sons of Hakon 

Olaf the Holy 

Svein Knutson (Alfivason) 

Ma^us the Good 

^ Hdimk., ill. 449-450. 


^^P Introductory 


^Engs and Earls of Norway, continutd. 


■ Harald Hardredy 

to45 — io66 ^^H 

^P MiigDus Haraldson 

io66— io68 ^^H 

^ Olaf Haraldson^ the Quiet 

1067— 1093 ^^H 

1 Magnus Barefoot 

1093 — ^1103 ^^H 

^^ Triple rdgn: 


■ OM \ 

1103 — tl!6 ^^^H 

^m Ej^tein / Magnus" sons 
■ Sigurd ) 


— 1 130 ^^^^1 

^1 Magnus the Bhnd 

1130—1135 ^^1 

■ Harald GilH 

1130—1136 ^^H 

^1 Triple reign: 


^m Sigurd Mouth | 

■ Eystdn ^ Harald's so 

1136— 1155 ^H 


1142—1157 ^^1 

1136 — ti6r ^^H 

H Hakon Sboulderbroad 

1161—1162 ^^H 

^1 Magnus Erlingsoii 

1 1 62 — irS4 ^^^1 

^1 Sverrir Sigurdson 

11 84 — 1202 ^^H 


^B Gorm the Old 

t ab. 940 ■ 

^H Harald Gormson 

ab* 940 — 986 ^1 

^H Svetn Twibeard 

986—1014 ^^^1 

^1 Knut the Mighty 

io[4— 1035 ^^H 

^1 Horda-Knut 

1035 — 1042 ^^^H 

^H Magnus the Good 

ro42— r047 .^^^H 

^H Svein Wolfson 

1047 — 1076 ^^^^^H 

^H Harald Hone 

— ^^^^^H 

^1 Knut the Holy 

— ^^^^^H 

^H Olaf Hanger 

1 0S6 — 1095 ^^^^^^ 

^1 Eric the Good 


^H Nicolas 


^H Eric Everminded 


^H Eric I^mb 


^H Svein EricsoD, ' Grathe 



^H Knut Magnusson 


^^H Valdlmar I 

— ^^^^^^^H 

xcii Introductory 


Eric Emundson, died when Harald Hairfair had ruled in Norway 

for ten years 882? 

Biom, said to have reigned for fifty years tab. 932 
Olaf Biomson (no dates). 

Eric Biomson, the Victorious fab. 994 

Olaf the Swede ab. 994 — 1022 

(James) Onund Olafson ab. 1020? — 1050 

Emund Olafson ab. 1050 — 1060 

Steinkel Rognvaldson 1060 — 1066 
Hallstein Steinkelson expelled. 
[Onund from Russia expelled. 

Hakon the Red, king for thirteen years; dates in both cases 

Hallstein Steinkelson again and 
Ingi I, his brother, who was deposed. 

(Dates in both cases uncertain.) 
Blot-Svein, for three years. 

Ingi Steinkelson again. fab. mo 
[Eric the Yearseely, said to have been king in Swede-realm 


Philip Hallsteinson mo— 11 18 

Ingi II, Hallsteinson 1 1 10 — 1 125 

Rognvald ' Knaphöfdi,' slain ab. 11 30 

Magnus Nicolasson, slain 11 34 

Sorkvir, in Gautland only, after 1150? ab. 1133 — 1155 

Karl Sorkvirson, in Gautland only till 1161 

Eric the Holy, in Swede-realm proper 11 50 — 11 60 

Magnus, son of Henry the Halt 11 60 — 1161 

Karl Sorkvirson, for the whole of Sweden 1161 — 11 67 

Knut Ericson 1167 — 1195 



(historical, legendary, mythical) 

ABSALON, Archbishop of Lund, in Skaney, ii 78-1 201, iii. 


ADALBRIKT, Priest, putative father to Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, 
by Thora, the daughter of Saxi of Wick, iii. 33613 

ADILS (A^ils), son of K. Ottar, King of Sweden, his invasion 
of Saxland and marriage with the bondswoman Yrsa, i. 49s^4 
— his strife with Helgi, King in Denmark, 49^S^\ — ^*s 
fight with King Ali of Norway, 5013.18 — his death and burial 
in mound at Upsala, 50,3-5123— reference to, in "Biarklay 
the Old," ii. 407,3 

ADRIANUS IV., Pope, II 54- 1 159, see Nicolas, Cardinal. 

ÆGIR, the god of the sea, ii. 2933 

ÆLFGIFU, see Alfiva. 

ÆSIR, the Icel. plur. of 'Ass, the generic term for the whole 
tribe of the heathen gods of Scandinavia, i. 19225 — memorial 
cups 'signed* to them, iL 1937.3 — ^^^ Asfolk. 

ÆTHELRED (A«alrá«r), see Ethelred. 

AFRAFASTI, a waylayer: he and his company offer their 
service to King Olaf marching from the east to reconquer 
Norway, who rejects them unless they become Christians, a 
condition they refuse, though they follow his host, ii. 3943- 
395n — ^^^y consent to be christened, 3995.31 — A. falls in 
the nrst brunt of the battle at Sticklestead, 429^ 

AGDIR (-folk, -people, folk of A., people of A., they of A.) 
(EgiSir), inhabitants of the folkland of Agdir, S.W. Norway, 
i. 1114-5 "• 32319-20 SShs 3601« 36127 iii. 72« 74i6 7626 22330 

VI. B 

2 Index I [agi — alf 

AGI, father of Ozur, who was the fosterfather of Thyri, the 

sister of Svein Twibeard, i. 349^0 
AGNAR (Agnarr), son of Sigtrygg, King of Vendil, father to 

Eric, King of Westfold, i. 6820.22 
AGNAR, son of K. Yngvar of Fiadrundaland, i. SSe-ie — burned 

in a banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evil-heart, 584.1^ 


AGNI, son of Day the Wise, succeeded his father in the 
kingdom over the Swedes, i. 333 — went with an armed host to 
Finland and slew in battle King Frosty, and had away with 
him his daughter Skialf and wedded her, but she hanged 
him by the fatal necklace of Visbur at Agnis-thwaite by 
Stock-Sound, 33n-3429 — ^after his death the Swede-realm was 
divided among his two sons, and from that time was the 
kingdom in Sweden divided among heirs imtil the days of 
Ingmld Evil-heart, 35»^ S7i4-597 

AKI ('Aki), a wealthy goodman of Vermland, entertains Kings 
Harald of Norway and Eric of Sweden, the former in a new 
hall, with all furniture and table-gear new, the latter in an old 
hall, with all fittings old, wherefor he was slain by King 
Eric, i. io6i5-io8g 

AKI (son of Palnatoki, and lord in the island of Fion), 
married to Thorgunna (the daughter of Veseti) of Borgund- 
holm, i. 27029.30 

ALFARIN (Alfarinn), King of Elfhome, i. yogg 

ALF ('Alfr), son of K. Alrek, King of the Swedes together 
with his brother Yngvi, i. 36,-3728 

ALF ASHMAN ('A. askma^r), son of Ozur and brother to 
Gunnhild, the wife of Eric Bloodaxe, fought and fell in the 
battle of Fitiar, i. 18311.14 '^Ssi ^^^19 

ALF the Red, read Alf the Ruffian. 

ALF the Ruffian ('A hro^i, or roii), son of Ottar Brightling, 
sees his father slain, and forthwith kills the murderer, iii. 
3^919-26 — surprises Bergliot of Elda and his brother Ogmund, 
and slays them, 4161.9 — slain by Erling Askew, 46823.23 

ALF, son of K. Yngvar of Fiadrundaland, i. 55^ — approves 
himself of greater pith at sports than Ingiald Evil-heart, 
55i4-28 — burnt in a banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald, 

5^4-10 29*597 „,«.,, 

ALFHILD, see also Elfhild. 

ALF — all] Index I 3 

ALFHILD KingVbondmaid ('Alfhildr konungs ambátt), a 
serving maiden in King Olaf Haraldson's household, mother 
to King Magnus the Good, ii. 23514.37 — ^arrives at the court 
of her son Magnus in Norway, iii. 11 19.28 — ^jealousy between 
her and Queen Astrid, 1I28-122 — Sigvat advises her in song 
how to conduct herself, 1580-84 

ALFIVA (Ælfgifu), daughter of * Earl Alfrun ' [she was daugh- 
ter of Ælfhelm, not of Ælfmær as the D.N.B. has it, ealder- 
man of Northumbria, Wulfruna being the name of her mother, 
which seems to reappear in *Earl Alfrun*], concubine of 
Knut the Mighty, mother of Svein, son of King Knut, ii. 
449io — S^^^ ^o Norway with her son Svein, 4502 — views the 
body of Olaf Haraldson, but is reluctant to accept his holi- 
ness, 4563.27 — her influence on the government of Norway, 
and unpopularity with the people, 461 28-26 

ALFLING (Elfsi), nickname given to King Alf of Sweden, 

i- 3611 

ALFRUN [Snorri's or a scribe's mistake for Ælfhelm, an Earl 
in Northumbria], father of Alfiva, ii. 44911 

ALFWIN (Alfvini), a great fighter at holmgangs, a disappointed 
suitor for the hand of Gyda, i. 26426-2653 — overcome in a 
single combat by Gyda*s chosen favourite, Olaf Tryggvison, 

ALGAUT (Algauti), King of West-Gautland, spn of Gautrek 
the Bounteous, i. 56^.^ — married his daughter, Gauthild, to 
Ingiald Evil-heart, 567.12 — burned to death by his son-in-law 
at a feast at Upsala, 582.3 29'594 

ALI (Ali), a legendary hero, i. 1862« 2071^ ii. 40519 31 

ALI, the father of Thiostolf, iii. 31612 

ALI the Bold (A. hinn frækni), son of Fridleif, conquered the 
realm of the Swedes from K. Aun, and ruled it for five and 
twenty years; slain by Starkad the Old, i. 4223.29 

ALI the Un-Skauned (A. óskeyndr), father to Munan, iii. 41 9^3 

ALI the Uplander ('A hinn upplenzki), a Norwegian king; his 
war with King Adils of Sweden, and fall in the battle on the 
Vener Lake, i. 5013.13 

ALLOGIA, • queen * of King Valdimar of Holmgarth, befriends 
Olaf Tryggvison, L 23020-23121 (Allogia seems clearly to 
be the Latinized form of Olga, the Slavonic pronunciation of 
die Scandinavian Helga, and to be due to Odd Snorrison's 

4 Index I [alo — ^amu 

Latin life of Olaf Tryggvison, one of the early Icelandic 
translations of which Snorri has used for his Olaf s saga. 
Whether Vladimir (Valdimar), ruler in Novgorod, 970-977, 
and afterwards in Kiew, 980-1015, had among his many wives 
one named Olga is not known, but his grandmother's name 
was Olga, a very famous queen, ob. 969, who, during part of 
the reign of her son, Swjatoslav, 945-973, played a most im- 
portant part in the government of the State. If Olaf was bom 
in 963, he could in his tenth year (as Odd avers) have come 
to the court of Vladimir in Novgorod; but as to the queen 
the northern tradition may have made of a famous grand- 
mother a famous wife of Vladimir. 

ALOF ('Alof), daughter of Asbiom, and wife of Hersir Klypp, 
entertains King Sigurd Slaver, and is dishonoiu'ed by him 
against her will, i. 21522^ 80-82 

ALOF, Olof ('Alof, 'OloQi daughter of Bodvar the Hersir, son 
of Viking-Kari, and mother of Gizur the White, L 33458.29 ii- 

ALOF the Mighty ('A. hin rika), wife of Geirthiof, K. in Sax- 
land, but mother of Yrsa (q.v.) by Helgi, K. in Denmark, 

i- 49r509 
ALOF ('A), daughter of K. Olaf the Farsighted, wife of K. 
Algaut and mother to Gauthild, wife of Ingiald Evil-heart, 

i. 565 6527 
ALOF YEAR^S-HEAL ('A. árbót), daughter of Harald Hair- 
fair, and, apparently, Gyda, daughter of King Eric of Horda- 
land, i. 1 1 49 — married to Thorir the Silent, Earl of Mere, 

"5r 13725-26 

ALREK ('Alrekr), son of K. Agni, King of the Swedes together 
with his brother Eric, i. 351.30 

AMUNDI ('Amundi), son of Ami Ammodson, ii. 19818 

AMUNDI, son of Gyrd, the son of Amundi, and of Gyrid, the 
sister of Gregory Dayson, a boy of five years made prisoner 
of war at Vettland by Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 4202 

AMUNDI, son of Gyrd, the son of Law-Bersi, gives fostering 
to K. Ingi, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 347ie 21 — defeats Earl 
Karl Sonason at Crookshaw, 35028-35I1 — has to do with the 
torture of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 36420 366^^ — after his 
death the sons of Harald Gilli, Ingi and Sigurd, set up 
separate courts, 3779.16 

AMU — ^ARi] Index I 5 

AMUNDI of Sandwick in Rossey, Orkney, ii. 17127.29 18915 — 
his relations with Earl Einar Wrongmouth, 1721-17310 

AN the Shooter ('Ann skyti) of lamtland, a forecastle man on 
the Long-Worm, i. 3535 

ANÐRE(A)S (Andres), son of Bruni, a priest at Cross Church, 
Kings' Rock, married to Solveig; his character and family, 
iii. 3251.1Q — exhorts his people to bear themselves manfully 
in face of the Kings' Rock's wonders, 32510-3265 — his 
dealings with Rettibur, King of the Wends, and his nephew, 
Dunimiz, at the sack of Kings' Rock, 326-333 — saves the 
holy relics of Cross Church, 33224.26 333a.26 

ANDREAS, son of Guthorm Grayoeard, tortures an English 
priest, Richard, for an offence towards his sister, of which 
the priest was innocent, iii. 38114-3841^ 

ANDREAS, son of Simon son of Thorberg, fosterbrother of 
K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 37320^4 — ^a follower of King 
Hakon, 39911— dies at Cheaping-north, 41610.12 

ANDRES the Deaf (A. daufi), son of Sigurd of Eastort, iii. 

ANDREAS WELLSHIT (A kelduskitr), son of Grim, from 
Vist, flies away from King Ingi Haraldson, when revenging 
on Sigurd Slembi-Deacon the slaughter of his courtman, 
Bentein Kolbeinson, iii. 3550-35614 

ANI, see Aim. 

ARI, the son of Einar, iii. 36230 

ARI (Marson), of Reek-knolls, Iceland, iii. 35629 

ARI THORGEIRSON, an Icelander, the father of Gudmund, 
bp of Hólar in Iceland, 1 203-1 237, falls in the fight at 
Rydiokul, iii. 47622 

ARI THORGILSSON the Learned (A. hinn fró«i), 1068-1148, 
the first Icelander who wrote in the vernacular; the matter and 
manner of his writings, i. 5ie-7io — came seven years old (1075) 
to Hawkdale, 612 — abode there fourteen years (1075-89), 61^ — 
had for teacher Teit, the son of bp Isleif, 627.33— drew histoncal 
information from Odd, the son of Kol, 65 — Hall of Hawkdale, 
611.22 — ^^^ Thurid, daughter of Snorri the priest, 71.5 — was 
a truthful historian of eager wit and faithful memory, 7^10 — 
cited as an authority on the chronology of the reigns of Earl 
Hakon of Ladir and King Harald Graycloak, as well as on 
the relations between Hakon and the sons of Gunnhild during 

6 Index I [ari — ^arn 

the last six years of Graycloak's life, 23925.34 — ^likewise on the 
history of the reign of Olaf the Holy, ii. 36711.19 — and on the 
age of Olaf when he fell, 46O31-46 Cg 

ARINBIORN (Arinbjöm), son of Thorir, a hersir out of the 
Firths, fell with Harald Graycloak at Neck in Limbfirth in 
Denmark, i. 23720.37 2393. 

ARNBIORN AMBI (Ambjöm ambi), fights on the side of 
Magnus the Blind and Sigurd Slembi-Deacon in the battle of 
Holm-the-Gray; after their defeat he throws himself on the 
mercy of Jon Kauda, by whom he is ransomed from King 
Ingi, iii. 36124-36318 

ARNBIORN, son of Arm Ammodson, ii. 19819 — slain, through 
misadventure, by Griotgarth Olvir's son, 34481*3458 374i8 

ARNFINN of Sogn (Arnfinnr sygnski), stationed in the fore- 
hold on board the Long- Worm, i. 35313 

ARNFINN, son of Ammod, father to Kalf and^Olaf, the 
* kinsmen,' ix, first cousins, of Kalf, the son of Arm Ammod- 
son, ii. 43I28 cf. Flat. ii. 35614 

ARNFINN, Earl, son of Thorfinn Scull-cleaver, by Grelad, d. 
of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, marries Ragnhild, the daughter 
of Eric Bloodaxe, i. 1591616 24i26> where he is called Amvid, 
cf. ii. 1 6831-1 692 

ARNI ('Ami) (The sons oQ, ii. 19815.20 3619 4538-18 463^4 

ARNI, son of Ami Ammodson, ii. 19819 — refuses to aid his 
brother Thorberg in holding Stein Skaptison in King Olaf 
Haraldson's despite, 2834.25 — changes his mind and together 
with his other brothers aids Thorberg to come to terms with 
the King, 2844-28621 — swears oath of faith and fealty to the 
King, 28514.20 28611.18 — with King Olaf at Eidwood on his 
way to Holmgarth, 3694 — his son Joan's family relations, iii. 

'7] 0-14 

ARNI, the son of Ammod, married to Thora, d. of Thorstein 
Gallows, ii. (2427) — his children (2437), 19817.39 — ^his position, 
and friendly relations with K. Olaf Haraldson, 19821-1998 — 
all his sons in K. Olaf Haraldson's service, much esteemed, 
3331749 ^^f- 3^ ^9 — ^is son Kalf among K. Olafs enemies at 
Sticklestead, 431 25.29 — ^^^ Ami (The sons of). 

ARNI FICKLESKULL ('A. brig«arskalli), baUiff to King 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, slain by Erling Askew, iii. 43831 


Index I 

ARNI FORESHORE-SKEW ('A. fjöniskeifr), teUs falsely the 
Icel. poet Thorarin Curtfell that he is ordered by King Sigurd 
Jenisalem-farer to memorialize in a humorous verse HaJcon 
Suet-neck, which he does. How Ami had to pay for his fib, 
iii. 28625-2885 

ARNI, the son of Frirek, falls fighting for K. Ingi Haraldson 
before Oslo, iii. 4279 

ARNI of Stodreim, called King's, i.e. K. Ingi Haraldson's, 
stepfather ('A. á Sto^reimi, konungsmágr), married Queen 
Ingirid, K. Harald Gilli's widow, their children, iii. 3703^.2^ — 
fights on the side of K. Ingi in Biorgvin against K. Sigurd 
Mouth when the latter fell, 389^ — waives, on behalf of his sons 
with Queen Ingirid, all claims to the kingdom of Norway, 
4364.15 — ^joins K. Magnus and Erling Askew in their visit to 
K. Valdimar of Denmark, 43720 — urges the doom of Earl 
Sigurd Hallvardson of Reyr, 44922.4500 

ARNI STOUR (A. sturla), son of Sekbear, a supporter of 
King Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 368^.14 — undertakes, on 
behalf of K. Eystein, a disastrous mission to K. Ingi, 39314.23 

ARNKEL (Arnkell), son of Turf-Einar, Earl of Orkney, which 
he held as feof of Eric Bloodaxe, joins Eric Bloodaxe's 
expedition against Edmund, K. of England, and falls in battle 
in the south of England, i. i532o-i54i8 — ^^- "• '^^se-so 

ARNLIOT GELLINI (Amljótr Gellini), a Swede, brother to 
Vikar of Tenthland, i. 3532 — an outlaw in lamtland together 
with his brother-in-law and sister, ii. 29832-29914 — helps 
Thorod Snorrison to escape from his pursuers by a marvellous 
feat of snow-shoeing, 29917.32 — a legend of him and a cannibal 
ogress (troll-wife), 29933-30118 — his message to King Olaf 
Haraldson and present to him of a silver dish, 30127.33 302^.12 
4^526 — comes to K. Olaf at Sticklestead — personal de- 
scription — conversion to Christianity, 41 53-4 1615 — falls at 
Sticklestead, 428.2 

ARNMOD (AmmoiSr), ancestor of the family of the Arnmod- 
lings, ii. 19815 

ARNOR the Mereman (Amórr mœrski), stationed in the fore- 
hold on board the Long-Worm, i. 35315.1« 

ARNOR Earls' skald (A. jarlaskald), son of Thord, author of a 
drapa on Earl Thorfin of Caithness, Sutherland and Orkney, 
ii- 17017.22 ^^^16-20 ^34i8 — síi^gS' Ú1 his Magnus drapa, of K. 

8 Index I [arn — ^asa 

Magnus the Good's departure from Holmgarth to Aldeigia- 
burg, iii. 37.ig — ^also of his journey to Sweden, 319-44 — of his 
arrival in Helsingland, 617^ — tells of the flight of King Svein 
on his arrival at Thrandheim, 72.11 — ^^ ^^^g Magnus's 
intention to conquer Denmark, 2615-4 — ^^ ^'^g Magnus's 
stately sailing from Norway, 27^^,5 — t^ of the setting out of 
Magnus against the Wends, 3210.19 — and of his deeds of war 
at Jomsburg, 3234.33 — of the battle on Lyrshaw-heath, 3615.22 
—of the battle at Re, 3820-24 — ^^ battle at Holy-ness, 4611.19 
47ni6— of ^^ fighting at Falster, 498rSOð— at Fion, SO9.17— 
of Magnus's battles in Denmark, 511.8— of King Harald's 
war dœds in Fion, 1213.7— of the battle of Niz, 13623-1372 — 
of the battle of Stamford Bridge, 17623-1774— of the death 
of Harald Sigurdson, 1782.10 

ARNVID, King of South-Mere, fights, in alliance with Audbiorn, 
King of Firthfolk, against Harald Hairfair at Solskel, and is 
defeated and slain, i. 10 ii^- 102 19 

ARNVID, son of Thorfinn Slnillcleaver, Earl of Orkney, i. 24135 
— see Amfin. 

ARNWITH the Blind (Amvi«r blindi), a counsellor of King 
Olaf the Swede; his comments on his king's dealings with 
Olaf of Norway in the matter of the betrothal to him of his 
daughter Ingigerd, ii. 16O12.20 — ^^ eyesight and mental 
capacity, 16030.33 — condition and quali^, 16x4^ — his advice 
to King Olaf the Swede, when his subjects were on the point 
of revolting against him, 1 6220-1 634 — ^joins his brother Frey- 
with in frustrating a revolt against King Olaf by having his 
(Olafs) son James (Onund) elected king, 1631--16528 

ASA EVIL-HEART ('Asa hin iUrá«a), daughter to King 
Ingiald of Sweden, married to Gudrod, King of Scania 
(Sconen), whom she caused to be killed, i. 6230-631^ — ^where- 
upon she fled to her father, and with him burned herself to 
death and all the court, in a banqueting hall, 6322-6420 

ASA, daughter of Eystein the Terrible, King of the Uplands, 
married to King Halfdan Whiteleg, i. 6717^1 

ASA, daughter of Earl Hakon Griotgarth's son, married to King 
Harald Hairfair (his first wife), i. 9821.22 ii02ð 

ASA, daughter of King Harald Redlip of Agdir, second wife of 
Gudrod, the Hunter-king, who seized her, after having slain 
her father for refusing him her in marriage, i. 7 13.17-— causes 

ASA — ^asb] Index I 9 

her foot-page to slay her husband, 7121-7212 — retires, after the 
murder of her husband, with her son, Halfdan the Black, to 
Agdir, which kingdom she ruled after her father's death, 77^.12 

ASA the Light ('A. hin Ijósa), the mother of two base-bom sons 
(Finn and Sigurd) of Erling Askew, iii. 4747.g 

ASBIORN ('Asbjöm), stationed in the forehold on board the 
Long-Worm, i. 353^^ 

ASBIORN, one of Kmg Magnus the Blind's landed-men, cast 
into the Sarp waterfall by order of King Harald Gilli, iii. 31918 

ASBIORN, an earl of King Harald Hairfair's, slain in the 
second battle of Solskel, L 10229 

ASBIORN of Forland, of King Hakon Shoulderbroad's host in 
his last battle, iii. 441 14 

ASBIORN MARE ('A. jalda), of Hakon Shoulderbroad's follow- 
ing, *the greatest viking,' slain at Saur-Byes, iii. 41917.24 

ASBIORN of Middlehouse opposes King Hakon the Good's 
attempt at Frosta-Thmg to convert the people to Christianity, 
i. 16711-16810 17016 

ASBIORN, nicknamed Seal's-bane (Selsbani), ii. 23021 son 
of Sigiu'd of Thrandness, and of his wife, Sigrid, a sister 
to Erling Skialgson, 21418.22 — comes, eighteen years old, 
into his patrimony, when hard seasons and dearth set in 
in Halogaland, in spite of which, and in defiance of his 
mother's advice, he would keep up the great feasts of his 
father, 21 57.^0 — his case rendered still worse by King Olaf 
Haraldson's prohibition against exportation of com from 
southern Norway, where it was plentiful, 2 153^-2 161 cf. 21I4.8 
— his journey to the south in quest of com and ruinous 
dealings with Thorir Seal, 2161-22011 — his sorry plight on 
his return home, 22012.88 — ^^es revenge on Thorir Seal by 
slaying him standing before the King, 22x3-2234 — his rescue 
by the interference of his kinsmen, Skialg and Erling his 
father, 2237-22929 — accepts from the King the stewardship 
of the manor of Ogvaldsness, on condition of being allowed 
to arrange his affairs at home first, 2293^-2303 — his joumey 
to the north and breach of the covenant with the King, 2301Q- 
231,4 — slain on board his ship by the King's bailiff Asmund 
Giankelson, his body being brought north to Thrandness, 
23814-239,4— his mother's ^ging-on of Thorir Hound to 
avenge him, 239,4-2404 — Thorir Hound advised as to who 

[aSB — ASL 

was the slayer of Asbiorn, 240^^^ — slays King OlaFs partner 

Karl] In revenge, 265 ^^^—and completes his revenge at 

Sdcklestead, 4^0^ 43iair433ii 
ASBIORN SNARE (A snari), brother of Archbishop Absalon, 

sent by K. Valdimar of Denmark to Norway as hostage in 

return for Erling Askew, wha gave himself as hostage to K. 

Vaidimar on behalf of the King of Norway* iii- 472s3-473'' 
ASBIORN THORBERGSON of Vam ess, threatened by Ólaf 

Tryggvison with being sacrificed to the gods, t. 3197 
ASBIORN of Yriar, father of Alof, the wife of Klypp the Hersir, 

AS- FOLK (Æsír)j Odin's divine tribe, i. 131^ ^^ 14.^ yg j^ l,^ .^^ 16^^ 
^^ — called Lay-smiths, as being authors of poetr)% 1 7,^^— also 
called smiths of wizardry, iS^ — ^their ancient laws re-enacted 
on their coming to Sweden, sog^^s — represented in carven 
images at the Hippodrome in Micklegarth, iii. 26017 

ASGAUT ('Asgautr). an earl of King Harald Hairfair*s^ slain 
in the second battle of Solskel, i. loio^ 

ASGAUT BAILIFF (A ármaíSr), brother to Thorgaut Hare- 
lip and leader with him of a mission, from King Olaf the 
Swede, to Norway to gather the taxes K. Olaf the Swede 
laid claim to there, ii. ó^^y^-jOij^refxises to follow his bro therms 
advice to return to Sweden when the * bondere * would not 
comply with their commands, but takes the mission to King 
Olaf Haraldson's presence, effecting howe%'er nothing, yoj^- 
7212 — he parts from Thorgaut, and starts for Mere to push 
on the Swede's business, is pursued by King Olaf Haraldson's 
guests and hanged together with his followers, 7 2^^.^^ 

ASHILD ('Ashildr), daughter of Ring Dayson of Ringrick, ondH 
of Harald Hairfair's wives, i. 1141321 ^^ 

AS^HQST, see As^folk. 

ASK EL ('Askell), a forecastle man of King Eric Everminded, 
shot by Thiostolf Alison, iii. 352^5,30 

ASKEL, son of Olmod, the son of Horda-Kari, and father to 
Aslak Pate a- (Skull o') Fitiar, i, 5031^1 ii. 212^ 

ASLAK ('Aslákr) of Aurland, iii. 30930 

ASLAK COCK ('A hani), chides K* Sigurd Jerusalem -farer for 
breaking the law of the fast, and for his outspokenness is re- 
warded with three manors by the King, iii, 2 9 25^*2 94 j^ 

ASLAK ERLENDSON, commander on the side of K, Ingi, 

ASL — asm] Index I 1 1 

son of K. Harald Gilli, in his last fight with his brother, K. 
Sigurd Mouth, iii. 3893 

ASLAK, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and of Astrid, d. of 
Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 242« — married (not Gunnhild, which is 
Snorri's mistake, 3314.15 out) Sigrid, d. of Earl Svein, the son 
of Hakon the Mighty, 25533 iii. 10623.27 — two daughters of 
his became mothers respectively of Hakon Pungelta and 
Hakon Maw, iii. 3567.1Q — he receives at the hands of his 
father-in-law and his co-regent Earl Hakon Ericson the same 
grants that Olaf Tryggvison had conferred on his father Erling, 
IL 33i2-if*^0€S to K. ICnut in England and gets into great 
favour at court, 25525.32 — lives at Soli in the days of Harald 
Hardredy, iii. 10624 

ASLAK of Finn-isle ('A. afFinneyju), oath-sworn to King ICriut 
to take the life of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 39O10.15 — falls at the 
battle of Sticklestead, 4343 

ASLAK Pate a-Fitiar, Skull o' Fitiar ('A. Fitjaskalli), son 
of Askel, the son of Olmod, the son of Horda-Kari, i. 30331 
— a favourite of K. Olaf Haraldson, who enfiefed him in 
South-Hordland to counteract the great power of his cousin 
Erling Skialgson (Family relation : Horda-Kari — Ogmund — 
Thorolf Skialg— Erling: Horda-Kari— Olmod— Askel— As- 
lak), ii. 2 1 2^2-19 — ^^6^ ^n unavailing struggle he has to clear 
out of his bailiwick, and put himself under K.01afs protection, 
2i2ig^ 2138-11 iM»— kills Eriing Skialgson, 35^80—^ QM'% 
real or pretended anger at the deed, 35831.33 — Aslak's reply, 
35^84*3598 — Sigvat's song on the act, 35928-3ÖO14 — takes his 
ship into Borgimd, 36 2^.^ — is slain by Vigleik there, 362^^13 

ASLAK HAKONSON, joins K. Magnus the Blind on being 
set free from the monastery of Monk-holm, iii. 3493 

ASLAK HOLM-PILLPATE ('A. HóhnskalU), 'foster-son of 
Bui,* killed by an anvil in the battle of Hiorungbay, i. 280^.15 

ASLAK THE YOUNG ('A. ungi), son of Jon, sent on a dis- 
astrous mission by King Eystein Haraldson to his brother 
King Ingi, iii. 39314.33 

ASLAUG ('Aslaug), daughter of Sigurd Worm-in-Eye, wife of 
Helgi the Keen, and mother to King Sigurd Hart, i. %\^ 

ASMUND ('Asmundr) [son of Biorn], fosterson and nephew of 
K. Svein Wolfson (not the son of his sister, as Heimskringla has 
it, but of his brother Biorn, as Flat iii 370ig correctly states it) 

1 2 Index I [ ASM — AST 

an unprincipled filibuster, and great trouble to his fosterfather, 

iii. 117-1 iS^^^yielding to the people's complaints K, Svein 
charges his * warden of the land/ Earl HjUcon Ivarsonj to 
put Asmund down, r 18^^«— Hakon attacks Asmond and slays 
him, and brings the King his head, for which deed he is dis- ^ 
missed the King^s service, 11^13.31 

ASMUND, son of Grankel, ii. 191^3^ — K. Olaf Haraldson*s 
man and favourite^ 19^511 — ^appointed by K. Olaf to the 
one half of the bailiwick of Halogaland that Thorir Hound 
held already, ^Zl^^r, — visits his father, 23720,20 — ^^^ ^*^"' 
nection with the brothers Gonnstein and Karli of Longisle, 
^37a8' ^4^527 — ^y Karli*s aid he slays Asbiom Seal's-bane, 
3381^-239^^ — announces the fact to K, Olaf and is overheard 
by Asbiorn's friends, who bring the news to the latter's family, 
^4^14*37 — ^^s ^ quarrel with Harek of Thiotta over an out- 
lying island rich in fishing, seal-catch and eggs, and mis- 
handles the housecarles of Thorir for clearing it, 29^-393^^ 
— peace made by King Olaf between him and Thorir: the 
island being adjudged Asmund's property, and Thorir's house- 
carles left unatoned, ^ 932^^948 — revenging his father^ he 
slays Harek of Thiotta with an axe handed to him for the 
purpose by K. Magnus the Good, iii- i7*j|-t8|(j— is given 
domain and bailiwick in Halogaland by K. Magnus, iSig.,^ 

ASMUND, son of Sæmund Housewife, ruler at Kings' Rock, 
iii. 325.-10 the battle at Kings* Rock, 33013.50 33 'vs 

ASOLF ('AsóIfr) of Reinir, son of Skuli King's fosterer and 
Gudrun Nefstein*s daughter, married to Thora, the daughter 
of Skopti Ograundson, iii, i84|p ^ 

ASTA ('Asta), daughter of Gudbrand Kula, married to King 
Haraid the Grenlander, i. 284-^ ^^S%^ — on hearing of 
Harald*s death she went to stay with her father, where she 
gave birth to a son, Olaf the Holy, 2873.5^ — marries Sigurd 
Syr, King of Ringrealm, and with him and her son Olaf be- 
comes a Christian at the instance of Olaf Tryggvison, 311^-^7 
— brings up her son Olaf at her second husband's house, ii* 
3^*7 — ^*^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ vikmg cruise, 51^^ — her and 
Sigurd's children, 3520,3^ 2481^ — her festive reception of Olaf 
on his return to Norway, 34p-37g^^partakes in a family counsel, 
where Olaf discloses his plans to fight for the kingdom of 
Norway, zin^A^u — ^^ speech on that occasion, 411-1^ 


Index I 13 

widow a second time, 10937 — ^ak^s a great banquet for her 
son after his overthrow of five Upland kings, lOQ^g^ — she 
shows her children of second marriage to the King, i lOj-i i igg 

ASTRID ('AstrfiSr), daughter of Burislaf, King in Wendland, 
i. 2521^ — married to Earl Sigvaldi, captain of the Jomsburg 
vikings, 271^ 360^3.19 37528 — ^^^ a great friend of her brother- 
in-law OlafTryggvison (formerlya husband of her sister Geira), 
3^?i8-M — sent a war-galley to the battle of Svoldr, on board 
which some will have it that she took Olaf Tryggvison when 
defeated, 3752228 8r3765 

ASTRID, daughter of Eric Biodaskalli, married to K. Tryggvi 
Olafson, i. 223^g ii. 89^7 — fled from home after the murder 
of her husband, and gave birth to a son, Olaf, in a small 
island in an unnamed lake, i. 2233.11 itf-21 — betakes her, under 
cover of lengthening nights, to her father, where she is well 
cared for and her child, 22322-22413 — Queen Gunnhild makes 
inquiries about her and learns that she, with her son, is living 
with her father, 22^^^;^ 2253.1Q — Astrid eludes Gunnhild*s 
spies, and, by her father's counsel, gets away from Norway to 
Hakon the Old in Sweden, 22511-22720 — going across the sea 
to her brother Sigurd in Garthrealm she is captured by Wend- 
ish vikings and sold into slavery, 22826-2293 — she and her 
son separated, 2293^ 2301 — found by Lodin in a slave-market 
in Esthonia and taken by him to Norway, where he marries 
her, 30017-301^ — her children, 3013.^ 

ASTRID, daughter of Ogmund, the mother of Earl Karl Sona- 
son, iii. 3517^ 

ASTRID, natural daughter of King Olaf the Swede, by Edla, 
a daughter of a Wendish earl, ii. 1393.7 1601^.22 — brought up 
with Egill,a noble lord in West-Gautland, personal description 
and character, 13919.25 — visits Earl Rognvald at Skarar at 
the time that Sigvat arrives there to find out what is to become 
of the betrothal of Olaf of Norway to Princess Ingigerd of 
Sweden, 14834.26 — gives Sigvat and the Earl to understand 
that she is ready to marry Olaf of Norway without her father's 
consent, 1 4853-1494 — by Sigvat's counsel Olaf Haraldson 
decides on marrying her, 15034-1519 — married to K. Olaf 
Haraldson at Sarpsburg, 1 5 125-1 535 — an act for which all those 
responsible for it incurred her father's wrath, 15517.19 — ^^^ 
goodwill towards Biom the Steward, 33817.22 34^2 — accom- 

14 Index I [ast — atl 

panies the King on his flight from Norway to Sweden, 36831- 
3691 — left in Sweden while K. Olaf proceeds to Holmgarth, 
36928.80 — meets the King at Riveroyce returning from the 
east on his attempted reconquest of Norway, 2fi*i^YXK — she 
stays behind in Sweden, 39125-27 — interests herself much on 
behalf of her husband's son Magnus, iii. 45-585 — goes to live 
at the court of Magnus in Norway: rivalry between her and 
Alfhild his mother, 11,5-122 — Sigvat, on their squabbles, 

1 328*84 

ASTRID, daughter of King Svein Twibeard and Sigrid the 
Highminded, half-sister of King Knut the Mighty and K. 
Olaf the Swede, married to Earl Wolf, the son of Thorgils 
Sprakaleg, their son being Svein Ulfson, King of Denmark, 

»• 26728-26 i»- 298-10 7722-2« 

ASTRID, daughter of K. Tryggvi Olafson and Astrid, i. 301^— 
given in marriage by her brother Olaf Tryggvison to Erlmg 
Skialgson, 30625-3085 — her children, ii. 242^3, 

ATHELSTANE (A«alsteinn), Æthelstane, 'called the Victori- 
ous (hinn sigrsæli) or Faithful (hinn tnifasti),' King of England 
(925-940), i. 13827.80 — l^s attempted ruse to make Harald 
Hairfair his vassal, 13881- 13928 — is tricked, in return, by 
Harald into fostering his son Hakon, to whom he gives a 
Christian and a princely education, and a precious sword, 1 39,0- 
141 19 — fits Hakon out to claim the throne of Norway, 1495.1A 
^-on Eric Bloodaxe fleeing his country before Hakon and 
invading Northumberland Athelstane made peace with him, 
appointing him his vassal King of Northumberland, convert- 
ing him and his following to Christianity at the same time, 
1528.28 — died in his bed when he had been king for * fourteen 
years eight weeks and three days,' 15311.18 

ATLI [Hoskuldson, cf Sturl. ii. 2 7618-21 J, the father of Bard the 
Black of Selwaterdale, present at the battle on Lyrshaw-heath, 
apparently selected by K. Magnus to a surgeon's duty after 
the battle; his progeny talented leeches, iii. 3728-26 

ATLI THE SLENDER (A hinn mjóvi) [son of Earl Hund- 
olf, Landnama, 1900, p. 1142«]) ^^^^ of Gaular, appointed 
viceroy over the folk of Sogn by Halfdan the Black, i. 79,3- 
808 — resists Earl Hakon Griotgaxthson's attempt to oust him 
out of Sogn, and fights with him in Staffness-bay, where he 
received wounds of which he died in Atli's-isle, 104^21 

ATT — bar] Index I 15 

ATTI THE FOOL (A hinn doelski), a fictitious personage, 
of Vennland, his hunt, as told by lawman Emunc^ ii. 15617- 
i57g — the moral of it, ii. 1617-1622 

AUDBIORN (Au^bjöm), King of Firthfolk, enters, on Solfi 
Klofi's persuasion, into alliance with King Amvid of South- 
Mere against Harald Hairfair, and fights Harald at Solskel, 
where he fell, i. 10I17-10220 

AUD the Deeply-wealthy (AuiSr djúpauíSga, so the ed., but all 
the Heimskringla MSS., with the exception of one, A. M. 
38 fol., where avdgu is a scribal mistake, favour the reading 
djúpú^ga = the Deepminded), queen of Olaf the White, 
King of Dubhn, L i ló^o 

AUDE the Wealthy (Au«i hinn au^gi), K. Visbur's father-in- 
law, i. 285 

AUDUN (AuiSuim), personal name that Snorri, playing at 
etymology, derives from the name of Odin, i. 1924 

AUDUN, son of Hall, and father of Hall, the banner-bearer of 
Gregory Dayson, lii. 4oiig 

AUDUN the Red, with Erling Askew on his Jerusalem journey, 
distinguishes himself in a fight with pirates, iiL 372,8.22 

AUN, son of King Jorund, King of the Swedes, first for 25 
years, an outlaw in West Gautland for the same length of 
time, again King of the Swedes for 25 years, and again an 
outlaw in West Gautland for 25 years; once more he returned 
to his realm and ruled it for 25 years, and, in addition, ten 
years for each of his eight remaining sons, whom he sacrificed 
for that purpose to Odin, attaining altogether an age of 
200 years, but, by the statements of the story, ruling for 205 
years! i. 4129-446 

BALDER (Baldr), one of Odin's * Diar,' abode, on coming to 
Sweden, at Broadbeam, i. lo^g — in kennings, 17315 "^- ^^326 

BALDWIN (Baldvini), B. I., King of Jerusalem, 1100-1118, 
welcomes K. Sigurd at Jerusalem, and accompanies him to 
the Jordan, iii. 256^-2578 — makes a goodly banquet for King 
Sigwxl, and gives him many holy relics, and amongst them 
a splinter of the Holy Cross, 25712.27 — arrays his host for 
Sidon, which town he and Sigurd take, 25728.80 — Sigurd gives 
Baldwin the town, 2584 

BARD (BáríSr), a priest from the Westfirths in Iceland, so 
ignorant of &e ritual that he would consent to performing 

1 6 Index I [bar — ber 

a baptismal ceremony only on condition that Stein Skapti- 
son should help him, ii. 28013.,! 
BARD the Black (B. svarti) of Sel-waterdale, the son of Atli, 

BARD COCKTAIL (B. standhali or standali), son of Bryniolf, 
transfers his allegiance from K. Eystein Haraldson to his 
brother K. Ingi, iii. 39 23Q.32— charged with treason by Erling 
Askew, 4Ö91-24 

BARD, son of Guthorm of Reinir, and father to K. Ingi, Duke 
Skuli and Sigrid, iii. 1841, 3302«^ 

BARD, son of Jokul of Waterdale m Iceland, ii. 3731 

BARD STANDTAIL. See Bard Cocktail. 

BARD the White (B. hviti), a steward of Earl Hakon Eric- 
son's manor of Angrar, ii. 4819.20 

BARELEG (Berbeinn), one of the nicknames of King Magnus 
Barefoot, iii. 23321 

BAUGEID (BaugeiiS), daughter of Day, and sister of Gregory 
Dayson, abbess of Gimsey, iii. 42139^ 

BENEDICT, a follower of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 349^ 

BENTEIN (Benteinn), son of Kolbein, a courtman of King 
Ingi Haraldson, slain by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon and Magnus 
the Blind at Listi, iii. 35S11.31 — his brothers Sigurd and Gyrd 
execute fearful revenge for him, 36318-22 3664.3 

BERA, wife of K. Alf of Sweden, i. 3615-3723 

BERG (Bergr), a companion of Sigvat the poet in a trading 
trip to Rouen, ii. 31381-82 3148-6 

BERGLIOT (Bergljót), daughter of Hakon, Earl of Ladir, and 
Thora, the daughter of Skagi Skoptison, i. 2477 — wedded to 
Einar Thambarskelfir, 2477.3 ^^- ^224-27 i"* io6g^ — her dowry 
restored to Einar on his return from voluntary exile in 
Sweden, ii. 21127.23 — her revengeful grief after the slaying of 
her husband and son by K. Harald Sigurdson, iii. iio^^^ 
— she buries them in Olaf s Church, in Nidoyce, beside the 
tomb of K. Magnus the Good, i lOg^.gg — her appeal to Hakon 
Ivarson frustrated by K. Harald's diplomacy, 11 213-1 14. 

BERGLIOT, daughter of Halfdan, the son of Sigurd Sow, and 
sister to King Harald Sigurdson, married to Finn Arnison, 

m. Ill 


BERGLIOT (Bergljótr), son of Ivar of Elda, fights on the side 
of K. Ingi in the battle of the Elf against Hakon Shoulderbroad, 

BER — bia] Index I 17 

and on his way home to Thrandheim slays Nicolas Beard, 

Hakon's rentmaster in Biorgvin, 41521.25 — is slain by K. 

Hakon's orders by Alf Ruffian, 4161^ 
BERGLIOT (Bergljót), daughter of Earl Thorir the Silent 

and of Alof Year's-heal, married to Earl Sigurd of Ladir, i. 

^3724-26 — gi^^ birth, on the first night of Yule, to Hakon, 

afterwards the Mighty, Earl of Ladir, 1615.11 
BERGTHOR BESTILL (Bergfórr bestill), stationed in the 

forehold on board the Long- Worm, i. 35317 
BERGTHOR BUCK (B. bukkr), iii. 42429 
BERGTHOR of Lund (Groves, Map), father to Gudrun one 

of Earl Hakon's minions, i. 2923 
BERGTHOR, the son of Mar (B. Másson), iii. 36229.30 
BERGTHOR, son of Svein Bridgefoot, an accusing witness 

against Sigurd Hranison in his contest at law with King 

Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 27521.04 
BERSI, the son of Skald-Torfa ^ersi Skaldtorfuson), Icel. 

poet, fought in the forehold of Earl Svein*s ship in the battle 

of Nesiar, ii. 6032.88 — Interchange of greetings between 

him and King Olaf Haraldson, 6033*6 i^g — his song when he 

came into King Olaf s power and abode in fetters on board 

of a war-galley, 61 5.31 — served as court-poet to K. Knut the 

Mighty, 2543.20 
BERSI the Strong (B. hinn sterki), a fore-castle man on the 

Long-Worm, i. 353^ 
BIADAK (Bja^k), mother of Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, 

accompanies him from Scotland to Norway, iii. 36820 21 
BIADMYNIA, daughter of Myrkiartan, an Irish king, taken 

to wife by Sigurd, the son of Magnus Barefoot, iii. 

BIARMS (Bjarmar), the Perms, inhabitants of the country 
round the White Sea, i. 21 5^4 ii. 26123 26239 ^^Ss 10 — ^^^^^ 
customs relating to inheritance, 26023.29 

BIARNI the Evil (Bjarni hinn ilU), he and others rob and 
slay the friends of Erling Askew, iii. 4595.11 — hanged by order 
of Erling, 4602^.30 — ^Thorbiorn Skald- Askew's commemorative 
verse on the deed, 461^.3 

BIARNI GOLDBROW»S-SKALD (B. GuUbrár-skáld), Icel. 
poet — his laudatory verses on Kalf, the son of Ami, ii. 3611^ 

37S«i40 3761*^ 4331726 i"- ^^u-ao ^la-is 
VI. c 

1 8 Index I [bia — bio 

BIARNI SIGURDSON (B. SigurtSarson), father of the priest 
Jon Tapard, iii. S^Sss-w 

BIORGVIN (The men of) (Björgynjarmenn), iii. 35915 44134 

BIORN the Buck (Björn bukkr), son of Nicolas and Asa me 
sister of Erling Askew, Fsk. 145«^ married to Margaret, 
daughter of Ami of Stodreim by Queen Ingirid, iii. Zl^f& 
4^726-27 — ^^^ ^g^^ ^^^ Haldor Brynjolfson on the bridges at 
Biorgvin, 41629-41823 

BIORN CHAPMAN (B. kaupma«r) or Biom the Sea-fiirer 
(B. farma^r), son of Harald Hairfair and Swanhild, daughter 
of King Eystein of Heathmark, i. 11 4^7 — raised to kingship 
over Westfold by his father, 13I18 13417.18 — resided at Tuns- 
berg, was peaceful, and encouraged trade, 1 3419.30 — redded 
well and meetly (wife not named), had a son Gudrod, i348o-8i 
— had a dispute with his brother Eric for refusing to pay to 
him the dues owing to their father, and was slain by Eric, 13S1.10 
— buried in Sea-farer's Mound at Seaham, 13524 

BIORN CRIPPLEHAND (B. krepphendi), Icel. poet, author 
of a drapa on Magnus Barefoot, in which he sings of his 
warfare and great deeds of valour in Halland, iii. 20810^7^— of 
the hanging of Steig-Thorir, 2134.18— of the punishments of 
the Thrandheim folk, 21320-28 — 0» K. Magnus' harrying in 
the South-isles and Ireland, 22127-22329 — of Magnus' war- 
fare in Bretland and of the death of Hugh the Valiant, 


BIORN EGILSON, a follower of Magnus the Blind, iii. 3497— 
falls at the battle of Mouth, 34921-3501 

BIORN, son of Eric Eymundson, King of Sweden after his 
father for fifty years, i. 124^^ — contemporary of Lawman 
Thorgnyr's father, ii. 12031-12X2 — a powerful ruler and mild 
to his people, 1212^ 

BIORN POISON-SORE (B. eitrkveisa), refuses to harbour 
overnight Astrid with her infant son, Olaf Tryggvison, but 
entertains Hakon her pursuer, i. 22530.32 2 2613 1^ 3^ 

BIORN'S BROTHER = King Hakon the Good, brother of 
Biom Chapman, q. v., i. 18911 

BIORN the Steward (B. árma^r), a Gautlander, distant relative 
and friend of Queen Astrid, who presented him with steward- 
ship in the Upper Heathmark, ii. 33815.22 — not liked of King 
Olaf, 33822-24 — found out to be guUty of thefts with which he 


Index I 19 

charged others, 33824-34033 — dismissed the King's service 
and exiled, 340sr34i2 
BIORN of Studla, stationed in the forehold of the Long-Worm, 

i- 353i2 
BIORN THE THICK (B. digri), Marshal at the Court of 
King Olaf Haraldson, occupied the high seat (öndvegi) 
opposite to the King's in his hall, ii. 673^.24 — the spokesman 
of his King, 7612-15 785^ 8831.33 — enters mto friendship with 
Hialti Sk^gison, ^Svyih — pleads on behalf of the people with 
King Olaf to take measures to bring about peace with Sweden, 
853-8618 — is sent by King Olaf on a mission to Sweden for 
the purpose, 861^27 ^^^24 — engages Hialti Skeggison to go 
with him, 8631-8715 — as well as Sigvat Thordson, 9223-9415 — 
receives the King's instructions and parting gift, and a ring 
for present and tokens to Earl Rognvald of West Gautland, 
8719-8815 — his journey to Skarar described by Sigvat, 9223- 
94i5 — well received at Earl Rognvald's court, 8837.33 891Q — he 
lays his plans before the Earl, who, through the urging of his 
wife, promises in the end to back him, 891Q-915 — tarries very 
long with the Earl, and getting weary of waiting takes counsel 
with the Lady Ingibiorg, 91 3.5 ^ig — accepts the proposal of 
Hialti who volunteers to go by himself to Sweden to find out 
the disposition of the Swede king towards Norway, 91 14.28 
— learns from Earl Rognvald that the mission from Norway 
was not likely to speed, yet urges the Earl to stand by his 
promise to go and meet the Swede king, 11415.21 — he goes in 
Earl Rognvald's company to Sweden, visits Upsala, UUeracre, 
is the guest of Lawman Thorgnyr and takes counsel with him, 
accompanies him to the Thing of Upsala and delivers the 
message he was the bearer of, 11 421-1 1913 — *^^er the Thing 
he returns back to Gautland with Earl Rognvald and proceeds 
to Norway, telling King Olaf the result of his mission, 12223.31 
— his speech at Olaf s court council on the relations of the 
realm of Norway to Sweden in general and West Gautland 
in particular, 14225-14315 — leaves K. Olaf as he flees from 
Norway, and goes home, 3695.3 — accepting a bribe pressed 
upon him he swears fealty to King Knut and Earl Hakon, 
377^-37921 — hears of the death of Hakon and repents him 
of his broken faith to Olaf, 3 7 924.81— journeys to Olaf, confesses 
his treachery and swears him fealty to death, 3801.24 — Olaf 

20 Index I [bir — bor 

makes peace with him, 38025.^1 — fights and falls at the battle 
of Sticklestead, 4322ö-433i— Sigvat's song on him, 43327» 

BIRCHISLE MEN(Bjarkeyingar), the family of Birchisle whose 
chief representative was Thorir Hound, ii. 2651^^ 

BIRCHLEGS (Birkibeinar), the name given by the Norwegians 
to the followers of Eystein, son of K. Eystein Haraldson, who, 
to protect themselves against the cold, wrapped their legs in 
birch-bark, iii. 47915 24 26 48012 19 4821 26 4831 4 7 10 u 484$ ii 19 

485$ 10 28 4864 18 

BIRGIR, a bailiff of K. Harald Gormson of Denmark, libelled 
by the Icelanders for inhuman treatment of a shipwrecked 
Icelandic crew in Denmark, i. 2683.19 

BIRGIR BROSA [s. of Bengt, the son of Folke], a Swedish 
Earl, ob. 1202, the fourth husband of Brigida, daughter of 
King Harald Gilli, iii. 37831-3798 — ^his children by her,'3794^ 
— ^abets the pretender to the Norwegian kingdom, Eystein, 
son of King Eystein Haraldson, 47820-4793 

BLOOD-AXE (Bló«öx), i. 18125 ii. \(i%—see Eric Blood-axe. 

BLOT SVEIN, King of Sweden, an upholder of blood-offerings, 
iii. 2852 

BLUEMEN (Blámenn), Moors, iii. 2541 2821^ 

BODVAR THE HERSIR (Bö«varr hersir), son of Viking-Kari 
and father of Alof, the mother of Gizur the White, i. 334^9^ 

ii. 893.9 

BOLLI, son of Thorleik [the son of Hoskuld, the son of Dale- 
Koll, see Laxdælasaga], christened in Norway at the command 
of King Olaf Tryggvison, i. 33717-22 

BOLVERK (Bölverkr), son of Arnor, Icelandic poet, tells of 
Harald the Hardredy's meeting with King Jarisleif, iii. 581^^ 
— and of his arrival at Micklegarth, 5914.21 — °^ ^^^ precious 
gifts given by Harald to King Magnus, 875.14 — ^^ Harald's 
war on Denmark the next year after the death of King Mag- 
nus, 953.10 

BORGHILD (Borghildr), daughter of Day Eilifson, married to 
Kari King's-brother; her sons Sigurd of Eastort and Day, iii. 

BORGHILD, daughter of Olaf o' Dale, a very fair woman, wise 
and full of lore and admired of K. Eystein Magnusson, 
iii. 277i8.27 — hearing that men speak evil of her and King 
Eystein she clears herself by a successful ordeal at Burg, 

BOR — BRu] Index I 2 1 

^7^14-10 — ^"^g Sigurd Jenisalem-farer takes her as his con- 
cubine, 27820.24 — their son Magnus the Blind, 27835 

BORK (Börkr) of the Firths, stationed in the forehold on board 
the Long- Worm, i. 35313 

BOTOLF (Bótólfr) of Olvirshowe, one of eight lords of 
Thrandheim combined to force Hakon the Good to join in 
the customs of heathen feasts, i. 1 70^3 

BOVI (Bófi), fosterfather of Gauthild, queen of K. Ingiald, 
gave fostering to her son, Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 631.5 

BRAGI, Odin's son, one of the gods, i. lóój 192,2 28 

BRAND the Bountiful (Brandr hinn örvi) [son of Vermund the 
Slender], i. 335i4-i6 

BRAND, son of Sæmund, Bishop of Hólar in Iceland, 1162- 
1201, his consecration, iii. 461 20.21 

BRAND [son of Thorgrim the priest], father of Thorieik, 

i- 33Si6 
BRETLANDERS (Bretar), Welshmen, iii. 224,0 
BRIGIDA, daughter of King Harald Gilli, given in marriage to 

Ingi, son of Hallstein the Swede King— afterwards to Earl 

Karl Sonason — then to Magnus the Swede King — finally to 

Earl Birgir-Brosa, iii. 37831-3799 
BRIGIDA, daughter of Wolf Uspakson and Jorun daughter of 

Thorberg, her son Sheep-Wolf, iii. io4u 
BRIMILSKIAR, a missionary earl sent by Harald Gormson 

to Norway, i. 30125.30 
BRISTLE (Bursti), a thrall in the household of Hakon the Old, 

in Sweden, insults the legate of Queen Gunnhild sent to secure 

the person of the infant Olaf Tryggvison, i. 22820.22 
BRODD-HELGI [son of ThorgilsJ, a chief in Weaponfirth in 

eastern Iceland, 1. 26922.23 
BRUNI, the father of Priest Andres, iii. 3252 
BRUSI (Brúsi) (add after the name : at the place called Mere, 

^- S^Saa)* Ws differences with K. Olaf Haraldson on the 

practicability of passing across Skerf-scree up from Walldale 

to Lesiar in Gudbrandsdale, ii. 36335-36614 
BRUSI, son of Sigurd the Thick, Eari of Orkney together 

with his brothers Summerlid and Einar Wrongmouth, ii. 

*^9«o 8i"^7°i 8-6 — personal character, 17025.27 29-80 — refuses to 

dispute his half-brother Thorfin's title to the third part of 

Orkney, which the latter claimed after the death of Summer- 

22 Index I [bru — ^bud 

lid, 171M0 — * ^se and well-beloved ruler, 17122^ — makes 
peace between his brothers, Einar and Thorfín, whereby 
Thorfin obtained the third part of Orkney he claimed, 173 
3^-1 7 4^ — leaves his dominion to the rule of Einar on con- 
dition that the longest-lived should inherit the other, i74«.ii 
— makes again peace between his brothers, bound by oatns, 
17622-25 — possesses himself of two-thirds of the Orkneys, 
according to covenant, on the death of his brother Einar, 
17828-27 — refuses his brother Thorfin's proposal to share by 
hailves with him the dominion in Orkney, 178J8-17915 — 
seeks protection of King Olaf Haraldson in Norway, which 
he obtains on condition of holding his lands in feof of the 
king, and being his liegeman, 17919-181^ 19913 — ^his and his 
brother Thorfin's further dealing with Kmg Ofitf, 1815-183 — 
their case, including weregild for their brother Einar, pub- 
licly settled by the king, 1844.31 — ^" parting. King Olaf con- 
fers on him two-thirds of the earldom of Orkney, and retains 
his son Rognvald as hostage, 18611-187^7 — his joint rule 
with Thorfin of the Islands, and death ' a httle alter the fall 
of K. Olaf the Holy,' 18720-1883^ 

BRUSI, son of Thormod, a fore-castle man of Sigurd Slembi, 
falls in the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. Z^^yí^ 

BRYNIOLF (Brynjólfr), one whose wife had been a victim of 
Earl Hakon's immorality, i. 29230-2933 

BRYNIOLF CAMEL, Elephant, iu. 1867.3 (B. úlfaldi),of Ran- 
realm; his speech in favour of the provinces claimed by King 
Olaf Haraldson owing allegiance rather to Norway than 
Sweden, ii. 7615-7 7^ — his statement in respect of the old 
boundaries between Norway and Sweden, 761^.33 — becomes 
a favourite with the King, 775.8— receives for a Yule-gift from 
him a gold-wrought sword and the manor of Vettland, 79j8-8oi 
— King Olaf confers on him the title of landed-man, and he 
becomes a great friend of the King, 805.7 

BRYNIOLF CAMEL, the younger, father to Skialdvor, iii. 

^7225-2« 48^19-18 
BUDLI (Bu«li), father of K. Atli and Brynhild, who was mar- 

ried to Gunnar, the son of Giuki. Atli, * son of Budli,' invited 

to him Gunnar and his brother Hogni, both of whom he 

treacherously slew. Hence 'sons-in-law' in the lines here 

cited should read * brothers-in-law.' The lines form a refrain 

BUD — cal] Index I 23 

in Illugi's lay of the kind called ' ancient memories ' (forn 
mimii), iii. 6320.21 

BUÐLI, a l^endary sea-king, iii. 98^^ 

BUI the Thick (Bui digri), son of Veseti of Borgundholm, a 
lord among the Jomsburg-vikings, i. 27037.28 27127.28 — his vow 
at his father's and Harald Gormson's grave-ale, 27228.30 — 
raids the island of Hod and brings to the Jomsburg fleet 
neirs of Earl Hakon's whereabouts, 2761^19 — his fight in the 
battle of the Jomsvikings, 27712.10 '^l^wn 2808.31 — ^jumps 
overboard with his chests of gold, 28024.31 

BULGARS (Bolgarar), Bulgarians, iii. 5713 

BURIZ, son of Henry the Halt and Queen Ingirid, d. of Rogn- 
vald, 'brother of long Ingi,' iiL 43720-27 

BURISLAF (Burizleifr), King in Wendland, father to Geira, 
who married Olaf Tryggvison, i. 2520.10 — ^joins Emperor 
Otho's expedition against Denmark, 25514 — returns to Wend- 
land, 26011 — causes his captain Sigvaldi to kidnap Svein 
Twibeard of Denmark, who is forced to accept the Wend- 
king's daughter Gunnhild in marriage, and to promise Buris- 
laf his sister Thyri for wife, and to release Burislaf from pay- 
ing any tribute to Denmark, 27031-27114 cf. 34824.20 — Thyri 
refusing the arrangement, Burislaf sends Sigvaldi for her, 
marries her against her will, with the result that she runs 
away from him after a few days, 3498-3505 — negotiations 
between him and Olaf Tryggvison in respect of Thyri's pos- 
sessions in Wendland, 35815.21 (This Burislav must be meant 
for Mieczyslaw, Duke of Poland, 964-992, bom 931; Neither 
Dlugoss nor Kadlubek, the Polish chroniclers, nor Ditmar 
of Merseburg know the names of his daughters. The story 
of his marriage with Thyri is chronologically impossible 
as the tale is told by Snorri, as ' Burislav ' had been dead 
for four years when Olaf came to Norway. Mieczyslaw 
was succeeded by his son Boleslaw I., King of Poland, 
992-1025, who indeed married Thyri.) 

BURNING-FLOSI (Brennu-Flosi), son of Thord Prey's priest, 
his name being derived from his having burnt in his house 
Nial, the hero of Nial's saga, i. 33422 

CALF, see also Kalf. 

CALF CRINGLE-EYE (Kálfr kringluauga), slain by Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3585.^ 

24 Index I [cal — cou 

CALF THE WRONG (K. hinn rangi), father to Jon Cake 

and Ivar Gaudhank, iii. asSj^j.^^ l^Hv^ 
CECILIA, daughter of a mighty man, married to King Sigurd 

Jerusalem-farer, whilst Queen Malmfrid was still alive, iiL 

CECILIA, daughter of Gyrd Bardson, and wife of Jon Kauda, 

iii- 3633 

CHRIST (Kristr), 'the son of Mary,' i. 16638.2^— by northern 
heathens also called White Christ (Hvitaknstr), probably 
because those baptized into His service wore white clothes, 
albœy on first taking that service, and frequently fought 
behind a white shield with the Holy Cross marked upon it — 
cup drunk to Christ at commemoration feasts, 27215.1« cf. 
cup— Christ, refused belief in by Eyvind Rentcheek, 328i,.i5 — 
blasphemed by Raud the Strong, zz2^jify — things told about 
Him found past belief by K. Rœrek, ii. 131 10-21 — Gowk- 
Thorir refuses to exchange belief in his 'own might and 
main' for that of Christ, 3954.13 but later sees not *why it 
should be worse to trow in him than in any other god,' 
39920-22 — Arnliot Gellini takes Olaf Haraldson's word for it 
that Christ is such as Olaf describes him, 4163.11 — Christ 
and K. Olaf's holiness, 45823.29 459i2 — Magnus the Good 
owes to Christ and his stepmother the recovery of his 
father's patrimony, iii. 525.27 — Sigvat's imprecation to Christ 
on being charged with desertion from K. Olaf, 1331.34 — Christ's 
men (kristsmenn), K. Olaf s watchword to his army at Stickle- 
stead, ii. 40032 

CLEMENT, son of Ari, an Icelander, slain in the battle at 
Holm-the-Gray, iii. 3623^ 

CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS, King of the Greeks, i,t. 
Emperor of the East, 1 042-1054, imprisons Harald the Hard- 
redy, iii. 7310.12— escape of Harald to the Værings, who are 
enraged with the King, and lay hold on him and put out his 
eyes, ii. 7381-7419 

(Here Snorri ascribes to Constantine the fate that befell his 
predecessor, Michael V., Kalaphates, whom Zoe, as her 
adopted son, raised to the purple in 1041, and who was 
deposed again in 1042, and blinded in a popular rising, 
April 2 1 St.) 

COURLANDERS, iii. 301^, iiój^ 

DAL — day] Index I 25 

DALE-DWELLERS, Dale-folk (Dales, ii. 2032« should read, 
Dale-folk) (Doelir), inhabitants of the Eastern-Dales, Norway, 

ii- 20I5 339i8 iii- 25811 

DAN THE PROUD (Danr hinn mikilláti), King of the Danes, 
the first king in Denmark buried with precious things and 
wealth, L 425.27 — Denmark named after him, 3i24-25"423 

DANES, Danefolk, Danehost, Danemen, Dane-people (Danir, 

etc), i. 428 422 4S22 24 479 4S4 8 19 5I8O 53l2 18 8311 "<^80 ^5219 29 
156» I57l7 1583 14.57419 1788 1^228 2363 24I14 2683 27I18 
347«« 88 3^78 5 12— >i- "26 ^221 28 ^311 18 17 ^^28 29 ^^1 284 ^4 

4?ö 7528 "79 i57i« 80 1^727 31318 31628 80 3201 330512 44925— 
lu. 2820 22 3018 384 399 4724 4988 7821 79io 9212 94i 958 21 

974 11 9^17 IOO7 15 25 lOhö I2O28 1278 22 I2822 I31s4 ^323 17 
*349 22 ^367 8 11 18 24 ^37l8 25 '4420 '4^80 '4724 29 '^'iS 

1^718 10 19890 i99i 2684 28510 3382 3527 36127 3623 46381 

46519 21 47O5 47I9 14 1« 19 473l0 47728 

DANP, son of Rig, who was the first who in the tongue of the 
Danes was titled King, i. 31 14.15 

DAVID, King of Scotland, D. I. (i 1 24-1153), entertains Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon and holds him of great account, iii. 337i8^o 

DAY (Dagr), King of Westmere, i. 70^ 

DAY EILIFSON, a landed-man of the Wick in K. Magnus 
Barefoot's service, iii. 21422 — joins King Magnus Barefoot 
in his expedition to Ireland, 23823.29 — one of the last to flee 
after the King's death, 2421^.22 — referred to as a great swimmer, 
30O1.2 — his children : Borghild, 33622.23 Gregory, Water-Worm, 
3526 Sigrid, 41932-4201 Gyrid, 4203^ Baugeid, 42x29 

DAY, son of Harald Hairfair and Ashild, the daughter of Ring 
Dayson, L 11418-20 — proclaimed king by his father, 13119 

DAY, son of Kari Kingsbrother, and Borghild, the daughter of 
Day Eilifson, iii. 33624 

DAY, son of Red, ii. 33910 — Biorn the Steward's speech against 
him, 33916-18 — summoned to King Olaf, who frees him of the 
charges brought against him by Biorn, 33925.23 — knows how 
to read a person's character and to bring home crime, as in the 
case of Biorn Steward, 34014.34 — joins the King's company, 
340J1 — at a feast given by Thorir Olivirson Day instructs the 
King how to find out that Thorir was a traitor, proof of 
whidi the King discovers, and has Thorir slain, 3425-34324 

DAY, son of King Ring whom K. Olaf Haraldson drove away 


Index I 

[day — DUN 


from his kingdom in the Uplands, ii, loSj^-ai-^otBiciled with 
his father in Sweden, 392,^^..^,, — King Olaf sends him word 
to join him and promises him dominion in Norway if success " 
ful — he goes to meet Olaf with twelve hundred men, 352 
393i.j— his character, 393340 — appointed by Olaf to be 01 
the right hand of his banner, 400132^, — sets up his banner 
the batde of Sticklestead, 43 iij^^— Day's brunt, 434111 — he 
is himself set upon and, being overborne by sheer might, 
turns to flight back to Sweden, 434i4 1« Mlwt\ 443« 
DAY THE WISE {D. hinn spaki), or the Mighty (hinn nki), 
son of K. Dyggvi, succeeded him in the rule of the Swedes, 
i. 3ii>7.2!i — so wise that he *knew the speech of fowl/ died 
by mischance on an expedition in revenge for a pet spaixow, 
3 %^-322i— father of Daybright and ancestor of the Daylings, 

DAYBRIGHT (Dagei^), d. of K. Day the Wise, wife of K. 
Alrek of Sweden, and mother to King Alf, i* 3612-11 

DAYLINGS (Doglingar), descendants of K. Day the Wise of 
Sweden, i. 36iý.j^ 

DIXIN, the chief counsellor of Geira, brings about a friendly 
meeting between Olaf Tryggvison and her, resuldng in their 
marriage, i. ^S'^y^^^ 

DOMALD (Dómaldi), son of Vtsbur by his first (unnamed) 
wife, 'and his stepmother let sing unluck at him,'i, iS]on^ — 
succeeded his father in the rule of the Swedes, who, holding 
him guilty of the prevailing scarcity, slew him in the third 
year of his retgn, 29^.^,3 

DOMAR ^Dómarr), son of Domald, had for wife Drott, the 
daughter of K. Danp, i. 311315 — succeeded his father in the 
rule of the Swedes, reigned in peace and plenty, and died in 
his bed at Upsala, and was burnt in the meads of Fyri, 30^.345 

DOTTA, d. of Thorkel Gusher, punished by K. Harald Sigurd- 
son for making fun of his naval power, iii. 9513-9Ö3 

DRIFT (Drifa), daughter of Snow the Old, K. of Finland, wife 
of Vanland, K. of the Swedes, i, 262^-17,^ 

DROTT (Drott), d of Danp the son of Rig, wife of Domar and 
mother to Dyggvi, K* of the Swedes, i, 3113 — she was sister 
of K, Dan the Proud, 31^4.5^, 

DUNGAD, Earl of Caithness, married to Groa^ d. of Thorstein^ 
the Red, their daughter Grelad, ii» 1 691.1 

DUN — EDw] Index I ttj 

DUNIMIZ, sister's son of Rettibur the Wend King, in company 
with whom he makes a descent on Kings' Rock, iii. 32630 — 
rows with some of his uncle's host round Hising, and so 
comes down upon the town, 3271.3 — priest Andres gives him 
a finger-ring, 332^0 

DURNIR, a dwarf, i. 26^4 

DYGGVI, son of Domar and his successor in the rule of the 
Swedes, i. 30^^32 — was the first of the rulers of the Swedes 
who bore the title of King (cf. Drottnar), which descended 
to him from his maternal great-grandfather Rig, i. 31 13.15 

EADRIC STREONA (Heinrekr Strjóna), kills King Edmund 
Ironside at Oxford, a. d. 10 16, ii. 2717.13 

EAST-COUNTRIES (Men of the) ( Austrvegsmenn), inhabitants 
of the eastern and southern littoral of the Baltic, i. 5312 iii. 3017 

EASTFIRTHER (austfirzkr), of a person hailing from the 
quarter of the Eastfirths in Iceland, ii. 17717 

EASTMEN (Norwegians), iii. loiig 3393 g 9 

EAST-WAYS (folk of the) = East-countries (Men of the). 

EAST- WENDS, j« Wends. 

EDGAR (Eatgehr), son of Ethelred II. and Qu. Ælfilæd, ii. 11^ 

EDLA, daughter of an earl in Wendland, King Olaf the Swede's 
'bond-maiden' and concubine, mother of Edmund, Astrid 
and Holmfrid, ii. 1393.3 

EDMUND (Saint), King of East Anglia, 855-870, ii. 1239.31 

EDMUND (Játmundr), brother to K. Athelstan, King of Eng- 
land, 940-946, an enemy of Northmen, his dealings with Eric 
Bloodaxe, i. 15 313-1 5417 

EDMUND (Eadmundr) IRONSIDE, son of Ethelred II. and 
Queen Ælfiiæd, ii. 2X20.29 — succeeds his father 'jointly with 
his brother Edward the Confessor,' Snorri's mistake, ii. 1830.22 
— makes peace with King Knut on the terms of ruling over 
one half of England, 271^.1^ — slain by Eadric Streona (at Ox- 
ford, A.D. 10 16), 27i7.ig 

EDWARD THE GOOD (Játvar«r hinn gó«i), ue. E. the Con- 
fessor, K. of England, 104 2- 1066, son of Ethelred II. and 
Queen Emma, succeeds * jointly with his brother Edmund 
Ironside to the kingdom' of their father, ii. 1821.22 2 1 29 iii- 
^5m '55ni6 — married Gyda, daughter of Earl Godwin by 
his wife Gyda, daughter of Thorgils Sprakalegg, iL 32619.14 iiL 

28 Index I [edw — egi 

• ^55i8-i9 — ^^^s attitude towards Magnus the Good when claim- 
ing, on treaty grounds, Hordaknut's share in the kingdom 
of England, iii. 5i28-53io ^^^1-4 ^ — ^William Bastard founds 
his claim to England on his relationship to Edward, iBo^.j^ 

EDWY (Eatvigr), son of Ethehred 11. and Qu. Ælfflæd, il 213^ 

EGIL (Egill), a noble of West Gautland, fosterfather to Astri^ 
the daughter of K. Olaf of Sweden, ii. 13919,21 

EGIL, son of Aslak of Aurland, a landed-man, married to Ingi- 
biorg, daughter of Ogmund Thorbergson, and sister to Skopti 
of Gizki, joins Steig-Thorir and Svein Haraldson in rebellion 
in the Uplands in Norway against K. Magnus Barefoot, iiL 
20920 27 — ^^^ band, after marauding through Raumsdale 
and South-Mere (2103.5), ^^^^ ^^^ Thrandheim, where they 
had a successful engagement with Sigurd Woolstring (2 lo^^), 
but K. Magnus taking up the pursuit they fled to Halogaland, 
where Thorir and Egill were overtaken at Hesiatown and 
hanged, 21021-21313 

EGIL, the Foe of Tunni (E. Tunnadólgr), son of Aun, K. 
of the Swedes; his contests with the thrall Tunni, alliance 
with K. Frodi the Bold of Denmark, and death by being 
gored by a wild bull, i. 449-46 

EGIL, son of Hall o* Side, goes, in obedience to a message 
from King Olaf Haraldson by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to Nor- 
way and stays with King Olaf, ii. 24919.39 — is refused return 
to Iceland the next season by King Olaf, until the result of 
Gellir Thorkelson's mission to the island should be known, 
and is detained in a manner that ' savoured of unfreedom,' 
27415-2752 — incurs K. Olaf's wrath by setting free distressed 
prisoners of war, but ultimately regains the King's favour, 


EGIL, son of Skallagrim, father to [Thorgerdj the mother of 

Kiartan Olafson, i. 33417 
EGIL, brother of Völund, a famous archer, i. 2204 
EGIL WOOLSARK (E. ullserkr), a yeoman, once upon a time 
the standard-bearer of K. Harald Hairfair; his stout-hearted 
speech at K. Hakon the Good's council of war, i. 17520-17611 
— his speech, prophetic of his death, 17618.23 — his stratagem 
at the battle of Frædisberg or Rast-Kalf, 1779.12 ism ^- '7^m 
— leading Hakon's men he got into hand-to-hand fight with 
Gamli Eric's son, wounded him sorely, but fell himself, 178^- 

EiL — ein] Index I 29 

1794 — ^^^> ^^ ^ ^ís men, in a ship taken from the enemy 
and buried in a howe (at Frædisberg) by K. Hakon's orders, 

EILIF (Eilifr), Earl in Sleswick, gives a great banquet to King 
Sigurd arriving at Sleswick on his return journey from Jerusa- 
lem, iii. 26214.10 

EILIF, married to Ragnhild, d. of Earl Hakon the Mighty, 
their s. Earl Worm (for Orm), married to Sigrid, d. of Earl 
Finn Amison, iii. 3515^ 37 ig.^! 

EILIF THE GAUTLANDER (E. gauzki), a bailiff appointed 
by King Olaf the Swede over the northern part of Ranrealm, 
iL 762^ — keeps spying on King Olaf Haraldson's move- 
ments m the Wick, and has a band of thirty men hovering 
about the edge of the Marklands, 779.13 — comes with a large 
following to meet King Olaf at a palaver at which he is be- 
trayed by Brynjolf Camel, and slain by the Captain of K. 
Olafs Guests, Thorir the Long, 771^ 78^ 

EILIF, Earl, s. of Rognvald Earl of West-Gautland and Ingi- 
biorg, the d. of Tryggvi, ii. 1543.,— captain over the * land-war- 
ders ' of King Jarisleif, iii. 5837.^ 591.4 

EINAR (Einarr), see Turf-Einar. 

EINAR, married to Helga, daughter of Priest Andres, iii. 32511 
— brings to Castle Church, Kings' Rock, the news of the 
Wend King Rettibur's descent on the town, 3273.14 

EINAR, son of An of Reek-knolls, iii. 35629 

EINAR, son of Eyolf, and brother to Gudmund the Mighty of 
Maddermead, prevents by a great speech his own brother and 
his followers from complying with King Olaf Haraldson's re- 
quest to the Icel. Althing, to cede him the island of Grimsey, 
ii. 24323-24430 — his speech the cause why the chiefs of Iceland, 
invited to go to Norway to meet King Olaf, did not deem it 
safe to act on that invitation, 2452^.80 

EINAR, son of Guthorm Graybeard, and brother to Thora, 
the mother of K. Sigurd, s. of Harald Gilli, a well-bom and 
wealthy Uplander, iii. 38111.1^ — his and his brother Andres' 
dealings with the priest Richard 38117-3851^ 

EINAR of Hordland (E. hör^ski), stationed in the forehold on 
board the Long-Worm, i. 35319 

EINAR JINGLESCALE (E. skálaglamm), the son of Helgi, 
an led. poet, author of the poem called Gold-lack, i. 20631- 


Index I 

„ 256^ 15,25 30-íS7r^59íí^8O , , ^ 

EINAR, son of Laxe-Paul, his home rifled dunng his absence 
by Sigurd Slembi-Deaconi iii, 3SS^g(, — leUs himself to Eric 
Oddson, the historian, the story of Sigurd's robberies and 
manslaughters, 359^.,, — falls with his master, IL Sigtird Harald- 
son, in Biorgvin, 11 55, 38914 is 

EINAR, son of Ogmund of Sand, in Halogaland, provides 
Sigurd Slembi-Deacon with provisions, while in hiding in 
Halogaland from K. Ingi Haraldson, iii, 5560^^^ 

EINAR SKULISON {E, Skúlason), Icelandic poet, cited as 
authority on events that happened in K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer*s journey to the East: his stay in England, iii, 249,(^6 — 
his stay at Cializi aland, 24934,3-2 — ^^^ arrival in Jerusalem, 
25621-2578 — his handing over of Sidon to King Baldwin of 
Jerusalem, 2sS^^.|g — on the cruelty of Thora, mother of King 
Sigurd, to Kolbetn, 30217-2^ — on King Magnus the Blind^s 
dilemma at Biorgvin, 323^-— on King Harald Gilli's battles 
in Denmark, 334n>>2 — on King Magnus, fourth son of Harald 
Gilli, 3683^5-3698—011 King Eystein's victor)* at l^eikberg over 
the people of Ran realm, and the dwellers of Hising, 374^,^^^ 
on the defeat of Earl Harald, the son of Mad dad ^ by King 
Eystein Haraldson, 37541.^ — on Eystein's victories at Apar- 
dion, Hartlepool, Whitby, Skarpskerries, Pulwyke and Lang* 
ton, 37510^3762]^ — ^^n the character of King Sigurd Haraldson, 
37S(,.,^— on the slaying of King Eystein, 3969.13— on the defeat 
of Haicon Shoulderbroad by K, Ingi at the battle in the Elf, 
4^4ie^& — ^^^ ^^^^ o^ Gregory Dayson called Elf*staves, 
41 5j 2 — on the ultimate whereabouts of Olafs sword, Hneitir, 



THAMBARSKELFIR (E. fambarskelfir), son of 
Eindrid Styrkarson, i* 2152^^ ii. 22^^,^^ — married to Bergliot, 
the daughter of Hakon, Earl of lidir, i. 247^ ii. 233^2^ iu, 
io6g.|(j — ^stationed in the main hold on board the Long-Worm, 
in the battle of Svold, i, 353^ji..2a — his feats of shooting, 37 r^^ 
ii* 2217.21 — his famous repartee to the King, on his bow being 
shot m sunder, i. 37121.23^ receives truce of life from Earl 
Eric after the battle of Svold, and accompanies the Earl to 
Norway, ii. 22^^ ^^ — his prowess and lordly condition^ 2217.^4 — 
his wealth and power in consequence of his alliance by mar- 



Index I 31 

ria^e with the Earls Eric and Svein, 2224.31 — left by Earl 
Enc, on his departure for England, in charge of his son 
Hakon, as ruler of Norway, 2617.22 — summons a war-levee 
from Earl Hakon's dominion, to resist the advance of Olaf 
Haraldson, 4614.28 — hearing that Orkdale had fallen into 
Olaf s power, he sends messengers to Earl Svein, to warn him 
of Olafs approach, 4827-494 — sent for by Earl Svein, Einar 
holds a council of war with him in Frosta, and lays down 
plans for attacking Olaf, 4927-5013 51 1-2 — marches together 
with Earl Svein, at the head of a large host on Nidoyce, 
which place he bums to the ground, Olaf seeking safety in 
flight, 532.^7 — ^Jo^'^s Earl Svein's expedition against Olaf, 
which termmated in the engagement off Nesiar, 555.19 6026.31 — 
after the loss of that battle he counsels Earl Svein to flee 
from Norway to Sweden, and joins the Earl in the flight, 62 
11^ — is fnendlily received by King Olaf the Swede, 6618.21 — 
remains with the Swede, well-beholden, till the latter's death, 
when he makes overtures for peace with Olaf of Norway, who 
reinstates Einar in all his possessions in Thrandheim, includ- 
ing Bergliot's dowry, 21 115.31 — ^^^ journey to England, meet- 
ing with Hakon Ericson, his brother- (or, rather, nephew-) in- 
law, and King Knut the Mighty, 2353.3 — ^^^ pilgrimage to 
Rome, and return home, 23Sg.11 — sits in quiet at home in 
great state, yielding no service to King Olaf Haraldson, 
31O11.17 — on K. Knut appointing Hakon Ericson Earl of 
Norway, Einar becomes the Earl's chief adviser, being loaded 
with gifts and honours, Knut promising him even a high 
dignity (earldom of Norway, 45222.24) in the futiire, 34925-3503 
—-denounced as traitor to K. Olaf by Biom the Marshal, 
381^ — has the chief rule of Outer Thrandheim after Earl 
Hakon's death, 38814.19 — mindful of Knut's promises, he goes 
west to England to claim fulfilment of them, 38819-3891 — 
the King's disappointing answer, 3892.11 — sails back to Nor- 
way, where he arrives after the fall of K. Olaf, 3891224 45215.22 
— ^he is the first of Norw. chiefs to uphold the holiness of King 
Olaf, 45224^ — visited by Bp. Grimkel in connection with that 
matter, 45413-45515 — his discourtesy to Alfiva for slighting 
certain tokens of K. Olafs holiness, 45624.27 — he and Kalf 
Amison combine to set up as king of Norway Magnus, son 
of Olaf the Holy, 4664-4674 — gains, while Kalf Amison loses. 

Index I 

favour with K. Magnus, iii. 1 9^4-200 — disapproves, much to 
the King*s resentment, of Magnus appointing Svein Wolfson 
Earl of Denmark, 3027.32 — refuses to aid Harald Hardredy 
towards possessing himself of the kingdom of Denmark 
(knowing, no doubt, that Magnus had bequeathed it to Svein 
Woifson), 923.25— brings the body of Magnus to Nidoyce, 
9220^937 — his might, wealth, family relations, loó^.jg — his 
strained relations with K. Harald, to6.,^j^his advocacy of 
the cause of the people against Harald 's masterfulness, 107^- 
I oSjg-^-slain by Harald*s men in his council chamber, 1091- 
iio^^-buried in Olafs church, beside the tomb of K. Mag- 
nus, no^ii^ji — Hakon Ivarson's intention to avenge hisd 
defeated by Harald ^s diplomacy, 113-11423 

EIN AR WRONGMOUTH (E, rangmunnr), son of Sigurd the 
Thick, Earl of Orkney, ob. 1020; set to rule with his brothers 
over Orkney when his father went to his last war, ii. 169^5- 
1 7 Og— personal description, 1 702& 2fl — ^"^^i^i^ses, on his father's 
death, to give up to Thorfin, his brother, one third of the 
islands of which he possesses himself, 171 1,^ ^ — his war raids 
and unpopular rule, i7ijtá.t^j H 413-10 — his deahngs with the 
spokesmen of his subjects, Amundi and Thorkel, 17137- 
1 75iu^his t) ranny drives many of his subjects away, i '^ly-.^ 
— Thorfin renews, and follows up with an armed host^ his 
claim to one third of Orkney, which he obtains by the aid of 
Brusi, 1 7322-1744 — obtains rule over his brother Brusi*s share 
on condition that the longest lived of the two inherit as his 
own the other^s share, i745.,j^his defeat in Ulfreksftrth at 
the hands of the Erse King Konofogor, ii, i37|j.-is ^74is^ 
— slays Eyvind Urochs-hom, King Olafs friend, 174^8- 17 St 
— drives from the islands Thorfin*s tax-gatherer, renewing 
enmity with his brother, 175^-176,^— peace again settled be* 
tween Einar and Thorfin, i76iy..jg — murder of Einar by Thor- 
kel Fosterfather at Sand wick, 1763^^-17812 19234 — his domin- 
ion, one third of Orkney, appropriated after his death by K, 
Olaf of Norway, 1 84 1,^*^^ 

EINDRID, son of Einar Thambarskelfir and Bergliot, daughter 
of Earl Hakon of Ladir, ii. 22.r^ — K. Knut holds out a 
promise to him of being made Earl of Norway, od the 
strength of which promise father and son laid claim to the 
earldom on Hakon Ericson's death, ii, 350^^ 3881^.^9— has to 

EiN — ^elf] Index I 33 

wife Sigrid, daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunnhild — his char- 
acter, iii. 1061Q.18 — is stationed by Einar outside K. IJar. 
Sigurdson's council chamber at a folk-mote in order to defend 
him, 10924 — ^ ^sjoi by K. Harald's men, iiOj — buried in 
Olafs church beside the tomb of King Magnus, 11020.28 — 
Hakon Ivarson's intention to avenge him defeated by Harald's 
diplomacy, ii4i^ 

EINDRID of Gautdale, iii. 35612 

EINÐRID of Gimsar, son of Styrkar, and father of Einar 
Thambarskelfir, i. 21523 "• ^^\^'\^ — commands his own ship 
in Olaf Tryggvison*s expedition to Wendland, i. 363^.5 

EINDRID HEATHFILLY (E. hei«afylja), coming upon K. 
Sigurd, son of K. Sigurd Haraldson, and Markus o' Shaw, he 
delivers them for execution, iii. 45827 

EINDRID, son of Jon Suetneb, saves King Eystein on board 
his ship from the pursuit of his brother, K. Ingi, iii. 39415.18 — 
fights on the side of K. Hakon Shoulderbroæi in the battle 
of the Elf, 4078^ 4085 4145 — when King Ingi is on the 
point of granting him pardon a son of Howard Butterbread 
gives him his death-wound, 4150.14 

EINDRID THE YOUNG (E. ungi), goes to Jerusalem with 
Erling Askew, iii. 37110.18 — ^^'^^ sailing through Norfisound, 
he parts company with Erling, 37126.28 — ^o^^> on his return to 
Norway, the story as to what ultimately became of K. Olafs 
sword Hneitir, 428^-42922 — allies himself with King Hakon 
Shoulderbroad agamst Erhng Askew, 44 in — fights in the 
battle of Ve-isle, 44422-446^ — takes in hand, with other chiefs, 
the lead of Hakon's partisans after his fall, leaving the ships 
and going to the Uplands, 44715.19 — slain by Erling's men 
after the fell of Earl Sigurd Havardson, 45514.16 

ELDIARN, an Icelander, sings in dispraising humour of the 
valour of Gifford the Welshman, iii. 22931-2308 19.24 

ELFBIDERS (Elfarbyggjar), inhabitants of landsby the Gautelf, 
iii. 215i 

ELFGEIR ('Alfgeirr), seizes the whole of Vingulmark (one 
half of which Elfhild, wife of Gudrod the Hunter-king, and 
mother of Olaf Geirstead-Elf, had brought her husband as a 
marriage dowry), 'and set thereover Kmg Gandalf his son.' 
He and Gandalf seize the most part of Raumrick from Olaf 
Geirstead-Elf, i. 72^8^ 



Index I 

[elf — EMU 

ELFGRIMS (Elfargrimar), inhabitants of lands on the Gautdf, 

Hi- 2iSi5 2fl ^^^33 32i„ 4^0x3 (= Elfbiders). 
ELFHILD ('Alfhitdr), daughter of Alfarin, King of Elfhome, 

the first wife of Gudrod the Hunter-king, i, 7^27,28 — her death, 

ELFSI, st€ Aifling. H 

ELIZABETH, daughter of King Jarisleif, iii, 7633,54— j-fif Ellisif,^ 
ELLA, King of Northumberland, vanquisher of Ragnar Lod- 
brok (F\A.S., i. 380-283), his kindred: Englishmen^ ii. i6ig 
ELLISIF, daughter of Jarisldf, King of Holmgarth, and Ingi*^l 
gerd, d, of K. Olaf of Sweden, scorns Harald SÍgurdson'á^B 
love, iii* 7 5 33- 761 — given in marriage to him on his return from 
Greece, 76.^.2^ 7720 22 — ^^'^ children, 96.23 r.^ — accompanies 
Harald on his expediuon to England, 16531^ — is left in the 
Orkneys, 166^ — returns from the west to Norway with her 
stepson Olaf and Ingigerd her daughter, 183,,^ 
EMMA, daughter of Richard L, Duke of Normandy, married i*, 
Ethelred H., King of England, whom she bore four (1) sons, li, 
aisfl.^ iii, 35jji.,^ I55i*iö— ^^^ ^»^t the Mighty, their children, 
ii* ^7 1241 ^"* ^Snao^^s^^ issues forged letters under royal seal 
authorizing Earl Wolf, son of Sprakalegg, to have her son 
Hordaknut elected King of Denmark, ii. 3 16^^*3 173^^ — ^inter- 
ceeds in vain with King Knut for her son and Earl Wolf, 
3'^i 10 — advises her son to leave his case unconditionally ia^^ 
his father's hands, Z'l^^.^^ jH 

(Snoni*s statement, ii. 21^4 2*5 ^^^t Emma was * the sister' of^' 
two Earls of Normandy, ' William and Robert,' is incorrect, 
her brothers being Richard IL {996*1026) and Robert Abp of 
Rouen, 990-1037.) 
EMUND of Skarar, lawman in West-Gautland, his quality and^H 
character, ii. isSi^ — tindertakes to plead the cause of hit^^ 
people before King Olaf the Swede, i55j|.^^™goes to East-" 
Gautland, where he draws to his side many mighty kindred^ 
155^1-156^ — proceeds to Swede-realm, and comes to Upsala, 
where he meets the King, 156^.15 — tells the King some 
enigmatic news from Gautland, 1565^-1 5 7« — ^lures by a 
fictitious case at law a Judgment from tne Ktng whereby he 
condemns his own conduct to the King of Norway, i %\^i — 
departs suddenly from the King*s court, 158^.^-15907 — has to 
leave with the Up-Swedes, instead of the people of Gautland, 

EMU — ERi] Index I 35 

the election of a king of Swede-realm, 1 6421-1 65 jq — predicts 
that the succession of kings in Sweden will pass out of the old 
line of the Ynglings, i65iq.i^ 

EMUND, natural son of King Olaf the Swede with Edla, 
daughter of a Wendish earl, ii. 1393.3 — brought up in Wend- 
land among his mother's kin, 13916.19 — King in Sweden, when 
Magnus the Good set out from Garthrealm on the conquest 
of Norway, iii. 43 — lends aid to his kinsman Svein Wolfson, 
K. of Denmark, against Magnus the Good, 3316.27 

ENGLISH (The), Englishmen (Englar), i. 11829 26131 ii. 1239 

'581 25224 443i iii- 16728 17181 1763 6 10 17 17781 17819 27 

ERIC (Euikr), son of Agnar, King of Westfold, father of Hild, 
the wife of Eystein King of Raumrick and Westfold, i. 6817.20 

ERIC, son of K. Agni, King of the Swedes together with his 
brother Alrek, i. 351.30 

ERIC ARNISON, husband of Skialdvor, daughter of Nicolas, 
the son of Sigurd Hranison, iii. 481 19.21 — warns Nicolas his 
£ather-in-law in vain of an imminent attack by the Birchlegs, 

ERIC BIODASKALLI [Bioda-skuU, ii. 890] (E. bjó«askalU), 
son of Sigurd, the son of Viking- Kari, i. 33429.31 (but, son of 
Viking-Kari, ii. 89^^; cf. Olafssaga Helga, ed. 1853, p. 5323.30 
Fms. iv. 13I10.15 Flat. i. 6530.31 ii. 5925 Saga 01. Tryggvasonar, 
Fms. i. 25113.14 Melabók of Landnáma, F. Jónsson*s ed. 
249i4-i«)> father to Astrid, the mother of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 
2235.3 224^ 225i5 22820.37 2301 30O20— hides his daughter 
with her new-bom son, Olaf, from her pursuers, Gunnhild 
and her sons, 2243.13 — sends her with her child privily out 
of Norway to Hakon the Old in Sweden, 22511.24 2263 — his 
sons, 2282- 22923 3019-10 

ERIC BLOOD-AXE (E. Bló«öx), King of Norway (93o)-934, 
son of Harald Hairfair and Ragnhild, d. of Eric, King of Jut- 
landy L 1 1412.15 — lost his mother when three years old and was 
fostered by Thorir, the son of Roald, a hersir in the Firths, 
ii9i.g 12813.20 — K. Harald's favourite son, 12820-21 — fitted out 
by his £Either, when twelve years of age, with five longships for 
the wars, he harries for eight years Baltic lands, British 
dominions, finally going to Finland and the country of the 
Perms, z 2823« 1292 — his marriage with Gunnhild, the daughter 
of Osor Tot, 1293-130 — abode always with his father, 13130 



Index I 


—appointed King over Halogaland, Noithmere and 
dale, 13130.31 — aspired himself and was d^iioed byhs i 
to the head-kingship over his brethren, i3Jt« — boms Id his 
house, together with eighty wisards^ at his father's bd iea^ Vim 
brother Rognvald Straightleg, 1332125 — comiiig to 'tmiAm% 
from the Eastlands with his warships ij3 need erf" fxotisfn, 
which bis brother Biorn Chapman refused to sv^iply, lir set 
upon Biorn arid slew him at Seabam, "^Si^— gpcstipg si 
Solvi in Northmere he is attacked by ni^t by hk broöier 
Halfdan the Black, and barely escapes being bomt ia die 
house, 136512 — led by his father into the seat ol^ w^s&o^ 
kingship over Norway, 14135^ i4^j| — o pp o ali o p by his 
brothers 10 the measure, 14127-14213 — a son of fab and 
Gunnhild's baptized by Har. Haiifair to bk ova ittme, 
immely» Harald Grey clc^Jt, afterwards Kingol'Korvif^^i4^^ 
— Eric's contest with hb brothers for the 

10 Ohfciify^ 

Norway, 1443«» 1 49 i>u— Personal dj^cnptkMi, 14^1451— 
his children, 145^^ — loses hold on and oootHH < 
subjects when Hakon, hb brother, Gome 
dmiming the crown, and abolishix^ the lisiiiliá 
introduced by his Either, 150-15112 — find^gli 
would not fisspood to his caJl to wtmes^ be floe 
to Enghmd* ijaj^ ^SSfr^a **%mí-^^ S*«® *■* • 
ua gubeffs a bos£ to him mere; sets off far 
humH SoodaKid 00 the way, aod thai ' 
ShJmq, isig4|— cones m terais witii E, 
IQ beoooiiiis bb 
bapttscu to C^m&tiuiiiy with all oii 
Yod:, 151JI— bemi^ abo«t 
\ for hb Imd to smport, be eised 

l«j.„__in Tiew of K- 




Index I 2n 

with Harald Hairfair about the possession of Vermland, West 
Gautland, and the eastern Wick, resulting in the conquest by 
Harald of all the disputed territories, i. 10510-1 lOgi — his 
dealings with Aki the Wealthy, goodman of Vermland, loójo- 
loSg — dies when King Harald had reigned for ten years, 
1 23^-1 242 — contemporary of Lawman Thorgnyr*s grandfather, 
ii. 12022^ — his conquests about the southern and eastern 
littoral of the Baltic, 1 2023.29 — ready to listen to those who had 
errands with him, 12029.31 

ERIC EVERMINDED (E. eymuni). King of Denmark, 1134- 
1137, son of Eric the Good, K. of Denmark, his son Svein, 
iii. 27 19 — sends a shrine to King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, 
which was placed in Castle Church at Kings' Rock, iii. 30931- 
310^ — ^receives King Harald GiUi after his defeat at the battle 
of Fyrileifi and gives him presents, 31 725.32 — sends word to the 
folk of Kings' Rock to be on their guard against the Wends, 
32^7-ii — y^^ ^s mistaken for their commander for a moment, 
3^7i4-i« — ^s visited by Magnus the Blind, who persuades him 
to attempt the conquest of Norway, which country he invades 
with six hundred (6 x 120) ships, 35124.32 — arriving at Tuns- 
berg he is stoutly opposed by the landed-men of King Ingi, 
and makes for Oslo, where he burns Hallward's Church and 
the town, 3 5 24-3 5 3^ — puts off with his host on the approach 
of Thiostolf Alison, 3533 — turns back to Denmark after a most 
humiliating attempt to conquer Norway, 35315.24 

ERIC THE GOOD (E. hinn gó«i). King of Denmark, 1095- 
1103, son of Svein Wolfson, iii. 19420 27X0.7 — present at the 
meeting between King Magnus Barefoot and King Ingi at 
Kings' Rock, 232^.10 — the goodliest of looks of the three 
monarchs, 23227.23 — His sons, Eric Everminded, Knut the 
Lord and Harald Kesia, 2715.7 9 28315.1^ 

ERIC, natural son of Hakon the Mighty of Ladir by a low-born 
woman of the Uplands; Earl over a large part of Norway, 
1000-1014, ob. 1016 — his fostering by Thorleif the Sage, 
goodliness, great promise, and early relations to his father, i. 
209^3^ — ^^s quarrel with, and slaying of Skopti of-the-Tidings, 
2472^249^1 — visits K. Harald Gormson, who appoints him to 
an earldom over Vingulmark and Raumrealm, 24913.23 — 
hears of the conspiracy of the Jomsvikings against his father, 
and joins him in calling northern Norway up to arms, and 


Index I 

unites his own with his father's fleet in Hallkers-wick, 27317-] 
274jj 2762^^ — commands one wing of the fleet in the 'battle' 
of the JomsDurgers,' and fights valiantly, ayyj^-iSi- ii. 26,- 
— his noble conduct to the prisoners, aSig^j-aSigj — his kindness 
to Vagn Akison, ^%'^y^-%%\.i — on his father^s death, and Okf 
Tryggvison*s becoming King of Norway, he flies to Sweden, 
where he is well received by K. Olaf, a^g^^^g 3001^ 345^» — 
gathers round him followers from Norway, and goes warring 
to Gothland, Wendland and Garth realm, where he won 
Aldeigia-bui^ and harried Ehe country for five summers 
running, next going to Adalsysla and Isle-sysla, and winning 
the day everywhere, 5453i-348|j> — goes to Denmark and weds 
Gyda, the daughter of Svein Twibeard, 34813.1^ — becomes a 
close ally of the kings of Sweden and Denmark, 34831.53 — at 
Svein Twibeard*s request he joins his force to Sveiii*s in order 
to meet Olaf Tryggvison in battle, 35912-36^^ — watches with 
the kings of Sweden and Denmark Olaf Tryggyison's ships 
sailing up to Svold, 362^^-3645, — settles terms ¥rith the kings 
as to the spoils in case of victory, 364^.^.2« — commands a 
great iron-beaked war galley, 364.>5^33 — his part in the battle 
of Svold, 367,3.1^ ^34 36832-369; i^.is 2-,29 37C6.2S 37*sis 
37^2r375nj — Norway being partitioned between the con- 
querors of Svold, he receives for his share four folklands in 
Thrandheim, Halogaland, Naumdale, Firths and Fialir, Sogn, 
Hordland, Rogaland, and North- Agdir to Lidandisness, 377^^ ^| 
%*l^t — ^rid besides from Svein Twibeard out of his allotment; ^ 
Raumrealm and Heathmark, 37821.22 ii- ^S^jq-k — ^^^ himscíf 
be christened, but leaves perfect freedom of worship to his 
subjects, observes laws and customs and *is well beloved/ 
3782531' — niakes Ladir his capital and leaves Nidoyce to go 
into decay, ii. 501^5^— rules over Norway conjointly with his 
brother Sveiuj ii. tiy^-^x ^S^a^^is — ^^ ^^^ ^^^ brother give their ^m 
sister Bergliot in marriage to Einar Thambarskelftr, 2224 2« — fl 
his strained relations with Erling Skialgson of Soli, i. jyS^^j 
ii. 23i2'252 cf- 7420^4 — ^summoned by King Knut, he goes to 
England^ leaving his son Hakon in the rule of Nons^ay, and 
meets Knut when he won London, and west of London he 
met Wolfkel Snilling in battle and felled himi 255^265^ ^S^iíi-it 
— died from blood-letting when he had been one winter in 
England, and was preparing for a pilgrimage to Rome, 3 7^.^ 


Index I 39 

— shared with his brother Svein, while in rule of Norway, 

one-half of all revenues, including land-dues or sailing-fees, 

from Iceland ships, 52^9^ 
ERIC HEEL (E. hæll), son of Eindrid of Gautdale, a foUower of 

Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 356^3 
ERIC, King of Hordaland, father to Gyda, wife of Har. 

Hairfair, i. 9315.17 — ^joins the kings of Rogaland, Agdir and 

Thelmark against Harald Hairfair and fights with him in 

Hafursfirth, where he fell, 1118.27 
ERIQ son of Ivar Gaudhank, Archbishop of Nidoyce, iii. 


ERIC, Kmg of Jutland, father to Ragnhild the Mighty, a wife 
of Harald Hairfair, i. 11412-18 

ERIC ODDSON (E. Oddsson), Icelandic historian, quoted as 
authority on an episode in Sigurd Slembi-Deacon's life, taken 
down from the mouth of Einar, son of Lax-Paul, iii. 3593 — tells 
the story of the battle at Holm-the-Gray on the authority of 
Gudrid, Birgir's daughter, who averred she had it from Bishop 
Ivar, who himself was in the battle, 36327.29 — relates the 
story of the end of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon on the authority of 
Hall, son of Thorgeir Leech, an eye-witness of what happened 
to Sigurd, 36S1Q.14 — author of the historical work called * Back- 
bone-Piece ' (Hr)'ggjarstykki), which tells the story of Harald 
Gilli, Magnus the Blind and Sigurd *Slembi,' 36514.18— ^ 
further account of his authorities and method of writing 
history, 36513^ — on the authority of Dean Ketil of St. Mary's 
Church, Alaburg, Eric states that Sig. Slembi-Deacon was 
buried there, 36723.25 

ERICS SONS (Eiriks synir, synir Eiriks), otherwise also called 
Gunnhild's sons, the sons of Eric Bloodaxe and his wife 
Gimnhild (cf. i. 14S5.8), leave England with their mother 
after the fall of their father, and make themselves masters of 
Orkney and Shetland, residing in Orkney in winter and 
harrying Scotland and Ireland in summer, i. 15420-1555 — 
their diminished strength in the west leaves Hakon the 
Good free to operate where needful with his armed host, 
15530-156^ — hearing that K. Hakon was embroiled in war 
with K. Harald Gormson, they go to Denmark, where they 
are hospitably cared for, 1596.2s — some of them, age allowing, 
went on war raids in the East-lands, i5928'^6og 174^.10 — 


Index I 

personal prowess, 15991.52 — ^^^'^ túé.% on Non^^ay, loo^^.j^^ 
I74,^,.jj— they defeat the governor of the Wick, King Tryggvi, ^ 
at Sotaness, 171^^-172^^ — are defeated in torn by Hakon infl 
the battle of Ogvaldsness, 17*^1-17310 — * Eric's sons abode" 
again in Denmark for a long time/ 1732,^— invade Norway 
with a large force supported by Denmark, and suffer a 
severe defeat by Hakon the Good at Rast-Kalf on the 
island of Frædi, 174,^-180^ — again they invade Hakon's 
dominions and are defeated in the battle of Stord, at which 
Hakon lost his life, iSo^;-!^^^^ — they take possession of 
the kingdom of Norway, 197^.4, — offer to Tryggvi Olafson and 
Gudrod Biornson to hold of tlfiem such share of the realm as 
they had held of K. Hakon, 197 x^^ — from fear of the men 
of Thmndheim and of the Wick, who were most devoted to 
K. Hakon, Eric's sons keep to the middle of the country, 
ig9j^,i — peace, * in words at least,* made between them 
and Earl Sigurd of I^dir, 1991^^.^3— all brothers were noted 
for miserliness, iggj^-zoo^^ — their characteristics as rulers and 
men, lotij-aoa^^they compass, with the aid of his own 
brother, Gnotgarth, the death of Earl Sigurd of Ladir^ 202^ 
205^ — tbey find in Hakon, the son of Earl Sigurd, such a 
foe that they are fain to make terms of peace with him all in 
his favouri whereon follows great, but sometimes guile- 
blended, intimacy between Queen Gunnhild and Hakon, 
2052^j-2o8i2— the brothers, hearing that Hakon has allied 
himself with Tryggvi and Gudrod and Gudbrand a' Dale, 
2 103.H gather a host together against Hakon, 213JJ2.17 ^^^ 
on his escape, take full possession of Thrandheim, 3i3|it- 
3i4ii cf, 2323,^ — they evacuate Thrandheim on Earl Hakon*s 
reappearance there, and are kept at bay south of Stad, 214^^^^^ 
—their governor of Mere, Griotgarth, slain by his nephew, 
Earl Hakon, 21617-217^ — the rule of Eric's sons signaHzed 
by great famine, 2r8j^^,^.,^their plots for the purpose of 
securing Olaf, the infant son of K. Tryggvi, 224)^*228^^ — 
Earl Hakon tells Harald Gormson plainly what reward he 
has received from Gunnbild's sons for all his support, 33521^ 
— on Arl the Leamed*s authority the sons of Gunnhild ana 
Earl Hakon were at war for the last six years of K* Harald 
Graycloak's reign, ^Z97^ti — ^^^ exiles of the sons of Gunn- 
hild return to Norway in the train of K* Harald Gormson, 

ERi — erl] Index I 41 

240|4^ — Earl Hakon being appointed to the rule of Norway 
by K. Harald Gormson, the sons of Gunnhild with their 
mother flee once again from Norway to Orkney, 241^7.23 — 
the cost of now defending Norway against the sons of Gunn- 
hild defrayed by the tribute Earl Hakon was to pay to 
Denmark, 25310-15 — ^^ rule of Gunnhild's sons described 
by the Upland King Roerek, ii. ^2^^,^ — their relations to 
Harald Gormson described by Olaf the Swede, 9729.81 

ERIC THE RED (E. Rau«i), [son of Thorvald,] the discoverer 
of Greenland, i. 34110.17 — displeased with his son Leif for 
bringing a Christian missionary to his abode, 35513 1»^ 

ERIC THE VICTORIOUS (E. sigrsæli), son of Biorn, King 
of Sweden, i. 124^7 — married Sigrid the Highminded, d. of 
Skogul-Tosti ; their son Olaf the Swede, King of Sweden, 
213^ 28412.14 — his dealings with Hakon, Gunnhild's mes- 
senger, sent to secure the person of Okf Tryggvison, 22723- 
22834 — overcomes and slays (in the battle of Fyri's meads) 
his nephew Styrbiom, ii. 983.5 (cf. Flateybook, ii. 7211-732) 
— contemporary of Lawman Thorgnyr, went on many a war- 
faringy and increased the realm of Sweden, but was easy of 
access to his people, 121^.^^ — died at Upsala *ten winters 
after Styrbiom fell,' i. 2133^ 

ERIC THE YEAR-SEELY (E. hinn ársæli), son of Blot- 
Svein, King of Sweden, an upholder of blood-offerings, iii. 

ERIC, son of K. \ngvi Alrekson, with his brother Jorund 

he overcame K. Gudlaug of Halogaland ; he was slain by 

the usurping King Haki of Sweden in battle at Fyri's meads, 

i- 398-4011 
ERLAND, see Erlend. 
ERLEND (Erlendr) of Garth (iii. 37 1^), see Erlend of 

ERLEND of Gerdi, paternal great-great-grandfather of Erling 

Askewy iii. 371»^ — traitor to Olaf the Holy in King Knut's 

pay, ii- 39O10.16— falls at Sticklestead, 4343 
ERLEND, son of Earl Hakon of Ladir, commander of his 

ships at Vig, i. 29310.18 18 cf- 2924.5— going by his father's 

orders down Thrandheim Firth towards Mere, he encounters 

Olaf Tryggvison coming up the firth, and, turning to flight, 

is slain by Olaf, 29313.19 295820 

Index I 


ERLEND HOMEBRED, iff Erlend Sloven . 

ERLEND SLOVEN (E. hímaldi), son of Joan the Strong ani 
father of Eystein, Archbishop of Thraitdheim, iii. 104^ 

ERLEND, Earl of Orkney, son of Earl Thorfinn Signrdson, holi 
the islands in feof of the King of Norway, iii. 248,^^ — ^joí 
in King Harald Sigurdson's invasion of England, 166^ — Í 
behind to guard the ships while Harald marched on Yorl 
i7o,j^^arrested by King Magnus Barefoot and sent east b 
Norway, 22 1^^ — dies of sickness in NÍdoyce and is burie 
there, 2253^ — relations of his sons Magnus and Erling to 
K* Magnus Barefoot, 239^,^ — his son Erling falls with K. 
Magnus in Ireland, 24^28-3^^ 

ERLEND, son of Turf Einar, Earl of Orkney, which, with his 
brothers, he held in feof of Eric Bloodaxe, joins Eric's 
expedition against Edmund^ K. of England, and falls in 
battle in the south of England, i. iS32,ri54is ^f- ^í- lö^aö-so 

ERLING ASKEW (Erlingr skakki), son of KyrpingAVorm and 
Ragnhild, daughter of Sveinki, the son of Steinar, iii. 371^ — 
a wise man and a great friend of King Ingi Haraldson, by 
whose interest Erling obtains in marriage Kristin, the daugh- 
ter of King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and Queen Malmfrid, 
37*1114 — ^^* ^ house at Studla in South-Hordland, 37 1^^ 
39Tii^T~^^is pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 371 15-37 234^held of 
less account than his brother Ogmund Hammerer, 37713^15 — 
takes prominent part in the battle of the Elf between K. 
Ingi and Hakon Shoulder broad, 4031^-41 5 j^^ — plans off and 
on during the following ^vinter an exp^ition to Thrandheii 
to secure the person of Hakon, but it comes to nought, 4 16^^^ 
stakes part in the fray on the bridges at Biorgvin, 417^ 
4185^ — ^warned by his wife not to trust Hakon Shoulderbroa 
4*7i5'2i] — Erling^s part in the election of a successor to KJ 
Ingij which falls on his son Magnus, 435,^-437^3— fares south 
to Denmark with his son K, Magnus, and secures for him 
the support of Waldimar on acknowledging the whole of the 
Wick north of Rygiarbit as Danish territory, 43711^-43^13 — 
returning from Denmark he goes on to Biorgvin — slays 
Arni Fickleskull, King Hakon's bailiff — goes east to meet 
Hakon, 43815-439^ — engagement with Hakon Shoulderbroad 
at Tunsbefg, 4 3 9^*44 o^.^— takes all King Hakon*s ships in 



Index I 


Timsberg and \2.y% alt the Wick under the sway of King 
Magnus— stays the winter in Biorgvin — has Ingibiorn Sip 1, 
a knded-iDan of K. Hakon's, slain, 4403^,-441,5^ — King Hakon 
arrays himself to move south to engage Erling, 441,1^; — his 
last encounter with Hakon Shoulderbroad, who is slain on 
board Erling's own ship, 44i,^-447j^,^he and Magnus fare 
with their host north to Nidoyce, and lay all the land under 
them, 44710-21 — summons the Thing of Eres, where Magnus 
^ is taken for king over alt the land, 44730.24 — mistrusts the 
^lThrandheÍmers, 447^^2^— after a short stay' in Biorgvin he 
V'sets up in Tunsberg and winters there, 443^^^^ 449i4 w^^ 
organizes in the Wick a strong combination against the party 
of Sigurd, the brother of Hakon Shoulderbroad, led by 
Earl Sigurd of Re>T, 449^^-4502 — feasts folk through Yule 
at Tunsberg, 450^,™ — accepts, on his own terms, the surrender 
of some of the partisans of Earl Sigurd of Reyr, 450, ^.^g — 
Philippus, son of Gyrd, makes peace with him, 45033 — ^his 
victory at Re over Earl Sigurd of Reyr, 4513-4551^' — ousts 
Mark us 0' Shaw and his foster-son Sigurd {brother of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad) at Rising, 4 5 5,^-4 5 6] ^^^h earing that Markus 
and Sigurd had gone north to Thrandheim, he sets off with a 
fleet in pursuit, but falls in with contrary winds, 45841.12 — 
advised that his captains in Biorgvin had slain Sigurd and 
Markus, he gives home-leave to the special levy, but holds 
east across the Fold with his own force, being informed that 
Markus's men are on the east of the firth, 459114^ — ^stays 
through the autumn at Kings' Rock, 4591^17 — punishes 
the people of Hising-isle for siding with Marcus and 
his party, 459|K'46ojj — leaves Kings' Rock in pursuit of 
Markus's followers Fnrek Cockboat and Biami the Evil, and 
liays both, 460^5*46 ig — rests at Tunsberg for a while, and 
I thrá goes on to Biorgvin, 4611^4^- — on mutual concessions he 
L pr evmls with Archbishop Eystein to have his son crowned 
HElLÍBg of Norway, 46115-4643^ — with twelve landed-men he 
^Btwears oath to the laws together with his son, 4 6 4^^^^— with 
his son be gives to the Archbishop, the Legate of Rome, 
five suffragans, etc., a glorious banquet on the occasion, 4 6 40^^,^^ 
— ^Erling breaks his covenant with Valdimar, King of Den- 
tnark, 465-4662^ — the Danes, incensed at Erling's conduct, 
threaten war on Norway in the spring, 466ij.3g — Erling winters 


Index I 


e an _ 

in Biorgvin, 466^,-4672 — lays a snare for the Thrandheimers 
to test their loyalty to his son, into which, when they had 
fallen, he visits them with severe penalties, 467.^-469^^ — re- 
turns to BioTgyin, 46921.2^ — King Valdimar having made an i 
abortive raid on Norway, resulting, however, in extensive] 
robberies on ootlying islands, Erling retaliates by an arme 
expedition to Jutland, where he falls on the Danish fle 
drives the Danes into flight, and plunders the ships of their ' 
booty, and the port of Deersriver as well, 4692^-4713^ — by a 
clever move of his wife Kristin, * King*s daughter/ Erhng gets 
again into King Valdi mar's good graces, he remaining as a 
hostage with the Dane-king, and the Danish noble Asbiorn 
Snare with King Magnus of Norway, 4713^-4731? — by persua- 
sive talk he becomes King Valdimar's earl over the Wick in 
Norway, in which capacity he continued till his death, 473^- 
4745 — ^is base-born sons, 474-^— his daughter Ragnhild, 
4749-11 — his dealings with the band which Sigurd Bait-hat 
and Olaf the Unlucky raised in the Uplands, 47427-476^^ — 
goes into the Wick to his ships and stays the summer there, 
477^.^^victorious engagement with Olaf's band at Stangs, 
47 7 w 17 — ^*^ dealing with Harald, the reputed son of Sigurd, 
son of Hamld Gilli and K rislin Erling^s wife, 4 7 72,^4 7 8^^— sits in 
Biorgvin whilst the Birchlegs sail past unawares, 480^^^ — his 
person, character, and attire, 480-^-48 i.j — keeps in Biorgvin 
in readiness to oppose the Birchlegs should they fare west, 
484^ — the Birchlegs, after being defeated by R. Magnus at 
Re, harbour but slight hope of mercy from Erling, 4871,3^ — 
Erling deemed by all his people to have been breast and ward^ 
for himself and his son Magnus^ 4^77-^ H 

ERLING, son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145^ aojj^— 
in company with Harald Gray cloak, and Griotgarth, the 
brother of Earl Sigurd^ he burns the latter in his house, 20512^ 
—his rule over Thrandheim so oppressive that the people rose 
in rebellion and slew him, t^\^ ^3*mj 

ERLING, son of Earl Erlend Thorhnson, accompanies King 
Magnus Barefoot from Orkney on his Irish expedition, Íii«^| 
^39fl — ^^^ ^^ Ireland with the King, 242*29 ^^ 

ERLING, son of Hakon Earl of Ladir, said by some to have 
been offered up by his father to Odin for victory in the battle of j 
Hiorungwick, i, aS^g^.^y 


Index I 45 

ERLING of Jadar, see Erling of Soli. 

ERLING, son of Joan Arnison and Ranveig, daughter of Sigurd, 
the son of Thorir Hound, iii. 1714 

ERLJNG THE OLD, one of King Sigurd Slaverer's men, slays 
*hersir' Klyp in revenge for his liege-lord, i. 2\^y^,^^ 

ERLING OF SOLI (Erlingr af Sola), son of Thorolf Skialg the 
grandson of Horda Kari, usually called Erling Skialgson, i. 
303^ — obtains in marriage Astrid, the sister of Olaf Trygg- 
▼ison, 3063^-3085 — in might and power like to Gudbrand a- 
Dales, ii. 2003^.32 — refuses the dignity of Earl, but is invested 
by Olaf Tryggvison with dominion over Hordland and 
Rogaland, between Sognsea and Lidandisness, i. 308^^5 ii. 233.7 
74i4-i7 — ^J^'"s ^^ Tryggvison's expedition to Wendland, 
commanding his own ship, ZS^rv^ 3^31112 — ^^^^^ ^^ partition 
of Norway between the victors of Svold, Earl Eric grudged 
Erling his dominion and the moiety of the King's revenues 
which Olaf had granted him of that dominion, whence arose 
strained relations between him and the Earls Eric and Svein, 
ii. 231^-244 7422-24 — ^^ go^s a-warring in summer-tide to eke 
out his means, 24^^ — his prowess and lordly ways, 24^^ — 
his children, 2434.27 — ^^^ domestic ways — body-guard, in 
peaceful and unpeaceful circumstances — war galley, 2423-2 5^ 
— his ways of dealing with thralls and freedmen, 25^35 — 
Earls Svein and Hakon make peace and family alliance with 
^™> 33i2-2o 74i6-i7 — ^® joins Earl Svein's expedition against 
Olaf Haraldson, which terminated in the battle of Nesiar, 
5Sis-i9 — advises in vain Earl Svein, after the loss of that 
battle, to go north again, and levy fresh hosts against King 
Olaf Haraldson, 623.^^ — parts from the Earl, and goes to his 
dominion in Rogaland, 6220-24 — surrounds himself with a 
large company of men, 6223.2^ 64im9 — arranges terms of 
peace with King Olaf in Whitmg-isle, 747-7Si« — enjoys of 
royal grants less than before, but has undisputed authority 
over tihe commonalty from Sognsea to Lidandisness, and 
hence was called * King of the Rogalanders,' 2i2,.ii 21721 — 
his cousin, Aslak Skull o' Fitiar (they were second cousins 
and great-grandsons of Horda-Kari), being set up by King 
Olaf Haraldson to counteract his power, he drives Aslak out 
of his bailifiry, 21212-28 — meets the King at Tunsberg, and 
defends his action in this and other matters connected there- 


Index I 

[eRS^ — ^ETH 

with, 2 1 2j^-2 1 3^^ — peace made between Erling and the King^ 
by friendly mediatorst 2 1 32^,-2 i4j^— his action on behalf 
his nephew Asbiorn Seal's-banej which brought on hira the 
full enmity of the King, 2171^*219^ '^'^^^l -271^-229^^ 231 1,4 
— kept, as mmoar would have h, great gathering round 
him, in case the King might come upon him unawares, 26Í 
ji^jg; a rumour made fun of by Haidor Brynjolfson, 26S|j^^— •! 
at the request of his daughter Ragnhild, he lends his son-1 
io-law, Thorberg Arnison, prompt aid against King Olaf in 
the affair of Stein Skaptison, 283.,^- 2 $43— leaves Norway, 
with four or five ships, and goes with his sons to join King 
Knut in England, an^.y 33 Sn-y --returns to Norway director 
of Knut*s bribing operations, 33517,2^ — joins Knut at Eikund- 
sound, 348hk2í^ — Knut promises him the rule of all the land 
between Stad "and Rygsbit, 348^.1^ — his host on Jadar, 3541, 
— sails after King Olaf, 355324 — ^^ defeated and síaini 3563- 
35830 — his body is brought to Soli, 35924— Sig vat's song on 
the fall of Eding, 3S9rp'3Ö04— his sons take a leading part 
in the opposition against Olaf the Holy, 38 1^ — his son Aslak» 
owner of the family seat in Haraid Hardredy's reign, iii. 
ERSE^-FOLK, set Irish, J 

ESTHONIAN FOLK, Estlanders (Eistr), i. 53^^ 229^ 1 

ETHELRED (The sons oQ, their deahngs with Knut the 
Mightyi ii. 2 7fi.|i iij-24 — their flight to Normandy and alliance 
with Olaf Haraldson, futile attempt to reconquer England, 
retirement to Rouen and parting from Olaf, 27^^-293 
ETHELRED (AÍSalráíSr) (the Unready), son of Edgar, King 
of England, 979*1016; married Emma, daughter of Richard 
L, Duke of Normandy, ii, ii^.^^^ — ^his deposition or death 
vowed by Svein Twi beard of Denmark, i. 272^,1— *flies away 
from England before Svein Twibeard into Yalland (Nor- 
mandy), ii. 1 2.^,oí5-^n Twibeard's death he returns to Eng- 
land, gathers together an army, and is joined by Olaf Harald- 
son and his Norwegians, i3j^g — attack on and victory over 
the Danes in Southwark, 13^-1 5^^ London subdued to his 
sway, 1 55,3,^ — victor)' over Wolfkel Snilling, and further ex- 
tension of his sway over England, 16 — conquest of Kent, 
1 7^24 — further extension of his authority through Olafs vic- 
tories, 1725- 1 81 J— his death, 1%^^^ 27^,.,^ 

f^..~ -^ 


Index I 


EYJOLF DADASKALD (Eyjólfr DaíSaskald), Icel. poet, 
wrought the song Banda-Drapa on Earl Eric Hakonson^ i. 
24^2^-^491? 20-28 34Ös 1,- 21.2Í, 347U-22 27-34811 

EYOLF VALGERDSON, father to Gudmund the Mighty of 
Maddermead, i. 269.^3 iti* 1534 

EYSTEIN (Eysteinn), a king, father of Swanhild, one of 
Harald Hairfair's wives, i. 1 141^,10 

EVSTEIN, son of K. Adils, King of the Swede-realm, burnt 
with all his court by Solvi, King of Jutland, i. 5% S^g^ 

EYSTEIN, Archbishop of Nidoyce, 1157-1188, son of Erlend 
Sloi^en, the son of John the Strong, the son of Wolf Uspak- 
son, the Marshal of Har. Hardredy, iii. 104^.^^ — builds (i>, 
extends) the cathedral of Nidoyce, and sets up the high altar 
where the tomb of King Olaf the Holy had been, ii* 45713-15 
— tak^ down Mary*s church upon the Mel^ 1 051^ — chosen 
archbishop after the death of Archbishop Jon, 456^3.,^— his 
popularity in Thrandheim, 4 561^.^^— obtains the consent of 
the people in his archdiocese to pay fines, etc., to the cathe- 
dral, not in the debased coin then current, which was 50 
pr, c, below par, but in pure silver, 4562^-45710 4^^2%^^^^a — 
negotiations with Erling Askew in reference to the coronation 
of K. Magnus Erlingson, ^61 ^^-^6^^^ — performs the corona- 
tion amidst much festivity. 464^4.31 

EYSTEIN BLACKCOCK, see Eystein Heathcock. 

EYSTEIN, son of Eystein the Terrible, King of Heathmark, 
invades Raumrealm, newly conquered by Half dan the Black, 
i, 78^11 — thrice defeated by Halfdan, he makes peace with 
him, retaining half Heath mark for his dominion, 7814-79^ 

EYSTEIN GLUMRA (R glumra), son of Ivar, father to Rogn- 
vald the Mere- Earl, i. loo^i — and Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 

EYSTEIN, son of Halfdan Whiteleg, King of Raumrick and 
Westfold, married to Hild, d, of Eric, King of Westfold, the 
son of Agnar. On the death of K, Eric, Halfdan and Eystein 
• took to them all Westfold/ which Eystein ruled to his death, 
L 6$^-.2ö — Eystein's war-raid upon King Skiold of Varna, in 
which he came by his death, brought about by King Skiold^s 
witchcraft, 680^-6 9,j^^ 

EVSTEIN, King of Norway, 1142-1157, son of Harald Gill 
and Biadak, an Irish woman, married to Ragna, d, of Nicolas 

Index I 

Mew, ui* 37810^1 — comes from Scotland to Thrandhei 
where, without an ordeal to prove his legitimacy, he is mai 
king of one-ihird of Norway, his brothers^ Sigurd and lo] 
consenting, 3^83^21 — ^informed of the slaying of Ottar Brigl 
ling, he gathers a force to avenge the deed, but comes 
terms with K, Sigurd his brother on his promising to prove 
by ordeal his innocence of the murder, jyo^.j^^-quells a 
revolt against him in Ran realm and Hising by defeating the 
rebels at l^ikberg, yiZirllAn — ^^tpedition to the west and 
warfare in Scotland and England, 37425^3 763,^— return to Nor- 
^^7) Vl^tv^ — ^^^ ^ court for himself, being of full age, while 
his brothers, being minors, have a joint court^ 377(j^ — his 
character and person, 3772y-37S2 ui-so—^^^s marriage, 37830.31 
4262^,^7^— differences with his brother Sigurd, 385|^>.2fl — which 
they make up over a plan to depose their crippled brother 
Ingi, a plan frustrated by the latter, 38s*j|-3862ji^Ingi's men 
having slain Sigurd in an affray at Biorgvin, Eystein makes a 
futile attempt to avenge brother on brother, 3901 1.24— his 
raid on Gregory Dayson's home, 390^7-39x1^1 ^^^ — suspected 
of having set fire to the great shipbuilding yard at Nidoyce, 
39^^4 81 — <^omes to forced terms of peace with Ingi in Seal- 
isles, 392 i.jH^— continuance of strained relations between the 
brothers, 39^2r393á — deserted by liis following when prepar- 
ing for a naval encounter with Ingi, he abandons his ships in 
Sogn and marches over-land to the Wick, 393^.18^ — pursued by 
Ingi, he is caught and executed by Simon Sheath, 394^,- 
396 j^ — buried at the church of Force; believed to be a holy 
man, as springs were discovered where he fell and where his 
body was waked, and miracles happened at his tomb until 
the broth of a sodden dog poured over it dispelled the 
charm, 395.20-396^ — his followers make Hakon, \m nephew, 
their chief, 399^.6^his cause ardently espoused by Earl Si- 
gurd of Reyr, 4095.15 — ^KÍng Ingi^s estimate of Eystein, 42 
i€-io — ^*^ putative son, Eystein Maiden, 47^*|t>-'>a 
EYSTEIN HEATHCOCK {E. orri), son of Thorberg Amisoi 
by Ragnhild, daughter of Erling Skialgson, ii. 281 ^^ij 
threatens to leave his father unless he accedes to his mother's 
request to save Stein Skaptison from K, Olaf Haraldson's 
revenge, 2813,33— left, ^^^^ others, to guard the ships of K. 
Hamld Sigurdson at the battle of Stamford Bridge, iii. 


Index I 49 

— ^in exceeding great favour with K. Harald, who at this 
time had promised him in marriage his daughter Maria, 170 
ji.;j|V— * Heathcock's brunt,' 178,8-1794 

EYSTEIN MAIDEN (E. Meyla), thus named from his small 
features (iiL 48015.17), * called ' the son of K. Eystein, the son 
of Harald, his paternal aunt, Brigida, being the wife of Earl 
Bir]^ Brosa in Sweden, iii. 47820.32 25-27 — turns up in Sweden, 
and requests the Earl to avail him towards obtaining the 
kingdom of Norway, a request readily, though insufficiently, 
responded to, 47808-4798 — be goes into Norway, and gathers 
a strong band in tKe Wick, who proclaim him king, 4793.8 — 
short of means he plunders, and short of raiment his 
followers dress their legs in birch-bark, whence their name 
Birch-legs, 4798-15 — his mode of warfare in the Wick for 
two years, 4793^ — ^the third year he takes to ships, and sails 
round up to Thrandheim with a numerous and well-armed 
following, eluding Erling Askew's vigilance, 480^.20 — he carries 
the town of Nidoyce by storm, killing Nicolas Ranison, 48 1 
»4-48315 — taken to king in Thrandheim, he stays there for a 
year, and then marches over-land into Ringrealm with up- 
wards of two thousand followers, 48318.30 — he and K. Mag- 
nus Erlingson meet in battle at Re, where Eystein is slain, 

EYSTEIN, King of Norway, 1103-1122, basebom son of K. 
Magnus Barefoot, his mother * of little kin,' iii. 2338.9 — "^^" 
ried to Ingibiorg, d. of Guthorm, the son of Steig-Thorir, their 
daughter Maria, 2651.8 — ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ father, he shares 
the kingdom of Norway by thirds with his brothers, Olaf and 
Sigurd, 247^^ — has, with Sigurd, the trusteeship of Olafs 
share during the latter's minority, 24710.12 — remains at home 
in charge of the kingdom during Sigurd's journey to Jerusa- 
lem, 24723-24811 — rules the land profitably in Sigurd's 
absence, 2632.17 — ^''^^ Jamtland * by wisdom,' 2632^-26422 — 
his person and character, 26434-2651 — a reformer and student 
of law, 2657.11 — ^s interest in Ivar Ingimundson's love-affair, 
26511-26722 — interprets to Sigurd his brother his dream, 
2681Q-27025 — ^his advocacy of Sigurd Hranison's case against 
K. Sigurd, 27212-27628 — scandal talked about him and 
Boighild, Olaf o' Dale's daughter, proved by ordeal to be 
groundless, 27715-27819 — * manmatching ' between him and 



Index I 

[eYS — E 


Sigurd^ followed by estrangement between the brothers, 
279-283JJ — has a large ship built in the fashion of the * Lon^^ 
Worm/ 2832027 393io u — builds great ship-sheds {dock-yard^jH 
at Nidoyce, 2852^-2842 39I24-!it — tiis death and burial, 284^.16 
— praised for his kindness to *us Icelanders/ ^"^u^.^ 
EYSTEIN THE TERRIBLE (E. haríirálSÍ) (I "oyj^), th^ 
Mighty (inn rfki) (7228^ i6ii%), the Evil (inn illi) (i6ii^] 
the Evil-minded (illrá^i) (ii. 276(5), *KJng of the Uplands 
who ruled over Heathmark,^ L 67 ^^^^^ 7253.3^ 77^3 78^ 91 j^ 
92^5 — his conquests in Upper Thrandheim and ignominious 
treatment of the conquered for killing his son, i6ii^-i63|g ii^ 

EYSTEIN TRAVAIL (E. trafali), iii. 387», ^ 

EWIND BRAGGART <E. skreyja), brother to Gunnhild, the 

wife of Eric Bloodaxe, fought and fell in the battle of Stor 

i. i83n^u i^SíriSö^s 

EYVIND ELBOW (E. olbogi). Marshal to King Magnus 
Barefoot — accompanies the King on his warfare in Irelam 
iii. 2383^ — warns him to be on his guard against possible 
treachery of the Irish^ ^^^\%-i^ — marches with the king in 
front of the line of battle drawn up to meet the Irish in 
ambush, 24021^ — description of him, 24033-2412 — falls fight- 
ing with his king, 241^-24293 

EYVIND RENT-CHEEK (E. kinnrifa), a leader of revolt^ 
Halogaland against Olaf Tryggvison's project to christen 
the people, i* 3091^4^ en trapped by his friend, Harek of 
Thiotta, and sent to Olaf Tryggvison who, on Eyvind^s stead- 
fast refusal to be christened, tortures him to death, 32 7y- 

EYVIND THE SKALD-SPILLER (E. skáídaspÍUÍr), son of 
Finn and Gunnhild the daughter of Earl Halfdan, author of 
the poem called Haloga-Tale, i. 4« 39ia-ao >o42j-*Q5ii 1^2^ 
277afi^7^i2'^his way of breaking the news of an impending 



attack to K, Hakon the Good, iSij^-iSij — his urging oí 
K. Hakon the Good to make a stand against the attack of, 
the sons of Eric at Fitiar, in which battle he fought, i8f^ 
11^ — author of Hakon^s song, Hakon ar mil, verses of which 
sure interspersed throughout the saga of Hakon the Good, to 
the end of which the whole poem is subjoined, iSs^u^^ 
18323- 1 841a ^^l%m '^^4"i&30^ I ^9^^ 93 — get^ ^í^ío disgrace with 


EYV — ^far] Index I 51 

Harald Greycloak for a song in praise of Hakon the Good's 
victory over the sons of Eric; but is restored to favour again 
by mutual friends, 18012.22 iqSh-iqQs — his song on the miser- 
liness of Eric's sons, 19924-20O9 — his punishment by Harald 
Greycloak and final parting of the two, 200102013 — his com- 
memoration of Earl Sigurd of Ladir's death, 206^.25 — of hard 
season in Halogaland, 21813.28 — composed a song on 'all the 
men of Iceland,' who rewarded it by a clasp worth fifty marks, 
2 '94-18 — commemorates in song how he had to sell his clasp, 
and even his arrows, for fish to stave off hunger, 2 1913-2 2 Og — 
he dwelt in the island of Thiotta in Halogaland in poverty, 
but boasted high descent (he was by the distaff-line a great- 
grandson of Harald Hairfair), ii. 18921^24 

EYVIND THE SNAKE (E. snákr), stationed in the forehold 
on board the Long-Worm, i. 35317 

EYVIND UROCHSHORN (E. úrarhom) of Agdir, a friend 
of King Olaf Haraldson, and a sea-rover, ii. 7910.23 — ^7 
order of King Olaf, he kills the Swedish steward, Roi 
Squinteye, in Howesound, 8x5.1^ — goes sea-roving into the 
East-ways, 8iig^ — overtakes Thorgaut Harelip and slays 
him, and secures for King Olaf all the goods Thorgaut had 
plundered from Gudleik the Gautlander, 833.1^ — goes to Ire- 
land on viking raid and gets into friendly relations with the 
the Erse-king Konofogor, and fights with him against Einar, 
Earl of Orkney, 13719-28""^^^ summer, putting into Asmund- 
bay in Orkney, on his return to Norway, he is attacked and 
slain by Einar, 17428"^ 752 — King Olaf of Norway seizes, as 
atonement for Eyvind, the third part of Orkney that belonged 
to Earl Einar, 18415^ 

EYVIND WELLSPRING (E. kelda), son's son of Rognvald 
Straightleg, the son of Harald Hairfair, a wizard and spell- 
worker, esa^)es from a hall to which Olaf Tryggvison let 
set fire, and wherein he burnt a number of sorcerers, i. 31213- 
3I3j^ — Ms in working spells at Olaf Trygg\'ison on Easter- 
feast at Ogvaldsness in Kormt-isle, and is taken with his 
fellows and tied to a tide-washed skerry, where they all 
perished, 31 328-31426 

FALSTER (The folk oQ (Falstrbyggvar), inhabitants of the 
Danish island of Falster, iiL 502 

FAROE-MEN (Færeyingar), ii. 24634 2472 7 20 26 271(12)24 

52 Index I [fas — fin 

FASTI, an earl of Denmark, defeats and slays Ottar Vendilcrow, 

aided by Earl Vat, i. 4728*4^81 
FENIA (Fenja), one of K. Frodi's gold-grinding bondmaids, cf. 

Grott. pros., Nor. FomkvæíSi, 324-325, ii. 4413 
FENRIR and Fenrir's Wolf (Fenris-úlfr), Loki's son in the 

shape of a wolf, i, iSoi^ 19321 ^9^i6 
FINN (Finnr), stationed in the forehold of the Long-Worm, i. 

353ig . , , 

FINN, an archer on board Earl Eric's ship in the battle of 

Svold, i. 37114-21 

FINN, a Finnish wizard, ill-treated by Halfdan the Black, and 
befriended by Harald his son (Hairfair), L 851^^ 

FINN, son of Arni Ammodson, married to Berghot, daughter 
of Halfdan, son of Sigurd Sow, and niece to Harald Hardredy, 
ii. 19818 iil 1115.7 — of King Olaf Haraldson's following, and 
much honoured, 19823.24 — refuses to aid his brother Thorberg 
in protecting Stein Skaptison in the King's despite, 282^-283, 
— but changes his mind, and takes a foremost part in cring- 
ing about peace and pardon for his brother and Stein, threat- 
ening that unless listened to he and his brothers would join 
King Knut, 284^-28613 — swears an oath of faith and fealty to 
King Olaf, 28514.2Q 28611.13 — he enters the King's service, 
2^^19-20 28-29 — commissioned by the King to go to Halogaland 
and to raise there a general levy of men and ships, also to 
bring to justice Thorir Hound for his dealings with Karli, 
28629-28718 — his proceedings in respect of the first part of 
his commission, 28713-28818 — failure of his dealings with 
Thorir Hound, 28814-2913 — returns to King Olaf and reports 
his journey to him, 29121.28 — accompanies King Olaf in his 
flight from Norway, 3694-^his advice at K. OkJ's council of 
war at Staffmoor, 401 30-40215— the King, resting his head on 
Finn's knee at Sticklestead, has a dream which Finn disturbs 
by awaking him on the approach of the enemy, much to 
Olaf's regret, 4141^2 — Finn's opinion on Kalf Arnison's sin- 
cerity, 42627.28 — fells Thorstein Shipwright at the battle of 
Sticklestead, 4335 — taken home wounded by his brother 
Kalf, whom Finn dislikes for his treachery to K. Olaf, 
43528-4365 4538-18 — ^k^s truce of K. Svein, and settles down 
at home in quiet, 453i6-i8 — ^- Knut, breaking all his promises 
to Kalf Arnison, he changes his mind, and a rapprochement 


Index I 53 

with Finn is effected, 46218.2^ — his estate, official position, 
marriage relations, and great favour with K. Harald, nis-n 
— ^viking raids in the West, iiin.15 — Finn's outspoken esti- 
mate of Harald Hardredy's character on hearing of the 
murder of Einar and Eindrid, 11I16-26 — ^^s diplomatic action 
on Harald's behalf averts a general rising against the King, 
\\\^\\^ — Harald refusing to carry out the engagements 
on which Finn's diplomacy was based, the latter told the 
ELing in plain anger that he did not keep his word, 115-11613 
— Firm arranges terms of peace between his brother Kalf and 
King Harald, ii92]^-I20|q — misdoubting him that Harald had 
compassed Kalfs death, he takes the matter so to heart that 
he leaves Norway and takes service with K. Svein of Den- 
mark, who creates him his earl, i2Iiq-i22ii 4731819 — "^^ "^^ 
flee at the battle of Niz, and is captured, 1 3 721.^1 — King Harald, 
after being most grossly insulted by Finn, gives him life and 
lets him go free back into K. Svein's service, 1412-1428 — his 
daughter Sigrid given in marriage to Earl Orm EiHfson, 3515^ 

FINN, base-bom son of Erling Askew by Asa the Light, iii. 4747 

FINN THE LITTLE (F. litli), a former servant of King 
Roerek, who, when his master became prisoner, served him 
on the sly in plotting against King Olaf 's men, and rescuing 
the blipd King from his imprisonment, ii. 1269-13020 — slays 
Thorir the Long, 13010.19 

FINN-FOLK (Finnlendingar) = Finns, ii. 1O30 

FINNS (ilnnar), inhabitants of Finnland, i. 271Q 3313 ii. 1015 jg 

FINNS, inhabitants of Finmark, i. 8531 24 864 (Swasi and Snow- 
fair), II96-I20; 21820 32816 32914— "• 38725 4326— iii. 1368 

«558 356» 357i 2 19 

FINN, son of Sheep-Wolf, and brother to Peter Burdenswain, 
hanged by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 359^ — avenged by his 
brotíier, 3668.10 

FINN, son of Skopti, the son of Ogmund, iii. 22531 — one of 
ELing Magnus Barefoot's captains in the fortress on Kvaldins- 
isle, 227^ — King Magnus having a contest with Skopti on a 
matter of heritage, Finn proceeds to the King pleading his 
father's case in vain, 2353-23612 — accompanies his father on 
a pilgrimage to Rome, and dies on the journey, 2373.15 

54 Index I [fin — fre 

FINN-WIFE, i. i2i4e = Snowfair. 

FIOLNIR (Fjölnir), one of Odin's names, Odin, L 27824 iii, 

FIOLNIR, son of Yngvi Frey and Gerd, ancestor of the race 
of the Ynglings of Sweden, i. 4^ 235 — succeeded his father in 
the rule over the Swedes and the Wealth of Upsala, 241»^ — 
his death at Hleithra, when on a visit to King Frodi, by 
drowning in a vat of mead, described, 2424-2 5|q 

FION-DWELLERS (Fjónbúar, byggvar), inhabitants of the 
island of Fion, Denmark, iii. 389 1 2 1^ 

FIRTHS (Men of the) (Fir«ir), inhabitants of the Norwegian 
Folkland, the Firths, i. 30821 ii. 4231^ 

FLEMINGS (Flæmingjar), inhabitants of Flanders, i. aóiu 

iii. 43015 

FLOSI, see Buming-Flosi. 

FOLI, the father of Thord, whose daughter Gudrun was the 
wife of Skopti, the son of Ogmund, iii. 225^ 

FOLKI, one of the four sons of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, 
daughter of King Harald Gilli, iii. 3795 

FRANKMEN, Franks (Frakkar), i.e, Franconians, i. 256,2; 
Normans, iii. 18133; West-Europeans, 43O15 43I20 

FREDERICK (FriiSrekr) Barbarossa, Roman Emperor, 1152- 
II 90, iii. 2565 

FREDERICK II., grandson of the preceding. Emperor, 12 15- 
1250, iii. 256^ 

FREY (Freyr), also called Yngvi-Frey, i. 44 and Yngvi, 23, son 
of Niord the Wealthy, of the Vanir tribe, given as hostage 
to the Asfolk, 1320.28 — appointed by Odin temple-priest 
among the Asfolk, 1627 — succeeded Niord in the rule of the 
Swedes, 2223.23 — reared a great temple at Upsala and endowed 
it richly, 222^^ — his reign one of great prosperity and plenty, 
2225 2327 — married Gerd, G)rmir*s daughter, 23^.^ — ^his deadi 
concealed for three years, during which great offerings in gold, 
silver, and copper poured into the mound made for him, 
23ig.22 — worshipped as a god by the Swedes, 45^ ^A^v^ — 
not burnt at his death, 2412.18 — called by the Swedes the 
God of the World, 24^3 — the * kenning ' Frey's game (Freys 
leikr), io9g is generally supposed to signify warfsure (see also 
note, p. 38831), but seeing that Yule was especially Frey's 
great festivity, and Homklofi connects closely ' Yule-drink- 

FRE — fro] Index I 55 

ing * and * Prey's game,' but refers to no act of war, it may 
£Eariy be questioned whether * Frey's leikr * does not refer to 
festive celebrations connected with Frey's special feast, con- 
sidering that part at least of the winter here referred to was 
spent in Ranrealm, a district fairly within the sway of the 
cult of Frey, — Frey in other *kennings,' i. 15519 24518 "• 43°8i 

FREYA (Freyja), daughter of Niord, and wife of Odr, a 
temple priestess among the Asfolk, and the first to teach them 
wizixiry, i. 1431^ ^45 — ^^ survivor of the gods, 2325 — ^®'" 
great fame, 2329-243 — shifty of mood, 24^ — mother of Hnoss 
and Gersemi, 24^.3 

FREYWITH THE DEAF (Freyvi«r daufi), a counsellor of 
King Olaf the Swede; description, ii. 161 3^ — his outspoken 
condemnation of the King's dealings with Olaf of Norway 
and with his own subjects in Sweden, ii. 161^3-16219 — by 
dexterously manœuvríng the revolted people he, m company 
with his brother Amwith, persuades them to elect James (On- 
und), Olaf s son, for king, 1631^-16523 

FRIGG, the wife of Odin, married his two brothers when Odin 
was supposed to have vanished utterly, i. 1314.16 

FRIDLEIF (Fri«leifr), son of Frodi the Proud or the Peaceful, 
i. 425^ and father to Ali the Bold, 4238 

FRIREK (Frirekr), the bearer of the banner Landwaster in 
the battle of Stamford Bridge, iii. 172^ 

FRIREK COCK-BOAT (F.kœna), one of the notable followers 
of K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, who fought with him in his last 
encounter with Erling Askew, iii. 441 14 — ^joins with other 
partisans of Hakon to keep his band together after his fall, 
leaving their ships in Raumsdal, and marching overland east 
to the Uplands, 447161^ — robs and slays the friends of Erling, 
4595.11— caught by Erhng and cast overboard tied to an an- 
chor, a deed much resented in Thrandheim, where Frirek^s 
was a prominent family, 46021^ 

FRISIANS (Frisar), i. 25621 2613 36733 

FRODI (FróíSi), a mythic King of Denmark, i. 19934 (perhaps 
the same who figures as a sea-king in S. E., i. 5467) 25923 ii. 


FRODI THE BOLD (F. hinn frækni). King of Denmark, lends 
K. Egil of Sweden armed assistance against Tunni, stipulating 
tribute from Sweden in return, which, not being paid by Egil's 

56 Index I [fro— cau 

successor, Frodi invades Sweden and plunders it far and 
wide, i. 45i8^ 476-ir — while on a war raid in the Baltic his 
land was invaded by K. Ottar of Sweden, 4717-48 

FRODI, son of King Eystein of Heathmark, joins Hogni his 
brother in war against Harald Hairiair, 9I18.17 — ^both brothers 
slain at Ringsacre in Heathmark, ^^^.y^ 22'932 • 

FRODI, son of Harald Hairfair and Gyda, daughter of King 
Eric of Hordaland, i. 11410 — ^proclaimed King by his father, 
13X18 — warred in the West with his brother Thorgils, and 
was killed by poison, 13231^ 

FRODI THE PROUD or the Peaceful (hinn mikilUti e«a 
hinn friiSsami), son of Dan the Proud, i. 424.5 [but according 
to S. E., i. 374, he was son of Fridleif, the son of Skiold, the 
son of Odin], King of Denmark, creator of the universal pro- 
found peace, called *the Peace of Frodi (FróíSafriíSr),' which 
began in the days when Frey ruled at Upsala, i. 23^ — had his 
seat at Hleithra, 2^ cf. 163 — was a great friend of Fiolnir, 
King of Sweden, who lost his life on a visit to him, 2^^ 

FROSTY (Frosti), King of the Finns, felled in battle by Agni, 
K. of the Swedes, i. 331447 

FULLA (FuUa), one of the goddesses, i. 200, 

GAMAL (Gamall), one of King Harald Sigurdson's followers in 
his punitive raid on Earl Hakon Ivarson, succeeds in sending 
the Earl timely warning of the King's intention to slay him 
for having helped K. Svein Wolfson to escape alive from the 
battle of Niz, iii. 1453.15 

GAMLI, the oldest son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145^ 
— goes with his mother from Orkney to Denmark, 15919^ — 
his fight against K. Hakon the Good at Rast-Kalf in the 
island of Frædi, and fall in that battle, 1782-17925 18017 183^ 


GANDALF (Gandálfr), King of Vingulmark, son of Elfgeir 
(King of Elf home ?), i. 723^ — loses one half of Vingulmark 
in a war with Halfdan the Black, 77i5^ — his sons take up the 
feud with Halfdan, 807.2^ — made a war raid across the Fold- 
firth into Harald Hairfair's realm at Westfold, and was routed 
by Harald and his general Guthorm, 91 15 22.24 927-14 

GAUT (Gautr), * after whom is Gautland named,' i. 567 

GAUT-FOLK, see Gauts. 

GAU — GEi] Index I 57 

GAUT THE RED (G. hinn rau«i), a foster-son of Thrand o' 
Gate, in Faroe, joins in Sigurd Thorlakson's journey to Nor- 
way in pursuit of Thoralf of Dimon, ii. 2692^27 2701-27412 — 
hoots Karl o' Mere for refusing to accept his foster-father's 
bad money in payment of taxes, 3073^-3085 — slays Karl, 
aided by Thord the Low, 30910.19 — is outlawed for the deed, 

GAUTHILD (Gauthildr), daughter of Algaut, King of West- 
gautland, and Alof, daughter of Olaf the Farsighted, King of 
Nerick, married Ingiald Evil-heart, King of Sweden, i. 563.12 
^SjMl — ^^*" children, Asa Evil-heart and Olaf Tree-shaver, 
62|o-635 652^^ 

GAUTI, son of Tovi (Gauti Tóvason), his fight with some Dan- 
ish merchantmen, ii. 15712-88 

GAUTLANDERS, see Gauts. 

GAUTLAND-FOLK, i^^r Gauts. 

GAUTLAND-MEN, see Gauts. 

GAUTREK THE BOUNTEOUS (Gautrekr hinn mildi), son 
of Gaut 'after whom is Gautland named,' i. 56^7 

GAUTS (Gautar), inhabitants of East- and West -Gautland, in 
Sweden, i, 10911 1^30 1107 1583 14 2591^3484— ii. 7727811 79io 
«410 86„ ii7ii ii9i7 20 14212 I55i2 22 15618 16412— 1". h6ii 

14?« 1501« 29 iSlg 15 22831 231^ 18 24 80 35^82 35ll6 

GAUTVID (GautviiSr), son of Swipdag the Blind and foster- 
brother of Ingiald Evil-heart, i. 5522-07 6i2«^4 
6EFION (Gefjon), according to * Gylfaginning,* S. E., i. 30, of 
the race of the Asfolk (and in * Loícasenna,* 2 1, Odin declares 
her to know the fate of mankind as clearly as himself), sent 
by Odin to King Gylfi to seek new lands, and by aid of her 
giant-begotten four sons, four oxen, she ploughed out of Gylfi's 
land the island of Selund, i. 1524-1614 
GEFN-Freyja (S. E., i. 11428 aSOgio ^^lzí^ i- 1867 
GEI GAD (Geiga^r), the greatest of champions, i, 3811 ig 
GEIRA, daughter of King Burislaf in Wendland, ruling, in her 
own right, over a dominion in that country, the first wife of 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 2521^.31 25410 36021.22— her death, 260^^1 
GEIRFIN (Geirfinnr), an earl who commanded in the town of 
Gunvaldsburg, defeated and made prisoner by K.Olaf Harald- 
son, firom whom the town ransomed him for twelve thousand 
gold shillings, ii. 1924.28 ^^r-s 

58 Index I [gei — gis 

GEIRI, an Icelander, father of Thorkel, who was at the battle on 

Lyrshaw-heath, iii. 3722 
GEIRMUND (Geirmundr), brings news to Earl Hakon of the 

approach of the fleet of the Jomsburgers, i. 27425-2753 
GEIRTHIOF (Geirf jófr), a king in Saxland, married to Alof 

the Mighty — his country raided by Adils, K. of the Swedes, 

i- 49m7 
GEITIR, a legendary sea-kmg, i. 134^ 

GELLIR, son of Thorkel, grandfather of Ari the Learned, L 
5i3 — ^goes, in obedience to a message from King Olaf Harald- 
son, by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to Norway, and stays with King 
Olaif, ii. 249^g^g — is sent by the King in the following summer 
to Iceland m order to negotiate with the Icelanders, by cajol- 
ery and threats, the subjection of Iceland to Norway, 274iy- 
275h c^- 294ii.i4 — the Icelanders having with one accord 
rejected King Olaf's proposals unconditionally, Gellir goes 
back to Norway and meets King Olaf as he returns to Norway 
after the defeat at the Holy River, 275^^ 333iwi 

GERD (Ger«r), d. of the giant Gymir, wife of Frey, i. 23^^ — 
in *kennings' for women, 27821^ iii. 7538 94» ^3425 

GERSEMI, daughter of Odr and Freyja, i. 243 

GIFFORD (GiparSr), a Welshman, offers his services to K. 
Magnus Barefoot and is well received, iii. 22823^ — ^putting in 
an appearance at the fight of Foxem first when it was all over, 
he becomes an object of unflattering raillery, 229^^^^ — Eld- 
iarn the Icelandic poet's fun with him, 22923-23020 

GILCHRIST, see Harald Gilli. 

GILL BACKRIFT (Gilli bakrauf), iii. 21632 

GILLI, Speaker-at-law of the Faroes, goes to Norway in obedi; 
ence to an order of King Olaf Haraldson, together with many 
other representatives of the Faroe folk; becomes a member 
of the King's household and bodyguard, and with the rest 
promises that the islands shall become an integral part of the 
Norwegian realm, ii. 2461.^-24724 — summoned again to Nor- 
way by King Olaf, he agrees with other chiefs of Faroe to 
leave the mission to Thoralf of Dimon, 2697.^3 — ^ parti- 
cipation in the affair resulting from Karl o' Mere's mission to 
the Faroes, 30421^ 29"3°58 — takes up, together with Leif 
Ozurson, the bloodsuit after Karl, 3092^^ 

GISL, son of Visbur and a daughter of Aude the Wealthy, L 

Giu — gol] Index I 59 

28^7 — disinherited together with his brother Ondur by their 
lather, wherefore the brothers lay on him a spell of evil power, 

GIUkUNGS, the family of the mythic King Giuki, represented 
in works of art at the Hippodrome in Micklegarth, iiL 260^3 

GIZUR GOLDBROW (Gizurr gullbrá), fosterfather of Temple- 
garth-Ref, an Icelandic poet, called Gizur the Swart at the 
court of Olaf the Swede-king, ii. 91 19^0 4^420 — receives Hialti 
Skeggison in a friendly manner, 92^.22 94i8-i9 — introduces 
Hialti to the Princess Ingigerd, 9516-24 — ^^ let by Hialti into 
the secret of his mission to the Swedish court, loi^^— is with 
K. Olaf Haraldson at the battle of Sticklestead, 404^0 — his 
song of encouragement before the battle, 40510.19 — síain in 
the battle, 43022^84 

GKUR THE SWART (G. svarti), the same as Gizur Goldbrow 

GIZUR^^F VALDRES, a captain in Eari Hakon's host in the 
battle of Hiorungwick, slain by the Jomsviking Howard Hew- 
er, i. 2822,-2835 

GIZUR THE WHITE (G. hviti), son of Teit, the son of 
Ketilbiom, an Icelandic noble, favourite with Olaf Tryggvison 
and chiefly instrumental in introducing Christianity in Ice- 

i«^ Í- 33425-28 (ii- 899) 3358-6. 33927-34O12 35418-15 20-25 

GLAMMI, a sea-king of fame, i. 239^0 iii. 3822 

GLUM (Glúmr), son of Geiri, an Icelandic poet, i. 1555.22 ^^^i-io 

»^2-18 1981.10 20I20.81 2150-18 2394-22 243M6 
ODGl ' '" 

GODGUEST (Go«gestr), King of Halogaland, died through fall 
from the horse Raven, a gift-horse from King Adils of Swedfen, 

^ S02».81 

GODWIN (Gu«ini), Earl, son of Wolfnoth, married to Gyda, 
the daughter of Thorgils Sprakalegg, their children, ii. 326^0.^4 
— ^his daughter, Gyda, married to K. Edward the Confessor, 
iii- i5Si8-i»— bis sons, 15725-1634 

GOLD-HARALD (Gullharaldr), son of Knut Gormson, and 
nephew of K. Harald Gormson, a great warrior, and deemed 
entitled to kingdom in Denmark, i. 217J2.18 — becomes great 
friend of Hakon the Earl of Ladir, and confides to him his 
aspirations to kingly dominion in Denmark, wherein he is 
encouraged by Hakon, 232^4^5 — broaching the matter to his 
uncle he receives an angry reply, 23220-2337 2341.7 — imparts 

6o Index I [gon — gra 

to Earl Hakon his intention to cany out his plan by force 
of arms, 233g.8Q — enters into Earl Hakon's wily plan of be- 
coming a candidate for the throne of Norway, 236^0^ cf. 
234^-236^5 — ^goes to attack Harald Greycloak, KL of Norway, 
coming to Denmark on an invitation from Harald Gormson, 
and slays him in battle at the Neck in limbfirth, 23731-2381 
24-23922 — is himself attacked in turn by Earl Jkakon ana 
hanged on a gallows, 2403.^1 cf. 2385^3 

GONDUL (Göndul), a * Valkyrja,' L 18733 1895 ^9^8— "• S9u 
io9i0— iii- 254ii 

GORM THE OLD (Gormr hinn gamli), son of Horda-Knut 
[the son of Arnfinn], sole King of Denmark, i. ^Zxti-w 93í9 
94i5 "• 25317.20; father of Knut and Harald, 21713 «338 «3417 
— Gorm*s son, better G's descendant (áttungr), a kenning for 
Knut the Mighty, his great-grandson, 31420 

GOTH-GOD (Gauta-Týr), the 'Goths' avail,' Odin, L 189^, 

GOTLANDERS (Gotar), inhabitants of the island of Got- 
land, ii. 820 

GOWK-THORIR (Gauka-þórir), a waylayer; he and Afrafasti 
go with their company and offer K. Olaf Haraldson their 
service, ii. 3943.80 — ^'^^^ ^^'^^ being rejected on religious 
grounds, they follow the King's host on their own account, 
3948i'39527 — Gowk-Thorir, with his company, is christened, 
3995-81 — ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ fi^^ brunt at the battle of Sticklestead, 

GRAM (gramr), in ancient days the name of a lord that went 
a-warring, i. 3232.28 — ^^ warriors bore collectively the plural 
name *gramir,'/.i. 

GRANI, an Icelandic poet, sings of the ransoming of the 
daughters of Thorkel Gusher, iii. 964.11 

GRANKEL or Granketil (Grankell e«a GranketiU), a goodman 
of Halogaland, personal description, ii. 19X2^^ — ogives a 
goodly banquet to K. Olaf Haraldson on his visit to Haloga- 
land, 1923.5— owner of an island rich in produce, over Ae 
possession of which he and his son Asmund come to quarrel 
with Harek of Thiotta, and gain their case, 2924-2943 — burnt 
in his house by Harek, 347ii-27 42010.13 

GRANMAR (Granmarr), King of Southmanland in Sweden, 
escaped being burned at Upsala with other kinglets of Sweden, 
i. 58^7 — hears of the burning and takes his counsel, 59io.i8 


Index I 6 1 

— ^his entertainment of, and alliance with, the viking King 
Hiorvard, S9i8-6o — his wars with Ingiald, and death through 
the latter's treachery, 61-622^ 
GREEKS (Grikkir, Girkir), in. oi^g 6238 go T^-as ^óog 4303 12 19 

GREGORY, son of Day Eilifson and of Ragnhild, the d. of 
Skopti Ogmundson, iii. 35 2g — takes service with King Ingi 
Haxaldson and becomes his great favourite, 37710-24 — K. 
Sigurd Haraldson forming a plan with his brother Eystein to 
depose their crippled brother Ingi, Gregory defeats the plot, 
and puts an end to Sigurd's consequent policy of provocation 
by slaying him at Biorgvin, 38507-3901^ — is prevented by the 
people from falling upon Eystein, 39O11.21 — escapes from an 
attack by King Eystein on his manor of Bentberg, which Ey- 
stein destroys, live stock and all, 39007-39 124 — he is awarded 
fifteen marks from K. Eystein for the destruction of his 
property, 39217.13 — he and Ingi win over from Eystein many 
of his supporters, 39230-3932 — he takes command of the 
strong place of Kings' Rock on behalf of Ingi, 39913.19 — ^^ 
dealings with Hakon Shoulderbroad at Kings' Rock, 39921- 
40I29 — his estimate of Icelanders as soldiers, 4018Q-4022 — 
keeps with K. Ingi in the Wick watching an opportunity to 
£adl on Hakon Shoulderbroad, 402^2-15 — with K. Ingi in 
Bioigvin, where Hakon eludes his vigilance, 4031.13 — his part 
in the battle of the Elf against Hakon Shoulderbroad, 40313- 
41517 — goes from the battle north into the Wick and winters 
there, 41513^ — takes pledge of King Ingi that Sigurd of 
Reyr,his near relative, shall retain all his possessions, 4 1 527.09 — 
dissatisfied with Erling Askew's inactivity at Biorgvin in face 
of Hakon's uncompromising attitude in Thrandheim, 41613.21 
— goes with K. Ingi to Biorgvin, 41604 20 — ^accidentally drawn 
into a fight, on the bridges in Biorgvin, between his brother- 
in-law Haldor and Biom, the nephew of Erling Askew, 41629- 
41828 — goes with K. Ingi east into the Wick in pursuit of 
Hakon, and takes up his station at Kings' Rock, 41823.28 — 
his onset on Hakon at Saur-Byes, 419^.06 — in seeking to 
avenge on Hakon Shoulderbroad the slaymg of his brother- 
in-law Haldor Bryniolfson, he is shot down crossing the river 
Befia, 1 161, 41927-42 128 — his character, 42101.2^ — ^next to 
E3rstein the elder, the greatest friend of Icelanders m Norway, 

02 Index I [gre— gri 

4^ ^26^ — ^^3 ^o^y t^cn to Hofund and buried at Gimsey at 
the nuns' seat there, 42 127.30 — ^^^% Ingi's grief at his fall, and 
devotion to his memory, 4228-81 4^327^4244 42S9-io — Gregory's 
house-carles make common cause with Erling Askew against 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, 4356-12 43728-26 

GRELAD (GrelöíS), daughter of Dm^d, Earl of Caithness, 
married to Thorfin SkiiU-cleaver, ii. 16827^1692 

GRIMKEL (Grimkell), the court bishop of King Olaf Harald- 
son, his and his clerks' seats in the King's hall, iL 6730^ — ^l 
his and other clerks' counsel, Olaf Haraldson draws up canon- 
law for Norway, 6818.20 — remained, at K. Olaf's request, 
at his missionary duty in the Uplands during the King's 
flight to Russia, 4544.10 — ^at the request of the people of 
Thrandheim he goes to Nidoyce to look after matters in con- 
nection with K. Olaf 's holiness, 4544^ 10-16 — ^^ conduct in 
the affair until, with K. Svein Alfiva's son's consent, he de- 
clares K. Olaf to be a verily holy man, 45418-4573 

GRIM RAKE (Grimr rusli), goes off to Micklegarth with Kris- 
tin, the wife of Earl Erling Askew, where they have sundry 
children together, iii. 47411.14 

GRIM, son of Thorgils the son of Halma, aids his father in 
securing the body of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 444-445, 4475- 

4497 45427-4554 

GRIM from Vist, father to Andres, a partisan of Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon, iii. 35614 

GRIOTGARD, read Griotgarth. 

GRIOTGARTH THE BRISK (G. röskvi), stationed in the 
forehold on board the Long-Worm, i. 35320 

GRIOTGARTH (Grjótgar«r) the elder, son of Earl Hakon 
Griotgarthson, of Ladir, slain in Harald Hairfair's second 
battle of Solskel, i, 10230.32 

GRIOTGARTH the younger, son of Earl Hakon Griotgarth- 
son, and younger brother to Earl Sigurd of Ladir; having no 
title of honour he went in summer on viking raids, i. 2031^^ 
— plots with Gunnhild and Harald Grayclodc against the life 
of his brother, 204^.^ — in company with Harald and Erling 
he bums Earl Sigurd in his house at Oglo, 2051^^ — appointed 
by Harald Graycloak governor of North-Mere, and is slain 
in battle there by his nephew Hakon Sigurdson, Earl of 
Ladir, 21620-2170 

GRi — gud] Index I 63 

GRIOTGARTH, son of Olvir of Eggja, rises in rebellion against 
K. Olaf Haraldson in order to avenge the death of his brother 
Thorir, 3447.11 — K. Olaf, hearing of it, attacks him in his 
house and slays him, 344is-3454 

GRIOTGARTH of Yrjar, father to Hakon, Earl of Ladir, i. 

GWTGARTH, read Griotgarth, the father of Hreidar, who was 
killed in the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 362^ 

GROA (Gróa), daughter of Thorstein the Red, married to Dun- 
gatd. Earl of Caithness, their daughter Grelad, wife of Thorfin 
Skull^leaver, Earl of Orkney, ii. 1 6827-1 693 

GRYTING (Grýtingr), King of Orkdale, fights with Harald 
Hair&ir, and, being defeated, swears fealty to him, i. 9521.20 

GUDBRAND (Gu«brandr), a * hersir ' of the Dales, lends 
anned aid to Eystein, King of Heathmark, against Halfdan 
the Black, i. 7822.34— enters an alliance with Hogni and Frodi, 
sons of King Eystein of Heathmark, and with Hogni Kara- 
sc»i at Ringsacre, against Harald Hairfair, who burns Gud- 
brand in his house there, 92 ^^.g^ 

GUDBRAND A-DALE (Dala-GuiSbrandr), makes an alliance 
with Earl Hakon Sigurdson of Ladir, Tryggvi Olafson, and 
Gudrod Biornsson against Gunnhild's sons, i. 2103.^^ 

GUDBRAND A-DALES (Dala-Gu«brandr), a 'hersir* over 
*the Dales,' i.e, over Gudbrandsdale, over which he bore sway 
like a king, ii. 2003^^32 — in might and wide lands a peer of 
Erling Skialgson, 20022.32 — his unavailing struggle against K. 
Olaf Haialdson's missionary campaign in his dominion, 20 ij- 
2o8gi — converted to Christianity and baptized by the court 
bishop Sigurd, 20831-2092 — builds the first church in Gud- 
brandsdale, 2092.3 

GUDBRAND KULA (G. kúla), father of Asta the wife of K. 
Haiald the Grenlander, i. 284^ 31 1^ and of Isrid, wife of 
Thord Bigbelly, ii. 2492 — fosters Olaf, son of Harald the 
Grenlander (O. Holy), Ins grandson, i. 287^^.19 

GUDBRAND, son of Shavehew, married to Maria, daughter of 
K. Eystein Magnusson and Ingibiorg, d. of Guthorm, son of 
Steig-Thorir,iii. 265^ — falls on the sideof King Ingi Haraldson 
in the battle of Oslo against Hakon Shoulderbroad, 426^3 — 
his son, Olaf Unlucky, 374im9 
GUDBRAND THE WHITE (G. hviti), a captain m Earl 

04 Index I [gud 

Eric's division of Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorung- 

Wiclc 1 211 

GUDLAUG ^Gu«laugr), King of Halogaland, defeated and 
hanged by the sons of Yngvi Alrekson, i. 39^^ — avenged by 
his son, Gylaug, 413.26 

GUDLEIK THE GARTHREALMER (Gu«leikr gerzki), a 
great trader in Russian goods, whence his by-name, enters 
partnership with King Olaf Haraldson, and takes his com- 
mission for procuring costly stuffs for the King's robes of 
state. On the return voyage he is slain by Thorgaut Hare- 
lip, who robbed all the goods for the benefit of King Olaf of 
Sweden, ii. 8123-832 

GUDMUND (GuiSmundr), son of An Thorgeirson, Bishop of 
Holar in Iceland, 1 203-1 237, iii. 47622 

GUDMUND THE MIGHTY (G. hinn riki) of Maddermead, 
son of Eyolf, i. 33420 — alternately singled out by King Olsif 
Haraldson as keeper of the blinded Upland King Rœrek, ii. 
13524-25 — Rœrek not feeling at home with Thorgils Arison 
requests to be taken to Gudmund, who entertains him for 
one year, and then rids himself of him by lodging him at the 
small tenement of Calfskin, 1361^.27 — his aid sought by King 
Olaf for obtaining possession of the island of Grimsey, 24229- 
2438 — Gudmund and his followers' compliance thwarted by 
his brother Einar's intervention, 2439-244^0 — invited, together 
with other chiefs of Iceland, by Thorarin Nefiolfson, in the 
name of King Olaf, to come to Norway to meet the King, an 
invitation of which G. did not avail himself, 245-2469 — his 
death (1025), 24924.35 — genealogical reference to, iiL 153^ 

GUDRID (Gu«ri«r), daughter of Birgir and sister to Jon, 
Archbishop of Nidoyce, Eric Oddson's authority for his ac- 
count of Ivar Dint's execution, iii. 36327 

GUDRID, daughter of Guthorm Steig-Thorirson, avers that 
she saw in her father's possession the mazer-bowl which 
Harald the Hardredy gave to Steig-Thorir, iiL 86,7^ 87^^ 

GUDROD (GuíSröíSr), son of King Biom the Chapman, L 134,1 
— fostered, after his father's death, by his uncle Olaf, 142^ — 
flies, with his foster-brother, Tryggvi Olafson, to the Uplands 
after the fall of K. Olaf at Tunsbeig in battle against Eric 
Bloodaxe, 14429.80 — ^j^ins Hakon the Good against Eric 
Bloodaxe, 1517.11 — receives from Hakon the Good the title 

gud] Index I 65 

of king, together with the dominion of Westfold, 15I14.18 — 
confirmed in his title and dominion on the accession of 
Eric's sons to power, 19715^4 202 ^^.^g — makes an alliance 
against Gunnhild's sons with Earl Hakon, Gudbrand a-Dale, 
and Tryggvi Olafson, 2i08.n — while guesting up-country in 
the neighbourhood of Tunsberg he is set upon, at night, by 
Harald Greycloak and killed, 21 134-2 123 — (Of Gudrod, as of 
his &ther, Snorri says * he married well and meetly * without 
mentioning the wife's name) ; he left a son, Harald the Gren- 
lander, 212^^ 

GUDROD (Go^rö^r), son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 
1457 — hearing of Earl Hakon Sigurdson's alliance with the 
Upland lords, he gives out that next spring he will go on a 
war-voyage, aio^.jg — at the ale of parting he and Harald, 
who was to join m the expedition, nearly came to blows over 
the drinking game * man-likening,* and parted company, 2 lo^g- 
21 14 — sailing east to the Wick and across the Fold, he 
arranges with K. Tryggvi Olafson a tryst at Walls, east of 
Sotaness, and with his men falls treacherously on Tryggvi and 
slays him there, 2 1 1^.31 — searches for Tryggyi's widow, 22415.1^ 
— with his brother, Sigurd Slaver, he is left in governorship of 
Thrandheim by Harald Greycloak, 2144.3 — clears, with his 
brother, out of Thrandheim on Earl Hakon's return in 
autumn, and abides in the Mere, 21414.24 — gathers with 
Harald his brother fresh host for Thrandheim, which they 
occupy first when Earl Hakon leaves the country for Denmark, 
*'^7-«2 2^721-29 — ^^^s ^^^ ^^^ mother and Ragnfrod, his 
brother, to Orkney, on Hakon being appointed Harald Gorm- 
son's viceroy, '^^^xi^ cf. 2435 — ^^^ ^ warfaring life in 
western countries until Olaf Tryggvison has been king in 
Norway for four years (999), when he returns with many 
ships to the Wick, where he is slain by the King's brothers- 
in-law Hyming and Thorgeir, 34I28-34280 

GUDROD GLEAM (G. Ijómi), son of Harald Hairfair and 
Snowfair, daughter of Swasi, i. 1203 — repudiated by his 
fiather, 121^^ — restored to favour at the instance of Thiodolf 
of Hvin, 121^x223 with whom, at Harald's behest, he takes 
up his abode, 122^.3 — revolts against his father, and in 
company with his brother Halfdan Highly burns in his 
house Rognvald the Mere-earl, and seizes the rule over his 

VI, F 

66 Index I [gud 

dominion, 124^5^ — expelled by King Harald east to Agdir, 
125^.5 — appointed king by his father, 13X20^2 — ^penshed by 
shipwreck off the Jadar, sailing from Agdir to Rogalan<^ 


GUDROD, a king of Gudbrandsdale, ii. 4120 — ^joins the other 
Upland kinglets in supporting Olaf Haraldson's struggle for 
the crown of Norway, 4118 4424 — ^joins in a conspiracy with 
other four Upland kings against Olaf for his cruelty to heathen 
Uplanders, 10311-106 — seized at Ringacre with his feUow- 
conspirators by King Olaf, who has his tongue cut out, io8g^ 

GUDROD, son of Halfdan Whiteleg, i. 6750^1 

GUDROD the Hunter-King, or the Proud (G. vei^ikonungr 
e%a hinn mikilláti), son of Halfdan Eysteinson the Bounte- 
ous and the Meatgrudging, King of Raumrick and Westfold, 
and one half of Vingulmark, married, first, Elfhild, d. of King 
Alfarin of Elfhome; secondly, Asa, daughter of K. Harald 
Redlip of Agdir, whom Gudrod slew, he being in turn slain 
by Asa's foot-page, in Stiflasound, i. 7024-72^2 — his sons lose 
a great part of the realm he left them, 72ig^ 

GUDROD, son of Olaf Butterbread, King of the South Isles, 
in the host of King Ingi before Oslo, iii. 42420^7 — flees before 
King Hakon's men, 42 5^^ 

GUDROD, King of Scania {j,e. of Skaney), married to Asa 
Evil-heart, who encompassed his death, L 63^^!^ 

GUDROD SKIRJA (G. skirja), son of Harald Hairfair and 
Ashild, daughter of Ring Dayson, i. 11420^1 — ^^^ ^ ^^ 
father's court, but was endowed with large grants about 
(Hordland(?) and) Sogn, 13x27^ 

GUDRUN (Gu«rún), daughter of Einar son of Ari of Reek- 
knolls, married to Ogmund of Sand in Tentisle in Haloga- 
land, iii. 35628-80 

GUDRUN, daughter of Jamskeggi or Iron Skeggi of Uphowe 
in Yriar, chosen in marriage by Olaf Tryggvison in atone- 
ment for her father's death, attempts his life the first nig^t 
of the bridal and parts from him for ever, i. 322^1^ 

GUDRUN, d. of Nefstein and of Ingirid (Ingigerd is a mis- 
print), the d. of K. Sigurd Sow and Asta, the parents of 
Harsdd Hardredy, Gudrun being thus a niece of Olaf die 
Holy, given by K. Olaf the Quiet in marriage to Skuli Tosti's 
son, 'lung's fosterer,' iii. 1844^ 

GUD— gun] Index I 67 

GUDRUN of Saltness, mother of John Kitten, Sigurd and 
William, all of whom joined the band of Eystein, * King ' 
of the Birchlegs, iii. 48325 

GUDRUN, Sun of Lund, should read Sun of the Groves (Map), 
(G. Lundasól), the daughter of Bergthor and wife of Worm 
L]rigia, sent for by Earl Hakon of Ladir that he might 
dishonour her — her reproachful reply, i. 292^.2^ 

GUDRUN, daughter of Thord the son of Foli, the wife of 
Skopti, son of Ogmund, her children, iii. 22529.31 

GUNN (Gunnr), a Valkyr ja, ii. 1I20 Z^^vi 

GUNNAR of Gelmin (Gunnarr af Gelmini), supporter of K. 
Olaf Haraldson in his strife for the kingdom of Norway, ii. 

GUNNAR of Gimsar joins the following of Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon and Magnus the Blind, iii. 3497 — falls in the battle 
at Mouth, 34921-3501 


GUNNHILD (Gunnhildr), the daughter of Burislaf, King in 
Wendland, i. 252^0 — married to Svein Twibeard, King of 
Denmark, their sons: Knut the Mighty (Great) and Harald, 
*7iii w-ir 34824^— her death, 34826^7 [According to Dit- 
mar of Merseburg Svein put her away and sent her to Wend- 
land, and at his death her sons, Knut and Harald, restored 
her to her rights in Denmark.] 

GUNNHILD, daughter of Earl Halfdan and Ingibiorg, a 
daughter of Harald Hairfair, mother to E3rvind Skaldspiller, 

i- 19^27-28 ii- I9O57 

GUNNHILD, daughter of Knut the Mighty and Emma, ii. 
27i^ — wedded to Kaiser Henry (HI.) of Saxland, iii. 25^8^ 
— med three years afterwards (1040), 2523 

GUNNHILD, the reputed daughter of Ozur Tot, a lord in 
Haiogaland, i. 129^.8 — found in a Finmark cot stud3dng 
wizardry she is brought to Eric Bloodaxe, who, struck with 
her great beauty, obtains her in marriage, i. 1293-130 — held 
by common rumour guilty of having caused K. Halfdan 
the Black of Thrandheim to be killed by poison, 14214.18 — 
personal description, children, 1450.8 — flees with her sons, 
after the fall of her husband, to Orkney, where she resides 
with them for a time, 15420"^ 5 622 — ^" hearing that war had 
broken out between Norway and Denmark, she quits the 

68 Index I [gun 

Orkneys and goes to K. Harald Gormson with all her family, 
and is received hospitably and provided with lands for her 
support, 15912-16 21-26 — when her sons succeeded, after the 
death of Hakon the Good, to power in Norway, she meddles 
much in affairs of state and acquires the title ' Kings' Mother,' 
1978-14 — she urges her sons to rid them of Earl Sigurd of 
Ladir, 202^-203^2 — ^^'^ plotting with Griotgarth against the 
life of his brother, Earl Sigurd, 204^^— her guileful love for 
Earl Hakon of Ladir, 2088.10— takes counsel with her sons 
on hearing of Hakon the Ladir-EarPs alliance with Gud- 
brand a-Dale and the Wick Kings, Tryggvi and Gudrod, 
21011.14 — concerts plans with her sons for the kidnapping of 
Olaf Tryggvison, 22419.25 — sends spies to find out the where- 
abouts of Astrid, Olaf's mother, and her infant son, 225..1Q 
— sends Hakon, who fails, to secure the person of Olaf 
Tryggvison, 22511-22715 — sends Hakon again on the same 
errand, with a request to the King of Sweden to further her 
purpose, 22728-2284 — Hakon reports to her again his failure, 
2285.24 — H^^ son K. Harald Greycloak consults her as to the 
advisability of accepting Harald Gormson's invitation to 
Denmark, 2374^ — Har. Greycloak having been treacherously 
slain in Denmark, Gunnhild leaves Norway again for Orkney, 


GUNNHILD, daughter of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta the 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 353^ — given in marriage bv 
her half-brother. King Olaf Haraldson, to Ketil Calf (Kalf) 
of Ringness, 24818.37 — her daughter Sigrid, iii. 1061Q.18 — her 
son, Guthorm, 11I14 

GUNNHILD, daughter of Earl Svein, son of Earl Hakon the 
Mighty, married (second time) to Svein Wolfson, K. of Den- 
mark, iii. 10625.28 (The statement, ii. 3312.15 that she was 
married to Aslak, son of Erling Skialgson, is contradicted, iiL 
10624.06 where, in agreement with all other sources, Aslak's 
wife is said to have been Sigrid, Gunnhild's sister, see Sigrid, 
daughter of Earl Svein.) 

GUNNHILD, wife of Simon, son of Thorberg, foster-mother to 
K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 37320 — causes a witch-woman 
' to sit out ' in order to find by what magic means victory can 
be secured to the arms of her foster-son, 4245.12 

GUNNHILD'S SONS. See Eric's sons. 

GUN— gut] Index I 69 

GUNNI FISS, son of Sæmund Housewife and Ingibiorg 
daughter of priest Andres Brunison, iii. 3253 

GUNNSTEIN (Gunnsteinn) of Longisle in Halogaland, an 
older brother to Karli, a man of great account and busy in 
husbandry, ii. 23728-2382 — ^joins his brother in a trading 
voyage to Biarmland, and taJces command of their ship after 
Karli's death, 2581^-26610 — overtaken by Thorir Hound at 
Longwick, he and ÍEiis crew desert the ship, and Gunnstein 
escapes death by the aid of a wizard woman, 266iQ.ig — he 
eludies in disguise Thorir's pursuit, reaches his home in Long- 
isle, from whence he sets out to meet King Olaf, to whom he 
tells the story of the expedition, the King taking him under 
his protection, 26624-267^ 28823^ 28915 

GUTHORM (Guthormr), a king who fell with Eric Bloodaxe, 

GUTHORM, son of Asolf of Reinir and Thora daughter of 
Skopti Ogmundson, father of Bard the father of K. Ingi and 
Duke Skuli, iii. 184^13 — ^^ ^^^ brother Ottar Balli he joins 
many Thrandheim chiefs in proclaiming as king Sigurd, son 
of K. Harald GiUi, 348^ 

GUTHORM CINDER (G. sindri), of noble kin, and a famous 
poet both at Harald Hairfair's and his son Halfdan the 
Black's court, brings about peace between father and son 
when they were on the pomt of going into battle, i. 13613.31 — 
wrought a song on K. Hakon the Good called Hakon's-drapa, 

^*^S^««P ^S7lO-18 26-80 ^5^6-10 26-^598 ^7281-1736 11-1? ^798-17 

GUTHORM, son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145«— 
CeQIs at Ogvaldsness fighting against K. Hakon the Good, 

GUThSrM greybeard (G. grábar^i), father to Thoia 

the mother of K. Sigurd natural son of K. Harald Gilli, iii. 

314,3 — the story of his sons Einar and Andreas, and another 

daughter not named, 38111-38515 
GUTHORM, son of Gudbrand hersir of Gudbrandsdale, falls 

in battle against Halfdan the Black in Mickle-isle (Eyin 

mikla) in the lake Miors, i. 782^.29 
GUTHORM, son of Harald Fletcher, a commander at Kings' 

Rock, iii. 324g<, 
GUTHORM, * eldest' son of Harald Hairfair and Asa, daughter 

of Earl Hakon Griotgarth's son, i. hoj^t^ — sprinkled with 


Index I 


water by Duke Guthorm, who gave him his own name and 
brought him up east in the Wick, 1 14^2-11 5^ — appointed by 
his father governor over the dominion which Duke Guihoi 
had ruled over (Wick and Uplands), it^x^yi — ^'^*^ aften** 
made King of Ranrealm, iji^a^^s — ^^^ in* battle with Sol 
Kloft in the mouth of the Elf, v^\.^x ^Z^wvi 

GUTHORM, son of Ketil Kalf of Ringness and Gunnhili 
sister of K. Harald Hardredy, his character and relations wil 
K. Harald, iii, 12% ^^..^^ — his warfare in the west, and dealings 
with Margath, K, of Dublin, in Bretland, 122^1*124,^ — ^he 
bestows one tenth of the war-booty taken from Margath on 
Olaf^s church al Nidoyce, in the shape of a huge rood of 
silver, i24iMí>iö>z8 

GUTHORM, son of Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, succeeded his 
father and, in a year, died, leaving no issue, i. 1 16^,30 ii. 1 685,1^^ 

GUTHORM, son of King Sigurd Han and of Thorny, daughter 
of Klack-Harald King of Jutland, i, 8tj^ 83*,^— seized by 
the viking Haki of Hadaland, 815^,-82^— rescued from Haki 
by Harek Wolf, and brought to the court of Halfdan the 
Black, 821^-837— becomes captain of Harald Hairfair's body- 
guard, head of his government, and commander-in-chief of 
his army, 91812 — defeats the first combination of Hairf air's 
enemies: Haki Gandalfson, 92^.^^ — King Gandalf of Vingal* 
mark, 92^.|4^the four upland lords, Hogni and Frodi, sons 
of King Ey stein of Heathmark, Hogni Karason and ' hersir * 
Gudbrand, 92j^-93^ — approves strongly of Hairfair's vow to 
conquer all Norway, 95 ^.^ — his expedition with Harald north 
over Dofrafell into the basin of Drontheim, and victory in 
Orkdale, 9511.2^ — appointed governor by Harald Hairfair ove^^ 
Vermland, rio^^>i ^sprinkles with water and gives his nain^H 
to Harald Hairfair's oldest son, and brings him up, Í. 11433^^ 
ii5^^had rule over the Wick, Ranrealm apparently in- 
doded {cf, 131.^2-25)1 ^'^^ ^^ Uplands, when Harald was 
absent^ 115^,7— and as governor of these parts resided in 
Tunsberg, 12334.28 — ^^^^ ^" ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ Tunsberg, X24„ ^H 

GUTHORM, son of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta thH 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, li. 352^.27 — bis faintheartedness 
as a childj iio^,^(j — cornfields his great wish in childh* 

GUTHORM STEIG-THORIRSON, father to Gudrid. ai 


Index I 



iDgibiorg the queeo of K. Eystein Magnuson, iii, 87^^ ^^Syt 
— his daughter Gudrid saw in his possession the mazer-bowl 
which HaiaJd the Hardredy had given to Steig-ThorÍTj iii. 

GYDA ' the English ' (GyiSa in enska), daughter of Olaf Kuamn, 
King of Dublin (i. 265jg.i5j), a widow whose husband had 
been an earl, chooses at an assembly summoned by herself, 
Olaf Tryygvison for her husband, i, 2641^-265 266^^1— 
their son Tryggvi, ii, 4633^ 

GYDA, daughter of King Enc of Hordaland, fostered by a rich 
bonder of Valdres, personal description, i. 93i6-is-^the wooing 
of her by Harald Hair fair, and her answer, 9313-9417 — married 
to Harald Hairfairj her children, 1144^0 
YDA, daughter of Earl Godwin and his wife Gyda the 
daughter of Thorglls Sprakaleg, married to Edward the 
Confessor, ii, 32^10^34 "^- 'SSiaisí 

GYDA THE OLD (a gamk), daughter of K. Harald God- 
winson, married to K. Valdemar of Holmgarth, their son 
Harald the father- lo-law of K, Sigurd Jenisalem-farer, iii. 

J 70^-2713 

GYDA^ daughter of King Svein Twibeard, and sister to Knut 
the Great, married to Earl Eric, son of Hakon, i. 34S12.J8 

GYDA, daughter of Thorgils Sprakaleg, married to Earl God- 
win, the son of VVolfnothj mother to King Harald and Earl 
Tosti, etc., ii, 326^12 »*»- 'S9i€-n 

GYLAUG (Gýiaugr), King of Halogaland, son of Gudlaug, 
avienges his father on Jorund, K. of Sweden, i. 41^^ cf. 

GYLFI (according to ' Gylfaginning ' of the younger Edda, i* 
30, a king of Sweden), his dealings with Gefion, i. 1525 i^^x^ 
— his dealings with Odin, loj^ ,tj 

GYMIR, a giant, father of Gerd, the wife of Frey, i. 23^ = Ægir, 
the god of the sea, 543 

GYRD (Gyr^r), aboard King Haiald Hardredy's ship in the 
Solund isles — his dream, 163^2-164^ 

GYRD, son of Amundi, K- Ingi Haraldson^s foster-brother, 
married to Gyrid Day's daughter, sister of Gregory Dayson, 
iii, 403^11 — joins Gregory to attack Hakon Shoulderbroad at 
Kings^ Rock, iii. 4001^ — is slain by Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
403^,2 — Hakon^s dealings with his son Amundi, 420^^ 

72 Index I [gyr — hak 

GYRD BARDSON, father to Cecilia, the wife of Jon Kauda, 

iii- 3633 

GYRD GODWINSON, Earl, brother of K. Harald Godwinson, 
falls with his brother at the battle of Helsingport, iiL i8in.i7 

GYRD, son of King Harald Redlip, dies fighting with ms 
father against Gudrod the Hunter-king, i. 7I1J.14 

GYRD, son of Kolbein, brother to Bentein, whom Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon slew, iii. 3564 — ^refuses ransom for Ivar Dint 
as having taken part in the slaying of his brother Bentein, 
36313.22 — one of the chiefs who insisted on Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon being tortured to death, 366^ 

GYRD the Lawman, son of Gunnhild, a follower of K. Ingi 
Haraldson, made prisoner of war by K. Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, iii. 4031M6 

GYRD, son of Law-Bersi, father to Amundi, the foster-father 
of K. Ingi Haraldson, iii. 347^7 

GYRGIR (Georgios Maniakes), military commander under the 
Emperor Michael ' Katalaktus,' iii. 5934.38 — ^^ ^^^ Harald 
Sigurdson engaged in putting down piracy in the Greek 
Archipelago, oo^.^ — his quarrels with the Værings concerning 
certain privileges at encampments settled by Harald's sharp 
practice, 6017-625 — comparison of his and Harald's successes 
in war, 628-6323 

GYRID, the daughter of Day and sister of Gr^ory Dayson, 
married to Gyrd, the son of Amundi, iii. 4038-11 — their son 
Amundi, 4202^ 

HADD the Hardy (Haddr inn har^i), fought, together with his 
brother, Roald Rig, against Harald H^air in Hafursfirth, 
and, apparently, escaped by flight, i. 11I12-1122 

HADDING, a legendary hero, son of Gram, K. in Denmark, 
his followers, called Haddings (Haddingjar) — Haddingja 
valr, would be better translated * fallen Haddings' than 'Had- 
ding's chosen,' i. 20614 

HAFTHOR (Haf þórr) and Steinthor (Steinfórr), examples of 
personal names derived from Thor (þórr), L 1927.28 

HAGBARD, a sea-king, i. 388.5 2564 iii. 3192$ (Sigar*s foe). 

HAKI, a sea-king, and, after having slain K. Hugleik in battle, 
King of the Swedes, i. 38g.27 — overcome by wounds in battle 
with the sons of K. Yngvi Alreksson, Jorund and Eric, he 
had balefire arrayed on board ship whereon he was laid, the 

hak] Index I 73 

crafty with rudder shipped and sails set, going all ablaze into 
ttie main, 3951-4024 

HAKI, one of the sons of Gandalf, King of Vingulmark, defeated 
by Halfdan the Black at the battle of Eid, he saves himself 
by flight, L 8o28^ — makes, with his father, a combined front 
and flank attack on Harald Hairfair in Westfold, 9I18-22 — ^^ 
feated, and slain at Hakisdale, 92^.7 

HAKI, bareserk of Hadaland, kills King Sigurd Hart and seizes 
his children, Ragnhild and Guthorm, and brings them to his 
seat in Hadaland, i. 81 25-8 23 — prevented by his wounds from 
wedding Ragnhild, 823.8 — ^^ attacked by order of Halfdan the 
Black by Harek Wolf, who burns down his house and brings 
Ragnhild and Guthorm to Halfdan the Black, while HaH, 
having to give up the pursuit of him, falls on his sword and 
kills himself, 82^3^ 

HAKON (Hákon), an agent of Gunnhild the Kings' mother, 
employed to try to get into her power the infant Olaf Trygg- 
▼ison; his mission an utter failure, i. 225^^-2282^ 

HAKON, King of Sweden after King Steinkel, lii. 2267.^ [by 
the oldest authority, a series of Kings of Sweden attached to 
the West-Gautland code of laws, this King, under the name 
of Hakon rod, precedes Steinkel]. 

HAKON, son of Earl Eric the son of Hakon by his wife Gyda, 
L 348^7.18 ii« ÍÍ 122-28 25529-80 — ^^^^ Norway, after the departure 
for England of his father, conjointly with his uncle Svein, 
(1014-15), ii. 2121.22 25025^7 — Einar Thambarskelfir com- 
mission^ by his father to be his guardian and counsellor, 
2617^— capture of him in Saudungsound by Olaf Haraldson, 
30gQ-3i^ 25027.8Q — his parley with Olaf and release on parole, 
31^-32^ — he gives up to Olaf his dominion in Norway, 
3»i5.i« 3916-19 4719-29 25027-80— leaves Norway and joins King 
Knot, by whom he is held in much esteem and appointed to 
a great dominion, 333.11 2503^-2511 — visited by his kinsman- 
in-law, Einar Thambarskelfir, 2353^ — lays against his uncle. 
King Knut, claim to a portion of Norway, 251 ^^.^g — many 
fugitives from Norway assure him that the Norwegians were 
ready to revolt against King Olaf in favour of him and King 
Knut, 252^12 — urges King Knut to take action for ousting 
Olaf from Norway, 25212-17 — holds the second command in 
the fleet with which Knut sets out to meet the invasion of 

74 Index I [hak 

Denmark by Olaf of Norway and Onund of Sweden, 31325^ 
— his dragon galley described, 3151^ — Erling Skialgson aM 
his sons join Hakon's command m K. Knut's expedition, 
335g^— incurs general blame for breaking his oath never to 
fight against K. Olaf Haraldson, 336,1^ — Poet Sigvat a great 
friend of his, 33634.34 — ^appointed eSsutI of Norway by K. Knut, 
349i8i6 25^9 4^7i»-i6 — some of Erling's sons with Hakon when 
their father was slain, 360^7.^3 — leads out of Thrandhdm an 
overwhelming force before which K, Olaf takes to flight, 
36 1 29-36321 — short reign in Norway prophesied to him by 
K. Olaf, 36820^26 — ^^s popularity in Norway, 372,1.15 — follows 
up the flight of K. Olaf and tsJces all his abandoned ships, 
37^18-80 — ^favours conferred by him on Kalf Amison, 374-37S11 
— K. Knut's view of his uprightness, 3765.^ — he and K. Knut 
succeed in winning over Biom the Marsluil by bribes, 37728- 
3792i^^s death (lost at sea, 1029), 37628-37720 3^080-3^7» 
3^8,4.17 3891 

HAKON FAUK (H. faukr), son of Olaf o' Dale, and brother 
to Borghild, the concubine of K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and 
mother of K. Magnus the Blind, iii. 27721 28-24 — ^^^ ^1 order 
of K. Harald Gilli, 32337 

HAKON the Good (H. gó^i), King of Norway, 934-961, son 
of K. Har. Hairfair and Thora Most-Stafl*, afterwarc^ called 
*Athelstan's fosterling,' or *The Good;' kindred, birth, bap- 
tism, personal description, and early rearing, i. 1381.24 ^* 
ii. 19 1 28-1 921 — sent by his father to King Athelstane in 
England to be fostered by him, 1 3929-1 4021 — his life at the 
court of King Athelstane; gift by the latter of the sword 
* Quern-biter,* 14I4.19 — hearing of the death of his father he 
fits out, by the aid or K. Athelstane, an expedition to Norway, 
149511 — landing there he hears of the battle of Tunsberg and 
the fall of his brethren, Olaf, K. of the Wick, and Sigrod, K. 
of Thrandheim, and that his brother Eric was east in the 
Wick, i49io-i4 — ^* ^^ ^^ of fifteen he is proclaimed by the 
Thrandheim folk King of all Norway on having declared that 
his father's feudal oppression should be abolished, I49i4-i50ig 
— the Uplands declare for him, 1 5014- 1 5 17— the Wick likewise, 
and Tryggvi and Gudrod are reinstated in their kingdoms, 
1517.24 cf. 19719.24 — ^"^ ^^^^ of Hakon's popularity Eric Blood- 
axe quits the country and goes to Orkney, 15 [27-1529 — all Nor- 


Index I 75 

way subdued after Eric's flight, but an army of observation 
maintained about the middle of the realm until the fall of 
Eric came to be known, 15 525-1 569 — confers on his friend Earl 
Sigurd the dominion of Thrandheim, 1561.4 cf. 19920^ 20325.37 
ao8y^ — victorious war with Denmark, 1569-1583 cf. 2351^2^ — 
taid uito Sweden and return to the Wick, 1584.15 cf. ii. 9724^ 
— ^Tryggvi Olafson appointed commander of the Wick forces 
to belt back attacks from Denmark, 15817-1598 — Hakon's 
happy reign (cf. 17411.14) and wise legislation (cf. 17325-1747): 
Golathing's laws — Frostathing's laws (Heidsævis laws al- 
ready codified by Halfdan the Black, his grandfather, cf. 
34»-8S2)» 16019.82 cf. 20128-24 "• 6814.15 i"- 2 igg-so— baptizes 
to his own name a son of Earl Sigurd, 16x3.1^ — makes Jamtland 
a tributary province of Norway, 1633.20 — Jamtlanders and 
the Norwegian population of Helsingland acknowledge him 
their king, 16321.22 "• 27621-81 "^- 2643.5 — ^^^ Christian ways, 
163^16410 — measures adopted by him towards converting 
his people to Christianity, 16411- 1653 — ^^e heathendom of 
Norway too strong for him to cope with, 1 6620-1 7 125 cf- 31620- 
317^ 3182^30 — defeats Eric's sons at Ogvaldsness, 17108-^7322 
— ^his ordmances in respect of ship-raths and war-beacons, 
^ 73»"^ 747 27-80 — defeats Eric's sons at Frædisberg, 174^,-179 
— again at Fitiar, where he is mortally wounded, 18027-187 — 
his last will, 1883.19 — his death and burial, 1883.30 cf. 2067.3 — 
mourned by friends and foes alike, 18822-24 — ^^ ^^ succeeded 
by the sons of Eric, 1973-9 — date of his death, 23925.2« ^^* 
«067^ — Eyvind's song on him: * Hakonarmál,' 189-193 — 
Glum Geirison's and Eyvind Finson's memorial verses on him, 
198^ — his reign gratefully remembered, ii. 4214.15 iii. 232.9 
HAKON, son of Griotgarth of Yrjar, allies himself with Har. 
Hairfair on his invading Thrandheim, i. 9634.27 — ^^^^^ ^^ 
victory in Gauldale he receives from Harald the lordship of 
Strindfolk (earldom of Ladir), 9627-972 — gives his daughter, 
Asa, in marriage to Harald Hairfair, and is favoured by the 
ELing beyond all men, 9831.23 1371216 — ruled over all Thrand- 
heim in Har.'s absence, 13712-16 cf. 1561.4 — lost two of his sons 
in the second battle of Solskel, i. 10230.32 — appointed governor 
over Firthfolk by Harald, 1043.9 — his quarrel with Earl Atli 
the Slender over the governorship of Sogn, fight with him in 
Stafihess-bay and death, 10410.19 I37ið-i7 ^3^20 

^6 Index I [hak 

HAKON, Earl, son of Ivar the White who was a daughter's 
son of Earl Hakon the Mighty, described, iiivio5i9^ — married 
to Ragnhild, d. of K. Magnus the Good, 1199.1s — his grand- 
aunt Bergliot*s estimate of his character, iiOjj^ — his viking 
cruises in the west in company with Finn Amison, 111J4-15 — 
Finn Arnison's mission to him on behalf of K. Harald Sigurd- 
son after the murder of Bergliot's husband and son, 1 1 "l^^ 
ii2i8.24 ^^326'^ '428 — ^^ makes it a condition of peace wim 
Harald that he should give him in marriage his grand-niece 
Ragnhild, d. of K. Magnus the Good, 1 1415.28 — Harald breaks 
his promise in the matter, 1 15-1 i6g — Hakon goes to Denmark 
and takes service with K. Svein Wolfson, his *kinsman-in-law' 
(Svein was married to Gunnhild, grand-daughter of Earl 
Hakon the Mighty, while Hakon Ivarson was great-grandson 
of the Earl), 1161^^ 473ið-i9 — ^lays in battle K. Svein's tur- 
bulent nephew, Asmund, 1 1 7-1 1827 — leaves the King's service, 
1 1828.81 — is created Earl by K. Harald, and marries, 1 19^.15 — 
his doings at the battle of Niz, 13329.81 ^Z^b^ H324-W ^44i-g— 
he saves the life of Vandrad, i>., of K. Svem Wolfson, 138- 
140^ — K. Harald's wrath in consequence, and Hakon's flight, 
i44g-i4524 — continued feud between them, 1463.34 — Hakon's 
last encounter with K. Harald, 14918-15211 

HAKON, King of Norway, 1093- 1094, son of K. Magnus 
Harald Hardredy's son, and first cousin to K. Magnus Barefoot, 
commonly called Thorir's fosterling, because he was fostered 
by Steig-Thorir, iii. 1879.10 — on the death of Olaf the Quiet 
the Uplanders take him for their king, 2053.10 — ^the Thrand- 
heimers at Ere-Thing proclaim him king of that moiety of 
the land over which his father had ruled, 205,0.13 — he gains 
popularity by relieving his subjects of certain imposts dating 
from Svein Alfivason's reign, and by reforming the laws, 2051^- 
206^0 — Magnus Barefoot's consequent rancour towards his 
cousin, 2o6i3-207i8 — Hakon's journey over Dovrafell towards 
the Wick, and sudden death on the way, 20713.33 — his body 
brought to Nidoyce and buried at Christchurch, 20733-2083 — 
his age, popularity, and Biarmland war, 2083.10 — effect of his 
death on the fortunes of Svein, son of Harald Fletcher, and 
Steig-Thorir, 2093-2 1 2^^ 

HAKON the Mighty (H. hinn riki), ruler of Norway, 975-995i 
on of Earl Sigurd and Bergliot, d. of Earl Thorir; bom Earl 


Index I 77 

of Ladir, i. 4^ 63^ — derived his descent from Sæming, the 
son of Odin by Skadi, 2I18.14 — birth, baptism, etc., loig.^ — is 
appointed their chief and earl by the Thrandheim people after 
the murder of his father, 20525-2063 — drives Harald Greycloak 
and his brother Erling out of Thrandheim, 2063^ — holds 
Thrandheim for three years, in spite of Gunnhild's sons, paying 
no taxes; has many battles with them, with varying success, 
206^-20733 — friends of either party arrange peace between 
them on such terms that they should share the dominion in 
Thrandheim as had Hakon the Good and Earl Sigurd afore- 
time; and great love arose between Hakon and Gunnhild, 
207,4-20812 — ^^ * son, Eric, with a low-born woman of the 
Uplands, 20913.22 — personal description, 20930-29 — g^^s to the 
Uplands and makes a secret alliance against Gunnhild's sons 
with four lords of the land, 2103.11 — ^" learning that Harald 
Greycloak and his brothers were drawing together an over- 
whelming war-host against him, he starts from Thrandheim, 
and visits Northmere, Raumsdale and Southmere with fire 
and sword, and while Harald lay weatherbound south of Stad, 
Hakon sailed off into the main and came to Denmark, and 
harried summerlong in the Eastlands, 21312-2143 — in autumn 
he goes to Helsingland, where he laid up his ships, marching 
west through Helsingland and Jamtland, and over the Keel 
intoThrandheim, 21414.18 — thereupon Gunnhild's sons, Sigurd 
Slaver and Gudrod, leave Thrandheim for the Mere, and 
Hakon sways over Thrandheim alone, residing there in winter, 
in summer going to his ships in Helsingland and warring in 
the east, or else having his host out in Thrandheim and keep- 
ing Gunnhild's sons at bay south of Stad, 21419.31 — he antici- 
pates a fresh expedition to Thrandheim by Hamld Greycloak 
and his brothers by carrying war into Mere, where he slays his 
own uncle Griotgarth, 2 1617-2 1 7g — whereupon he sails away to 
Denmark and stays through the winter with King Harald Gorm- 
son, 2177.11 — from Denmark he stirs up revolt in Thrandheim 
against Gunnhild's sons, 2323.13 — encourages Gold-Harald to 
lay open claim to kingly dominion in Denmark against his uncle 
Hiandd Gormson, 232,4.25 — but dissuades him from stirring 
up a rebellion against him, 233^.3^ — pleads with Harald Gorm- 
son not to go to extremes with his nephew, who, in such a 
case, would find plenteous support from the Danes, 23331-23424 

78 Index I [hak 

— counsels Haráld Gormson to invite his fosterson Harald 
Greycloak to Denmark and betray him, and in the meanwhile 
to put Gold-Harald on the throne of Norway, 23423-236^^ — 
persuades Gold-Harald to acquiesce in the plan of winmng 
for himself the kingdom of Norway, and promises his support 
thereto, 23610.23 — Harald Greycloak, havmg accepted Harald 
Gormson's invitation, and come to the Limbfirth in Denmark, 
Gold-Harald goes with nine ships, arrayed for war, to attack 
him, whereupon Hakon discloses all the treasonable plans of 
Gold-Harald to his uncle, and prays for permission to go and 
attack and slay Gold-Harald, promising to Harald Gormson 
the kingdom of Norway, where he would be his loyal earl; 
and shortly after Gold-Harald had slain Harald Greycloak, 
Hakon attacked him, won the day, and had him hanged, 
*3724"23^28 2408-11 — ^4 on Ari Thorgilson's authority, ruled 
over his dominion in Thrandheim thirteen years when Grey- 
cloak died, 23927.91 — is appointed by Harald Gormson earl 
over seven maritime folklands of Norway from Rogaland to 
Northmere, and invested with revenues from them on the 
rules that Harald Hairfair followed when he shared Norway 
with his sons; other privileges being added, 24021-24I5 ii. 
250J5.19 — he goes with a war-host north along the land, and 
Gunnhild and her sons flee the land to Orkney, 241,^^ 
cf- 3412326 — orders, on his progress north, temples and 
blood-offerings to be sustained, and takes up his residence in 
Thrandheim, 24I27-24227 — his accession to power signalized 
by good year, both as to sea and land, 24223.84 — Us deal- 
ings with Ragnfrod, son of Gunnhild, 2434-246 — Hakon 
marries Thora, d. of Skagi Skoptison, 2473.^— their children, 
2475.8 cf. ii. 22j^4.2e iii. I068.15 3719.11— ^us rektions with 
Skopti of the Tidings, i. 2479-24817 — pays to Harald Gormson 
no taxes of Norway, i^Zi^^h — ^J^ins King Harald Gormson 
against the Emperor Otto II. with a great war-host from 
Norway, 25326-2543— is charged by K. Harald to hold the 
rampart of Dane-work against the Emperor, and defends it 
so stoutly that the Emperor is repulsed, 25519-2563Q — Hakon 
retires to his ships awaiting wind for Norway, 2575^ — ^is 
christened at the instance of K. Harald against his wiU, 
25729-258^ — departs from Denmark, casts aland all Christian 
missionaries, wars in Denmark and Sweden, and goes back 


Index I 79 

to heathen sacrifices, 258^4-2592 — fights his way through 
Sweden to Norway up to Thrandheim, 2593.30 — for his 
apostacy and war on Harald Gormson's kingdom, the latter 
carries fire and sword into Norway as far as Sogn, ^d^^y^ 
— Hakon let build the land again, but paid no tribute to 
Denmark, 2692^^ cf. ii. 4238.80 — fresh attack threatened by 
Harald's son, Svein Twibeard, 271^8.21 — invasion of Norway 
avowed by the Jomsburgers at Harald Gormson's grave- 
ale, 27ij8-273i4 — informed of the conspiracy by his son Eric, 
HaJcon gathers a fleet from all northern Norway, and assembles 
it in Hfldlkelswick, from whence, on hearing that the vikings 
were at western Hod, he rowed the whole fleet of nearly two 
hundred ships north into Hiorund-firth, 27317-27415 27610- 
277, — fights and wins the famous 'battle of the Jomsvikings,' 
277g-38i7 ii. 265^ 4228-26 — rctums to Thrandheim, 28322-20 — 
aUeged to have sacrificed his son to Odin for victory over the 
Jomsvikings, 2832^.39 — his might and power, 28721-2884 — his 
luck in good years and his peaceful rule, 288^.8 — his reckless 
sensuality, 2889.19 — ^® sends Thorir Klakka to the west to 
find out if Oli Garthrealmer be indeed Olaf Tryggvison, and, 
in that case, to betray him, 28823-28918 — his great unpopu- 
larity in Thrandheim, 2881^.19 29130.33 ii. 4230-432 — his immoral 
conduct brings about the revolt of Worm Lyrgia with a host 
of neighbours, 2925-293^ — Hakon is obliged to go into hiding: 
into Earl's-dale, in EarPs-cave, and, at last, in a hole made for 
him under a swine-sty at Rimul, 2935-29439 29523.38 — hidden 
here with his thrall, Kark, he hears the news of Olaf Trygg- 
viaon's having arrived in Thrandheim and slain his son Erland, 
and next he hears Olaf come to Rimul in search of him, and, 
standing on a big stone beside the sty, put a price upon his 
**^*4 *94«^ 29^7-1» — ^^s last night, the murder of him by 
the thrall Kark, 29630-29721 cf. 29921.23 — his head, together 
with his thrall's, stoned in Nid-holm, 29738-2987 — his corpse 
dragged away (mutilated), 2983-9 — the byname of 'Evil* 
given to him, 29810.13 — Snorri's estimate of his character, 
*9^iM4 — ^^^ ^^"s ^^^ ixoxii the land after his fall, 3458^ 
HAKON MAW (H. magi), first cousin of Hakon Pungelta, 
their mothers being sisters, daughters of Aslak Erlingson of 
Soli, iii. 3567.10 — one of Eric Oddson's authorities for the his- 
toiy of Harald Gilli, 36519.32 — his son Ivar, 41215.38 


Index I 


HAKON THE OLD (H. hinn gamli), a man of might in 
Sweden, and friend of Enc Biodaskalli, who sends to him for 
ward and protection Astrid, his daughter, with her infant son 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 2252133— he receives Astrid and Olaf, 
who dwell with htm for a long while, it^xi-^m — *^^ refuses to 
give Olaf up to Gunnhild's agent, Hakon, 228^1.^, ^<^.^ 

HAKON, son of Earl Paul, Earl of Orkney, receives earldom 
and lordship in the Orkneys from Kings Sigurd, Eystein and 
Olaf, the sons of Magnus Barefoot — goes west to the Orkneys, 

iii. 2^\^.nx 

HAKON PUNGELTA, son of Laxe-Paul and a daughter of 
Aslak Erlingson of Soli, first cousin of Hakon magi, their 
mothers being sisters, punished by K. Ingi Haraldson for 
siding with Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, iii. JSO^n 

HAKON SHOULDERBROAD {H.her^ibreilSrX King of Nor- 
way, ri6i-i 162, son of K. Sigurd Mouth, the son of Haiald 
GiiU and of Thora, a workwoman of Simon Thorbergson, 
brought up by Simon together with his sons Onund and 
Andreas, 373324 399n\2""^" ^*^ uncle, K, Eystein\ following 
when his father was slam at Biorgvin, 39011.53 — after the death 
of K, Eystein his party appoint Hakon, ten years old, their 
chief, and confer on him title of king, 399^^.15,— (in consequence 
K. Ingi confiscates their property and makes them outlawSg 
399i4ii))^ — after a winter's sojourn in Gautland, he comes 
down on Kings' Rock with a numerous host^ where he is 
defeated by Gregory Dayson, commanding K, Ingi*s army, 
3992J-402- — Hakon flees to Gautland, whence he went next 
winter to Thrandheim, where the people proclaimed bim 
king over his father's heritage, one-third of the kingdom of 
Norway, 402^12 — his war- raid from Thrandheim along either 
Mere, and expedition east to the Elf, 4021^-40331 — defeated 
in the battle of the Elf, from w^hich he escapes by flight, 
making his way to Thrandheim j where he winters, 404*4 16^^ 
— ^next, heard of in the Wick, whither his uncle Ingi goes in 
pursuit of him, he taking to flight agaín^ 41824.^^ — suffers 
severe beating at the hands of Gregory at Saur-Byes, but 
escapes, 4193-25 — slays Haldor of Vettland, the brother-in-law 
of Gregory Dayson, and burns the homestead, 419^-410^ — 
his &ght with Gregory on the river Beha, 420^*421^ — K. Ingi 
prepares to avenge his favourite, Gregory — battle between him 

HAK — ^HAL] 

Index I 


and Hakon at Oslo, where Hakon gained the day, 422-42634 
4^77 12 — after K. Ingi's fall Hakon sets up as sole king in the 
landt 427^5.17 — Hakon's plans for dealing with Erling Askew, 
found out by Erling's wife, 42717.2^ — his relations to Erting, 
43Ss irj — Hak. defeated and turned to flight by Erling in the 
battle at Tunsberg, 4 3 8^^440.^^^ Hak. retires to Thrandheim 
and prepares an expedition against Erling, 44023.3^ 4416-1^ — 
Erling makes his counter-preparations, 441 13-4453 --Hakon^s 
last little and fall, 445^^-44 7 ^— the burial of his body, 447g.i4 
— personal description, 4470^-448^ 

HAKON SUET-NECK (H. morstrdtr), son of Serk, his rela- 
tions to Arni Foreshore-skew and the Icelandic poet Thorarin 
Ctiitfell, ill. 2863^-288^ 

HAL DOR (HaUdórr), obtains speech and health by a miracle 
of King Olaf's, Íii. 3802^-381^ 

ILALDOR, son of Bryniolf Camel the elder, his humorous 
counsel to King Olaf Haraldson how, in doubtful weather, 
10 sail about Jadar, ii, ^^\^.^ — his comparison of the char- 
act^^ of Olaf the Holy and fiarald Sigurdson, iii. 186-.3J 

HALDOR, son of Bryniolf Camel the younger, iii, a^%\^^^^ — 
married to Sigrid Day's daughter, the sister of Gregory, 4193^^- 
4jOy-^goes over to the side of King Ingi in opposition to 
King Eystein,393| — joins Gregory Dayson to fight K, Hakon 
Shoulderbroad at Kings' Rock, 400^^ — dissension with Biom 
Nicolassoii at Biorgvun^ which results in a general fight on the 
bridges, 4 1 63^,-4 1 Sjt,— King Hakon and Sigurd of Reyr go to 
his manor and bum the houses — he and his house-carles are 
slain, 4í9'íTai 4^ 2,4 

HALDOR GABBLER (H, skvaldri), an Icel. poet, his com- 
memorative verses on Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's victories ; over 
vikings off the Spanish coast, iii. 250^^,5^ — at Cintra Castle, 
25ij.g — at Lisbon and Alcasse, 25117-21 39"^ 5 ^s — ^^ Norvi- 
sound, 2521^,17—at Forminterra, 253att'^54is— at Iviza, 254^3.5^ 
— at Minorca, 2553.3 — ^^ Sidon being given to King Baldwin 
by Sigurd, 2585.^,— on the battle at Fyrileif between K, Mag- 
nus the Blind and Harald GiUÍ, Stó^g.g^^-on the casting into 
the Sarp of Asbiorn and the hanging of Nereid by K. Harald 
Giili, 3I9HV24 

HALDOR* son of Gudmund of Maddermead, one of the Ice- 
landers christened at Nidoyce by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 334^0 

VI. G 

8o Index I [hak 

HAKON THE OLD (H. hinn gamli), a man of might in 
Sweden, and friend of Eric Biodaskalli, who sends to him for 
ward and protection Astrid, his daughter, with her infant son 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 22521^ — he receives Astrid and Olaf, 
who dwell with him for a long while, 227^7^ — he refuses to 
give Olaf up to Gunnhild's agent, Hakon, 2285.^0 ^^^ 

HAKON, son of Earl Paul, Earl of Orkney, receives earldom 
and lordship in the Orkneys from Kings Sigurd, Eystein and 
Olaf, the sons of Magnus Barefoot — goes west to the Orkneys, 
iii. 24814.21 

HAKON PUNGELTA, son of Laxe-Paul and a daughter of 
Aslak Erlingson of Soli, first cousin of Hakon magi, their 
mothers being sisters, punished by K. Ingi Haraldson for 
siding with Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3565.11 

HAKON SHOULDERBROAD (H. her«ibrerSr), Kingof Nor- 
way, 1161-1162, son of K. Sigurd Mouth, the son of Harald 
Gilli and of Thora, a workwoman of Simon Thorbergson, 
brought up by Simon together with his sons Onund and 
Andreas, 3733.24 399ii.;2 — i'* ^^s uncle, K. Eystein's, following 
when his father was slam at Biorgvin, 39011.13 — after the death 
of K. Eystein his party appoint Hakon, ten years old, their 
chief, and confer on him title of king, 3995.13 — (^ consequence 
K. Ingi confiscates their property and makes them outlaws, 
399i4-i6) — ^^^'^^ * winter's sojourn in Gautland, he comes 
down on Kings* Rock with a numerous host, where he is 
defeated by Gregory Dayson, commanding K. Ingi's army, 
39921-402^ — Hakon flees to Gautland, whence he went next 
winter to Thrandheim, where the people proclaimed him 
king over his father's heritage, one-third of the kingdom of 
Norway, 4027.12 — his war-raid from Thrandheim along either 
Mere, and expedition east to the Elf, 40218-403J1 — defeated 
in the battle of the Elf, from which he escapes by flight, 
making his way to Thrandheim, where he winters, 404-41621 
— next, heard of in the Wick, whither his uncle Ingi goes in ■ 
pursuit of him, he taking to flight again, 41824.27 — suffers ^ 
severe beating at the hands of Gregory at Saur-Byes, but ■ 
escapes, 4193.25 — slays Haldor of Vettland, the brother-in-law ; 
of Gregory Dayson, and bums the homestead, 4192^420^ — 
his fight with Gregory on the river Befia, 420^-42 123 — K. Ingi . 
prepares to avenge his favourite, Gregory — ^battle between him \ 


HAK — HAL] Index I 8 1 

and Hakon at Oslo, where Hakon gained the day, 422-4263^ 
4^77-12 — ^^^ ^- liigi's fall Hakon sets up as sole king in the 
land, 42715.17 — Hakon's plans for dealing with Erling Askew, 
found out by Erling's wife, 42717.26 — ^is relations to Erling, 
435^15 — ^*^- defeated and turned to flight by Erling in the 
battle at Tunsberg, 438^7-4402^ — Hak. retires to Thrandheim 
and prepares an expedition against Erling, 44023.27 44^6-15 — 
Erling makes his counter-preparations, 44118-4453— Hakon's 
last battle and fall, 445^-4477— the burial of his body, 447g.i2 
— ^personal description, 44723-4485 

HAKON SUET-NECK (H. mörstrútr), son of Serk, his rela- 
tions to Ami Foreshore-skew and the Icelandic poet Thorarin 
Curtfell, iii. 28605-2885 

HALDOR (Halldórr), obtains speech and health by a miracle 
of King Olaf's, iii. 3802^-3813 

HALDOR, son of Bryniolf Camel the elder, his humorous 
counsel to King Olaf Haraldson how, in doubtful weather, 
to sail about Jadar, ii. 26813.22 — his comparison of the char- 
acters of Olaf the Holy and Harald Sigurdson, iii. 1867.31 

HALDOR, son of Bryniolf Camel the younger, iii. 4811Q.12 — 
married to Sigrid Day's daughter, the sister of Gregory, 41929- 
420,-^goes over to the side of King Ingi in opposition to 
King Eystein,393i — ^joins Gregory Dayson to fight K. Hakon 
Shoulderbroad at Kings' Rock, 40010 — dissension with Biom 
Nicolasson at Biorgvin, which results in a general fight on the 
bridges, 4168Q-4182Q — King Hakon and Sigurd of Reyr go to 
his manor and bum the houses — he and his house-carles are 
slain, 41927-81 42214 

HALDOR GABBLER (H. skvaldri), an Icel. poet, his com- 
memorative verses on Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's victories: over 
vikings off the Spanish coast, iii. 25013.27 — at Cintra Castle, 
2511.^ — at Lisbon and Alcasse, 251 17.21 29-2525 — at Norvi- 
sound, 25212.17— at Formin terra, 25329-25413— at I viza, 254^.33 
— at Minorca, 2553.8 — on Sidon being given to King Baldwin 
by Sigurd, 258^.^ — on the battle at Fyrileif between K. Mag- 
mis the Blind and Harald Gilli, 31623.33 — on the casting into 
the Sarp of Asbiorn and the hanging of Nereid by K. Harald 

Gilli, 3^916^4 
HALDOR, son of Gudmund of Maddermead, one of the Ice- 
hnders christened at Nidoyce by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 33420 
n. G 

84 Index I [hal 

and Westfold, gave in war-pay as many gold-pennies as other 
kings gave silver-pennies; a great warrior; married to Hlif, 
d. of King Day of Westmere; died at his manor, Holtar, in 
Westfold; was laid in mound at Borro, i. ÖQjo-yoji 

HALFDAN, son of Frodi the Proud, or the Peaceful, K. of Den- 
mark, conquered the realm of the Swedes from K. Aun, and 
ruled for five-and-twenty years at Upsala; died in his bed and 
was laid in mound, i. 425.1^ 

HALFDAN GOLD-TOOTH (H. guUtönn), son of Solvi, fiither 
of Solveig, the wife of Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 653,^ 

HALFDAN HIGHLEG (H. háleggr), son of Harald Hairfeir 
and Snowfair, Swasi's daughter, i. 1202 — repudiated by the 
father after Snowfair's death, 1213^ — restored to favour 
through Thiodolf of Hvin, and assigned residence in Ring- 
realm, 12I28-1224 — made King of Ringrealm by his father, 
1223 1 3 120-22 — revolts, in company with his brother Gudrod 
Gleam, against his father, and slays his earl, Rognvald o' 
Mere, and departs to the West, 12415.38 — his war with Turf- 
Einar in Orkney, defeat and death by torture at Einar's 
hands, 12513-12611 13219^ ii. 16813.1^ 

HALFDAN, son of Sigurd a-Bush the son of Harald Hairfair, 
father of Sigurd Syr (or Sow), i. 31I5.7 

HALFDAN, son of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta, the 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 353^ — his famtheartedness as 
a child, 1 1 00.10 — ^^^ childish propensity all for possessing 
many cows, iiig-is 

HALFDAN THE WHITE (H. hviti), son of King Harald 
Hairfair and Asa, the daughter of Earl Hakon Griotgard's son, 
i. 1 1 037.28 — followed the profession of a viking in the 'East- 
lands,' 12812.18 — fell in battle in Esthonia, 12814.15 1321^19 

HALFDAN WHITE-LEG (H. hvitbeinn), son of Olaf Tree- 
shaver, reared in Solisles with Solvi, his mother's brother, L 
6S29.81 — taken to king by the Swedish subjects of Olaf, he 
conquered Solisles and Raumrick, much of Heathmark and 
Thotn, and Hadaland, and part of Westfold; died in Thotn, 
but was laid in mound in Skasreid at Skiringsal, 6713-680 — 
had been King of Vermland from the death of his Drother 
Ingiald, 6812.14 

HALF (Hálfr), a sea-king of fame, iii. aoijg 

HALL (Hallr), son of Audun the son of Hall, an Icelander, 

hal] Index I 85 

Gr^ory Dayson's banner-bearer in the battle with K. Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, at Kings' Rock, iii. 40113.1^ — praised by 
Gregory for valour, 401 8^-4023 

HALL KODRANS-BANE, son of Utrygg, killed Kodran 
Gudmundson, first cousin of Jorun, the mother of Thormod 
Eindridson, when Thormod was one year old, is slain in re- 
venge by Thormod, on first hearing Hall's by-name Kodrans- 
bane uttered, iii. 1531.8 

HALLy son of Thorarin, the sage of Hawkdale, fosterfather of 
Ari the Learned and Teit son of bp Isleif, trading partner of 
King Olaf the Holy, bom 995, set up house in Hawkdale 
(1025), died ninety-four years of age (1089), i. ojg.g^ 

HALL^ son of Thorgier Leech, a courtman of King Ingi, pre- 
sent at the capture and torture of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, the 
account of which he dictated to Eric Oddson, iii. 36S10-36712 

HALL of the Side, son of Thorstein (Hallr af SííSu Jjorsteins- 
son), L 65^ — baptized by Thangbrand, 32315.19 (Hall simply, 
ii. 24S9 ^^ o' Side, ii. 24923) 

HALLAD (HallaiSr), son of Rognvald the Mere-Earl and a 
concubine, i. 1 1722 — sent by his father to take up the earldom 
of Orkney on the death of Earl Sigurd, the brother of Rogn- 
vald, he got so weary of viking-raids that he resigned the 
earldom, became an ordinary franklin, and returned to Nor- 
way, i. I22ii^ 

HALLANDERS (Hallandsfarar), inhabitants of the province 
of Halland (men of Halland, iii. 383), 1427 

HALLFREÐ the Troublous-skald (Hallfreir vandræ«askald), 
scHi of Ottar, Icelandic poet, 25231-2531 — forbidden by Olaf 
Tryggvison to sail away to Iceland, 33514 28 — ^^s bargain with 
Olaf Tryggvison for allowing himself to be christened, 33725- 
339is — sues, on behalf of Earl Rognvald of West-Gautland, 
for the hand of Ingibiorg, the sister of Olaf Tryggvison, 
35^8-357«— liis drapas on Olaf Tryggvison quoted, 25281-253^ 
«54»-2558 26018.18 26-26 112 29-26212 36525-88 3685.18 37028-82 
375m6 3767.16 20-3778 ^ . , 

HALLKEL of Fialir (Hallkell af Fjölum), stationed m the 
forehold on board the Long-Worm, i. 35317-18 

HALLKEL HUNCH (H. húkr), son of Joan Butter-Bear, and 
father to Simon Sheath and Jon, a landed-man in Mere, 
meets, in the Southisles, Gilchrist (Harald Gilli), and brings 


Index I 

[hAL — HAR 


him together with his mother to Norway, iii. t<^ix^^ 379ii 

39^8» 395-2 2ÍI-9J 40^23^4 2«3ft^renounces the cause of K. Ey- 

stein Haraldson, 39329-39412 
HALLSTEIN of the Firths (Hallsteinn or FjöríSum), stationed 

in the forehold on board the LongAVorm, i. 3531^ " 

HALLSTEIN, son of IL Steinkel [son of Rognvald], father 

Ingi [the younger]. King of Sweden, iii. 37833 
HALLWARD (Hallvar«r)Gunnarson, one of K. Sigurd Haral; 

son's body-guard, slays Sigurd Gaud-axe, one of K. Ingi's 

body-guard, ÍÍi. 387^^.|g^fa!ls in the fight at Biorgvin between 

Kings Sigurd and Ingij 3 89^4. j^- 
HALLWARD HAREKSBLESI, an Icelandic poet, celebrates 

K. Knut the Mighty in a song^ ii- 35313.25 
HALLWARD HITCH (H. hikri), falls at Thmlls^ Berg in the 

battle of Oslo between K. Ingi Haraldson and Hakon 

Shoulderbroad, iii. \2b^^^^^ 
HALLWARD the Holy (H, inn helgi), shrine of, at Oslo, iii. 

35^12 laifl 81 
HALLWARD (HallvariSr), an Icelander, accomplice of Thor* 

kel in the murder of Earl Einar Wrongmouth, ii. 1771*^.^ 
HALWARD the Polisher (H. fægir), slain in the battle 

Holm-the-Gray, iii. ^^^^^.^i 
HALLWARD RASCAL (H, skalkr), a kinsman of King Eyslei 

the son of King Eystein the Mighty of the Uplands, brings 

about a treaty of peace between K. Ey stein Eyateinson and 

Half dan the Black, i. jSgj-yg^ 
HALOGALANDERS, Halogaland folk (Háleygir), inhabitants 

of Halogaland, Norway, i. 184^ iSg^^ Z^^n^i ISU-i »■ i93i5 




Í7l0 21^17 220s 423i5 Ul. 274^^ 

of Jonakr and Gudrun d, of Giuki, in kennii 


HAMDIR, son 

==a famed hero, i. 250^5 
HANOI, the hanged one, Odin (doubtful), i* 278^7 
HARALD FLETCHER (Haraldr flettir), father of Svein and 

Guthorm, iii. 209^ 324^1 
HARALD GILLI (called Gilchrist while in Ireland, iii, agSg^), 
K. of Norway (i 130-1 136), gave himself out for a son of K- 
Magnus Barefoot, t^s^^^ — married Ingirid, d, of Rognvald^ 
iii, 3143^55 — their son Ingi, 34715 — his natural children: by 
Thora, d. of Guthorm Grayb^rd, Sigurd, 31425.23 — ^y Biadak, 
an Irishwoman, Ey stein, 368^^ ^ — by women not named: 


Index I 


Magnus, 368^3; Brigida, 37S31; Maria, 37gjj; Margaret, 
379i8' — roeets Hallkd Hunch in the Southisles, and discloses 
to him his descent^ 2951^,23 — Hallkel brings him and his 
mother to Norway, 29523.2T — Sigurd Jenisalem-farer accepts 
him as a claimant for kingship in Norway after a successful 
ordeal, but not during his and his son's, Magnuses life, 29527- 
296^^— disliked by Magnus Sigurd's son, 296jjý.^g^-description 
of him, 2973.1^ 3 1317-24-^ his skill in running, 2<^'^^^-±f)^^ — his 
narrow escape from being hanged, joo^^-joa^^ — breaks the 
covenant made with K, Sigurd when he hears of his death, 
and is proclaimed king over one half of Norway, 3i325"3r47 
— his popularity forces K. Magnus to come to terms with 
him, 314^21 — K. Magnus breaks the peace with Harald and 
defeats him in the battle of Fyrileif, 315-31 7^^^Harald flies 
to Denmark, and accepts from King Eric Halland to rule 
over, and eight unrigged longships, 317.^^-3187 — he gathers 
forces and comes to amiable terms with the men of Kings* 
Rock, marches north into the Wick punishing K, Magnus's 
adherents severely, 3183-319-^^— K. Magnus*s perplexity how 
to oppose Harald, 319^5^-32123 — battle between them in 
Biorgvin, defeat, deposition, and maiming of K. Magnus, 
32ijg-32327^Harald causes Reinald, bp of Stavanger, to be 
b*^g®4 3^4a^* — Harald now sole King of Non^^ay, 32424^., 
— makes peace with K* Magnus's party, 334g.ii^warfare in 
Denmark attested 10 by Einar Skulison, 334^.^3— his and 
Queen Ingirid^s kindness to Magnus Einarson, bp of Skala- 
holt, in Iceland, 334^-3 36j^ — his treacherous deahngs with 
Sigord Slem hi- Deacon, 3403-34i«5 — slain by Sigurd and his 
conspirators, 34128-34421 362^224 — byried at Christchurch the 
Old, 344j.-i^3 — the saga of K. Harald, written by Eric Oddson, 
3^5 12 IS — nieasures taken for the reigning in Norway of his 
sons, 347'34Sii 
HARALD, son of Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, King of 
England for nine months, ob. Oct I4thj 1066, ii. 3261^^— 
brought up at the court of K. Edward the Confessor, iii, 
'SSjH^ — ^^'^ ^^y ^^ Rouen and relations with the wife of 
Wnfiam the Conqueror^ isóg.^^^asks the daughter of Wil* 
liam in marriage, and is betroth<id toher^ 156,27-15711 — returns 
to England and never came back for his bride, 15714.1s 
i8oi((.ij— ever at the court of K, Edward, being guardian of 

88 Index I [har 

his treasures, 1581.J — the manner of his nomination to the 
throne of England, 1587^ — accepted king by a meeting of the 
lords of the land, and crowned at Paul's Church, 15811.1^ — 
his relations with Tosti, 1581^^ ^SQs-io ^7328*^7427 — meets 
Harald Sigurdson at York with an overwhelming force, and 
defeats him at Stamford Bridge, 1738-1794 — gives leave to 
Olaf, Harald's son, and the remnant of Harald's army, to 
return back to Norway, 1813.7 — marches to the south of Eng- 
land and fights and falls in the battle of Helsingport (Hast- 
ings), 1817.15 — his daughter Gyda married to K. Valdemar of 
Holmgarth, 27023-27 ig 

HARALD GOLDBEARD (H. Gullskeggr), King of Sogn, 
father of Ragnhild, the first wife of Halfdan the Black, be- 
queathed, in old age, his kingdom to his grandson Harald, 
the son of Halfdan the Black, i. 

HARALD GORMSON (H. Gormsson), King of Denmark 
(940-986), at enmity with K. Hakon the Good for his vic- 
torious raid upon Denmark, i. ^S^^w — receives Gunnhild 
and the sons of Eric, and furnishes &em with lands ample 
for their support, and takes Harald Eric's son into fostering, 
'setting him on his knee,' I59i2.i<j 21^ — supplies the sons of 
Eric with Danish levies for the mvasion of Norway, 17414^^ 
— gives a good welcome to Hakon the Mighty, Earl of Ladir, 
a fugitive from Norway, 2177.11 232^.5 — resists his nephew 
Gold-Harald's claim to kingly dominion in Denmark, 232^ 
2337 — confers with Earl Hakon on Gold-Harald's claim, de- 
claring his readiness to slay him rather than yield, which 
resolve Hakon deprecates, 2 3331-2 3415 — his consultations with 
Hakon, 23419-2367 — invites, at Hakon's suggestion, his foster- 
son, Harald Greycloak, to Denmark to receive from him the 
fiefs he and his brothers had formerly held there, 23512-2367 
24-2373 — connives at Gold-Harald's attacking Harald of Nor- 
way, whom he slays, 23610.23 237,1-2384 26-23922— obtains, 
without any struggle, the kingdom of Norway, and appoints 
Hakon earl over the west and north, and Harald the Gren- 
lander king over the south of Norway, 24O14-24I11 ii. 25015.,^ 
— invests Eric, the son of Hakon, with earldom over Vingul- 
mark and Raumrealm, i. 24913.23 — receives no tribute of Nor- 
way from Earl Hakon, 2531Q.15 — ignoring a demand from the 
Emperor Otto to become a Christian together with his people. 

har] Index I 89 

his kingdom is invaded by the 'Keisar/ the national rampart 
of Danework turned, and be himself with his army driven up to 
Mars-isle in North Jutland, 25313.25 ^^Sw^Slvi — ^^ converted 
to Christianity together with all the host of the Danes by the 
Emperor and his bishop Poppo, 25720-28 — causes Earl Hakon 
and all his men to be christened at the same time, 25720-258.7 
— kept faithfully to and propagated Christian faith, 26o^iq 
3®^iM0 — go^s on a punitive expedition to Norway on hearing 
of Esurl Hakon's apostacy, 267ig^ ^^- "• 9781-82 — plans a similar 
expedition to Iceland for some atrociously insulting rhymes 
on him, i. 26 730-2 óSjg — sends a wizard in the shape of a whale 
to find out how far feasible such an expedition might be, and 
on receiving the wizard's report, abandons the plan, 26832- 
^^921 26^7 — Hakon of Norway paid no more tribute to Den- 
mark after Harald's armed invasion than before, 26933.29 ^* 
4^28^ 28-80 — o" refusing to share the kingdom of Denmark 
with his son Svein, the latter raises a rebellion and gives 
battle to his father in Icefirth in the island of Sealand, where 
Harald was mortally wounded, i. 2703.19 — ruled over the whole 
of the Wick in Norway west to Rygsbit, iii. 4381Q 
HARALD GREYCLOAK (H. gráfeldr), K. of Norway, 961-965, 
son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145^ — how he got his 
nickname, 2081^-2 091^^ — (for his sojourn in the west, see Eric 
Bloodaxe, Gunnhild, Eric's sons) — comes with his mother 
from the Orkneys to Denmark, and is taken into fostering 
and * set on his knee ' by K. Harald Gormson, at whose court 
he grows up, 15921-28 — ^^^s the lead of his brethren after the 
fall of his brother Gamli, 1833.^ — invades Norway with a great 
host, and is defeated in a great battle with Hakon the Good 
at Fitiar in the island of Stord, 18 13-18735 — after the fall of 
Hakon, he, with his brothers, becomes King of the middle 
part of Norway (but is generally in his saga dealt with by 
Snorri as simply one of Gunnhild's sons, because Gunnhild, 
his mother, is the virtual ruler, though Harald is the actual 
sovereign of the country. For convenience' sake we group 
under Harald the events that Snorri connects with * the sons 
of Gunnhild,' who, in Harald Greycloak's saga, except in the 
very beginning, no longer figure as * the sons of Eric '), and 
makes peace with K. Tryggvi in the Wick and K. Gudrod of 
Westfold, leaving to them the title and dominion they had 


htdex I 

held under Hakon the Good, 197511 1^3^ i99«.i4 — ^í^ís pique 
against Eyvind Skaldspiller for lauding in a song K* Hakoo 
the Good's defeat of Haraid and his brothers, 1 9^13-2» — they 
were appeased on condition that Eyvind should become his 
court poet, 1 98 2^-199^— terms of peace arranged between 
Haraid (Gunnhiid's sons} and Earl Sigurd of I^dir, 19915^^ 
— miserliness of Hamid and Gunnhild's sons^ 1 9931-20 ig — 
being Christians, the sons of Gunnhild broke down templesj 
but advanced Christianity in no wise, 201 j^i^ — their reign 
signaliied by famine, 20 i^g .jj — and by upsetting of K- Hakon's 
laws when it suited them, aoi^g^^^ — personal description of 
Gunnhild*s sons, 2o\^^-%02^ — the plot of Gunnhild and her 
sons against the life of Earl Sigurd of Ladir; the burning of 
the earl at Oglo by Haraid and Erling his brother, 2027-20552 
— on the Thmndheimer^ rising up as one man and appoint- 
ing Hakon, son of the Earl Sigurd, their lord, H^ald (Gunn- 
hild's sons) retires to Raumsdale and Southmere, 2053^*206^ 
— Haraid (Gunnhild's sons) gets no dues paid him from 
Thrandheim for three years after Earl Sigurd's fall, aoó^,^^™ 
long feuds between Haraid and Earl Hakon till they came to 
peace on the ^iatm qiw under Hakon the Good, 207^-2087 
— this peace lasted for three years, 20S1Q.12 — by wiser men's 
intervention Haraid and Gudrod are prevented from coming 
to blows, both being drunk, in consequence of the provocative 
game of personal comparison^ 21022-211^ — Haraid kills K. 
Gudrod, the son of K, Biorn the Chapman, 2112^-2122 — he 
and Gudrod his brother possess themselves of the Wick, 
2i2^^keeps a close watch, with his brothers, on their ene- 
mies, 21217-20 — Harald's (Gunnhild's sons') expedition against 
Earl Hakon of Ladir; his escape to Denmark, 2131^*2142 — 
Haraid and his brothers make themselves masters of Thrand- 
heim, from where Haraid departs to the East Country, 2 14^,^1 
— Haraid (Gunnhtld's sons) kept at bay by Earl Hakon, 
2 1414,91 — Haraid makes war on Biarmland, 2 1 5^1 j^— at a Thing 
in Vors as the bonders fall on htm he barely escapes away to 
Hard anger, 3155^-216^ — Haraid gathers a great host to go to 
Thrandheim agamst Earl Hakon, who escapes, a 161-^^3 — but 
Haraid and his brothers make themselves at home in Thrand- 
heim, 2t7gi^ — Haraid leaves in autumn for the South 
Country, 2173^.31 — ^in Harald's (Gunnhild*s sons') reign sea- 



Index I 



sons of scarcity and famine prevailed, 2 iSj^.^^^ — with his brother 
Gudrod, when he had slain Tryggvn Olafsonj he searches the 
manors that had belonged to Tryggvi for Astrid his widow, 
234j.,jg — concerts plans with his mother for the kidnapping of 
Olaf Tryggvison, 22419.26 ^^- Gtinnhild^his kingdom plotted 
against by Hakon, Earl of Ladir, and Harald Gormson of 
Denmark, 2 342^-2 36^ — accepts an invitation from his foster- 
father, Harald Gormson, to come to Denmark and receive 
again his former fiefs at his hand, 236.^^-23720 — sails to Neck 
in Limbfirth in Denmark with three longships, and receives 
news that Harald will speedily come to see him, 237.^^,3^ — is 
attacked by Gold-Harald with nine longships, and slain with 
the more part of his men, 23731-2380 ^^5-23934 ti. 25o^,j.^jj 

HARALD THE GRENLANDER (fi' grenski), son of Gud- 
rod Biornson with a mother not named, sent to Rot the 
White in Grenland for fostering, i, 2127.13— fled ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
of his father to the Uplands, and dwelt awhile with his 
kindred, 2 1 t^^^y^ — quits Norway for Sweden to join vikings 
there, 2 1 22^.^ — joins the war-host of Skogul-Tosti, and is 
accounted a doughty warrior, 2 r 2.2^-2 1 3^ — ^joins HarEdd Gorm- 
son's expedition to Norway, 240iti.|g — is appointed by Harald 
Gormson king over Vingulmark, Westfold and Agdir on the 
same terms that his forefathers had held these fiefs of former 
kings, 24i^.j.^ — married Asta, d. of Gudbrand Kula, 284*.^ — 
his courtship to Stgrid the Haughty and death at her behest, 
284ir-3S625 2873.1J 31 14.5 — ^his posthumous son Olaf the Holy, 
2^7 H HI "' 530^61 

HARALD GUNNHILDSON = Harald Greyctoak. 

HARALD, son of Hakon, Earl of Orkney, iil 3371^ 

HAR^iLD HAIRFAIR (H, hárfagri), King of Norway, 860- 
933, son of Halfdan the Black and of Ragnhild, d. of K. 
Sigurd Hart of Ringrealm, u 8 5^.4 

ChiMrtn in marriage. — (i) by Asa, d, of Earl Hakon 
Griotgarth's son, gS^j.^^sons: Guthorm, Halfdan the Black, 
Halfdan the White, Sigfrodj iio^g.^g (2) by Gyda, d. of K, 
Eric of Hordland, 93151- ' 14^-3 sons: Rœrek, Sigtrygg, Frodi, 
Thorgils, daughter: Alof Years-heal, 114^,1,5 Í3) ^X Ragnhild 
the Mighty, d. of K. Eric of Jutland, son: Eric Bloodaxe, 
*'4iM5 (4) ^y Swanhild, d, of K, Eystein, sons: Olaf Geir- 
stead-elf, Biorn, Ragnar Ryckil, ii4ifi,ia (s) by Ashild, d. of 

92 Index I [har 

Ring, sons: Day, Ring, Gudrod Skiria, daughter: Ingigerd, 
ii4ig.2i (6) by Snowfair, sons: Sigurd a-Bush, HaQdan 
Highleg, Gudrod Gleam, Rognvald, Straightleg, 1 19^-1 20, 

Natural Children,— 1^^ Thora Most-staflf: Hakon Athel- 
stane's fosterson, 1381^ his very image, 14928^ ^S^w-i^í by a 
woman not named, Ingibiorg (?), 198^^30 ii. 1907 

Had for court skald Thiodolf of Hvin (amongst others), 
i. 320 — Iceland settled in his reign, 431 — described as child, 
^54-9 9^6-9 — intercedes with his father on behalf of a tor- 
mented Finn wizard, 85^^^ — runs away with the wizard and 
stays away till his father dies, 8523-863 — succeeds his father 
at the age of ten, 91 5.7 — appoints maternal imcle, Guthonn, 
head of body-guard, fírst counsellor and commander of his 
forces, 9 1 9.12 — wars with Gandalf, the sons of Eystein, Haki 
Gandalfson and Hogni Karason, 9ii6-93io — Harald's wooing 
of Gyda, and vow, 9315-95» 

Conquest of Thrandheim, — Occupation of Orkdale,95|i^ cf. 
997-26 — ^^^^ Hakon Griotgarthson of Yriar joins Harald in 
alliance, 9624.27 — conquest of Gauldale and Strindfolk, 96,7^ 
— battle in and occupation of Stiordale, 97^^ — defeat of the 
combined forces of the Kings of Verdale, Skaim, Sparebiders' 
folk and Isles' folk and annexation of these territories, 974.13 
— all Thrandheim won after the eight kings thereof had been 
slain, 971816 — these conquests of Harald's bring about the 
colonization of lamtland, ii. 2761^.13 

Conquest of Naumdale, — King Herlaug buries himself alive 
in a stately mound, while his brother Hrollaug degrades him- 
self to an earl's degree and becomes Harald's man, retaining 
earlship over Naumdale, 9719-9813 — Harald makes the manor 
of Ladir his residence, 98i^q 

Naval conquests, — Har. builds a dragon-galley, 9834-995 — 
defeats and slays in his first battle at Solskel K. Hunmiöf 
of Mere and K. Nockvi of Raumsdale, 9915 10O17 — appoints 
Rognvald the Mighty his earl over Northmere and Raums- 
dale, 10017.29 — <l6feats in a second battle at Solskel the com- 
bined forces of K. Amvid of Southmere, K. Audbiom of the 
Firths and Solvi Klofi, slaying Amvid and Audbiom and 
annexing Southmere, 1013-103^ — retires to Thrandheim for 
the winter, 1039.15 — Kari of Berdla becomes his man, 1033-3^ 
— goes with a fleet south to the Firths and annexes that foU:- 


Index I 93 

land, 1044^ g^ — takes up his residence at Tunsberg in the 
Wick after four years' absence, 104^.8 ^^58-i2 

Contest with Sweden, — Harald learns how King Eric Ey- 
mundson of Sweden had annexed Vermland (but cf. 7226-28) 
and extended the terrítoríal dominion of Gautland north to 
Swinesound, 105^2.21 — also that disaffection in favour of Sweden 
was rife in Westfold, Raumrealm, and Vingulmark, and that 
the Swede King contemplated the conquest of these ter- 
ritories, 10S22.80 — ^^ promptly puts an end to the sedition at 
home, 1 0530- 1 067 — he and King Eric in Vermland, io6y-io8ig 
— annexes Vermland to his realm, 108,^.22 — deals with disaffec- 
tion in Ranrealm and Vingulmark, 1 0823-1091 — his war in 
Gautland and annexation of all the territory north of Gautelf 
and Vener-lake, of which he appoints Duke Guthorm governor, 
109,1-1 1021 

Final Conquests and Consolidation of the Kingdom. — Pro- 
ceeds through the Uplands and over Dofra mountains to 
Thrandheim, 11O21.24 — battle of Hafursfirth and the conse- 
quences of the crushing defeat of Harald's opponents there, 
1 1 ig- 1 1 332 — expedition to the west, 115^^-11610 ii. 16824^20 — 
he annexes Orkney and Shetland, makmg one earldom of 
both groups of islands, 11612-14 — haircutting and surname, 
ii7,.i3 — Harald's dealings with Rolf Wend-afoot, ii7i6-ii8ig 
— marriage with Snowfair and bewitched state of mind, 1197- 
12021 — Harald*s disenchantment, 12022.33 — Harald's dealings 
with the sons of Snowfair and Thiodolf of Hvin's intercession, 
1213-1223 — his dealings with Halfdan Highleg and Gudrod 
Gleam after the murder by them of Rognvald the Mere-Earl, 
1 2415-1 2 5g — he bestows the Earldom of Mere on Thorir, the 
son of Rognvald, 1255.^ — on hearing that Turf-Einar, Earl of 
Orkney, had slain Halfdan Highleg, King Harald went west 
with an armed force and took, in atonement for his son, sixty 
marks of gold and made peace with Earl Einar, 1 2512-1 2720 
cf-ii. i68ie^ 17930 1802 

Harald shares the realm with his sons^ etc. — When Harald 
was fifty, and his sons were growing more and more trouble- 
some and dangerous to the peace of the land, he called a 
Thing together in southern Norway and sanctioned a law 
whereby all his kin on the sword-side should be kings, but 
his descendants on the distaff side should be earls, 1313.15 cf. 

94 Index I [har 

ii. 3828.88 — ^'^ divides the kingdom, bestowing on his sons 
one half of the revenue of their dominions, reserving the other 
half for himself, 1311^-1328 which arrangement was resorted 
to by later rulers, cf. 15114.16 2(m 24i«.ii 30811.15— each kinglet 
should sit in the high seat, but a step lower than the over- 
king, while a step lower than the kinglets' should be the seat 
of each earl^ 1328.5 — the over-kingship after him he intended 
for Eric, 1325.8 1338.5 — ^unsatisfactory consequences of this 
arrangement, 1328.14 — instead of landed dominion Har. gave 
warships to his sons Thorgils and Frodi, who harried in the 
west, 13221.28 — Harald's detestation of wizardry, 1338-25 — ^bis 
interference in the quarrel of his sons Eric and Halfdan the 
Black, 1 363- 1 3 79 — ^when seventy years of age Harald has a 
son, Hakon, with Thora Most-staff, and maintains both at his 
manors, 1381.24 — King Athelstane sends a sword of honour 
to Harald, 13827-13923 — Harald sends his son, Hakon, to be 
fostered by King Athelstane, 1 3926-141 19 — Harald appoints 
his son Eric over-king over Norway, 14I26-27 — Harald's last 
years and death, 14228-14341498-7 — Ws burial place, 1434.15 — 
description of his person and character, 14317.88 — Égil Wool- 
sark's estimate of him as a military commander, ^"iSvr'^l^w 
— Olaf the Swede^s estimate of him as king, ii. 9717.34 

Legislation and administration, — He made all free lands 
his own, and caused all bonders (franklins) to pay land dues 
to him, 963.7 — a highly unpopular policy, 15017.22 — in each 
county or folk-land he appointed an earl who should main- 
tain law and right, collect fines and land dues, and have one- 
third of the royal revenues and the land dues for his board 
and costs, 967.11 28728-20 — e^^h earl was to have under him 
four hersirs or more, each of which was to have a salary of 
twenty marks, 9611.13 — each earl was to supply at his own 
cost sixty men-at-arms to the army, each hersir twenty, 
9^18-15 — ^^s regulations in respect of sub-kings, earls, etc., 
followed as precedents in after reigns, 15114.18 1562-4 24025- 
2411 30812-15 — by Harald's fiscal law the state revenue was so 
increased that earls had more income than the dispossessed 
kings had had, 9615.15 — his ceremonial at the investiture of 
one who from a former kingly state descended to the grade 
of an earl: girding him with a sword, hanging a shield round 
his neck, naming; him an earl, and leading him to the earl's 


Index I 95 

settle in the high seat, 989.12 — at the division of the reahn he 
ordained that the over-king should occupy the first, the under- 
kings or folk-kings the second, the earls the third grade or 
step in the high seat, 1322.5 — his ordinances in respect of 
selecting his body-guard and manning his war-galley, 982^-995 
'^4i7-ití — ^s division of the realm among his sons, 1 31-132 
— he appoints Eric Bloodaxe over-king in Norway, 14120^ — 
bis strenuous maintenance of peace in the land, uSio-ie 
ii8j.y — popular attachment to his family, 2900.^ — his name a 
watchword in the family, 20224.27 ii. 3529-362 389 is si 407-S 

HAR^D ^HALBERD, see Harald Kesia. 

HARALD HARDREDY (H. inn har«rá«i). King of Norway, 
1 045-1 066, son of King Sigurd Sow and Asta, d. of Gudbrand 
Kula, ii. 3528 — married (i) Ellisif, d of K. Jarisleif of Holm- 
garth, iiL 7622-34; their children: Mary and Ingigerd, iii. 
96)4^; (2) Thora, d. of Thorberg Arnison; their children: 
Magnus and Olaf, 96^^^ — his dauntlessness and warlike pro- 
pensities already in childhood, ii. noj^iy 24-30 ^'^1022 (^^^24) 
— Arnor Earls'-skald on him, 23413.28 — go^s to meet his 
brother, K. Olaf Haraldson, in Sweden, 39013.31— fights in 
the battle of Sticklestead and is wounded, 41O5.25 4383.7 iii. 
57m8 '^52W6 — healed of his wounds he makes his way out 
of Norway to K. Jarisleif in Garthrealm, 4387.12 iii. 5719-5830 
— takes service with Jarisleif, 5827-5910 — leaves Garthrealm 
and alters the service of Queen Zoe and the Emperor 
Michael Katalaktus, 5910.31— ^f him and Gyrgir, 5931-631 — 
his African and Sicilian campaigns, 63-673 67^-7020 — Haldor, 
son of Snorri the priest, served under Harald, and told in 
Iceland the saga of him, 6711.13 — ^journey to Jerusalem, 702^- 
7212 — imprisonment in Micklegarth and escape, 721^-762 — 
return to Holmgarth and first marriage, 765.39 — alliance with 
Svein Wolfson against his nephew Magnus the Good, 77- 
79i^ — breaks faith with Svein through Magnus' adroit diplo- 
macy, and receives kingship over one-half of Norway, which 
Magnus confers upon him according to ancient custom, 7919- 
8418 883.3 — ^^'^ ^^^ confirmed at a public assembly followed 
by a feast given by Harald, 84^1-8714 — relations between nephew 
and uncle, 8717.32 8810-9013 — Harald's attitude at K. Magnus* 
death, 90,1-937 — Harald formally acknowledged sole King of 


Norway, 92sr952 94» lo— J^^^-ald and Svein Wolfson, 941^. 

battle at Nii, where Svein is utterly defeated, 129 140- 
peace made between Harald and Svein, i46.2--t49jtj— Harald's 
character and attitude towards Iceland and Icelanders^ xozy 
103^— Harald and Haldor Snorrison, 103^^^ — Harald ano 
Wolf UspaksoHj 1045^ — his church building, l04^^-I05l3- 
strained relations with Einar Thambarskelfir and murder < 

him and his son, 92 

io7j^'iiOg4 — Harald aver 

rebellion for this misdeed by promising to give in marriage* 
to Hakon Ivarson his grand-niece Ragnhild, 111-114 — the 
promise at first broken by Harald but afterwards carried out, 
1 15-1 1 6m 1 1 93-15 — Harald^s persecution of Hakon in conse- 
quence of saving the life of SveÍn Wolfson at the battle of 

Nii, 13339^31 1 3 Via ^385-1 40t, i43]4-H^2\ i49i^-t5hi—^^^^^ 
and Kalf Arnison, 1 19^^-1 2 1^ — his relations to Finn Arnison, 
iiia'ii4 11524-27 "^i^is ^^9n^M i2ii^M22^ 1343 ijTsifi 
1412-1429 — Harald founds a town at Oslo, 127^10 — ^his 
method of dowsing for water in an arid island, 127^-128^ — 
Harald and Thormod son of Eindrid, the slayer of Hall Kod- 
ran's-bane^ 15^14-15320 — Harald's punitive dealings with the^ 
adherents of Earl Hakon Ivarson, 15322-^558 — Harald, urge ' 
by Earl Tosti, prepares an expedition to England, and collect 
his fleet at the Solund isles, 160^^-1 63^j — before starting hfl 
opens the shrine of Olaf the Holy, cuts his hair and nails 
and locks the shrine and throws the keys into the river Nicf 
163^1^ — ^leaves his son Magnus behind as King of Norwaj^ 
and rns one wife Thora, and takes with him his other wifej 
Ellisif^ and the rest of his children, i^Sm-m — Harald's dr^r 
^*^5áH — ^^^ journey west, 16537-166 — fights in Yorkshir 
i673-r685g — the battle of Stamford Bridge and fall of Hara!<3 
1693-179^ í9S^4i!a cf. i. 63 — the same day and hour that hél 
fell his daughter Maria (Mary) died in Orkney, i83,,g^his 
body brought to Nidoyce and buried at Marychurch, 1841«^ 
— description of him, 1843^-186^ — Haldor Bryniolfson^s com- 
parison of the brothers Harald and Olaf the Holy, iB6j.gj — 
Harald^a and the earlier kings' manner of drinking in halli 
1 93^, J.J ^j— the height of his stature marked on the wall 
Marychurch in Nidoyce, which he had builtt 2335^.^1 
HABMf\LD GUNNHILDSON. see Harald Greycloak. 


Index I 97 

HARALD, son of Harald Kesia and Ragnhild, daughter of 

King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 283,4.17 
HARALD HONE (H. hein), King of Denmark, 1076-1080, 

son of Svein Wolfson, iii. 19421-28 
HARALD KESIA, or Halberd, son of Eric the Good, King 

of Denmark, marries Ragnhild, daughter of King Magnus 

Barefoot — their sons: Magnus, Olaf, Knut, Harald, 28314.17 


HARALD, King of England, 1035-1040, son of Knut the 
Mighty and Emma, ii. 2 714 — becomes King of England on 
the death of his father, iii. — dies five years after his 
£eUher and is buried in Winchester, 25^.5 5233^4 

HARALD, son of Knut, see Gold-Harald. 

HARALD, Earl, son of Maddad, surprised and captured by 
King Eystein Haraldson at Thurso, ransoms himself and 
departs, iii. 37426-37 5i2 

HARALD, son of K. Olaf Tryggvison with Thyri, d. of Harald 
Gormson, i. 35522-30 

HARALD REDLIP (H. hinn granrauíSi), King of Agdir, refuses 
to give his daughter, Asa, in marriage to Gudrod the Hunter- 
king, i. 7 1 1.5 — attacked by night by King Gudrod, and slain, 
7 1 5.14 — his kingdom taken over by Asa his daughter, 77^.5 

HARALD, said to be the son of King Sigurd Mouth, the son 
of Harald Gilli and Kristin King's-daughter, handed over by 
Nicolas Periwinkle to Erling Askew, who has him executed 
on Northness by Biorgvin, iii. 47726-47817 

HARALD, the son of Svein Twibeard and Gunnhild, the 
daughter of K Burislaf of Wendland, i. 27 ii^ 

HARALD, son of Thorkel the High, receives an earldom in 
Denmark from Knut the Mighty, ii. 375i7.ig — ^joins K. Svein, 
the son of K. Knut the Mighty and iUfiva, on mother and 
son going to Norway, 44930 

HARALD (his Slavonic name was Mstislav), son of Valdimar 
(i.e. Wladimir Monomachus), prince in Holmgarth, 1095- 
II 25 [Grand Prince of Kief, 11 25-11 32], iii. 27028-27I2 — 
father to Ingibiorg, the mother of K. Valdemar of Denmark, 
and Malmfrid, queen of Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, whose daughter 
Kristin was mother of K. Magnus Erlingson, 43728-4382 

HARALD OF THE WICK, body-guard of K. Eystein, slain 
by Eystein's brother, K. Sigurd Mouth, iii. 38520^1 

VI. H 



H ARALD THE YOUNG (H, ungi), son of Halfdait the Black 

by his first wife Ragahildi the daughter of Hamid Goldbeard, 
King of Sogn, inherited from his grandfather the kingdom 
of Sogn, but died when ten years old, i. 7910^ 

HAREK (Hárekr), son of a King Guthorm, feU with Eric 
Bloodaxe in England, i. 154,) ^J 

HAREK THE KEEN (H. hvassi). of Halogaland, a forecastldM 
man on board the Long- Worm, Í. 35 3g^ ^^ 

HAREK OF THIOTTA (H. or þjóttu), son of Eyvind the 
Skaldspiller, ii. iSg^^^^ married to Ragnhild, d* of .\rni^ sobj 
of Am mod, ii. i^iy^ — captain of a rising in HalogalanJ 
against Olaf Tryggvison^s project to christen the people, i- 
309,^23 — takes in the brothers Sigurd and Hawk, escaped 
prisoners of Olaf Tryggvison's, who, when occasion seryed|^H 


kidnapped Harek and brought him to Olaf, 324s-J26j„ — 1 
persistently refuses Olaf to become a Christian, yet is set free 
with much honour, and furnished by the king with a ship weU 
found and thirty men, 3261(^.2^ — returned home, he entrapi 
by means of the King's men, Eyvind Rentcheek, 3277^- 
entertains King Olaf on coming to christen Halogaland, lei 
himself be baptized and becomes the king's man, 3í9|. 
his landgrabbin^ in Thiotta, Íi. rSg-^-igoi — his connectioi 
and social position, 190114 — his reiations to King Olaf Harald- 
son, I90H-ÍS — favours received at King Olaf 's hands, 19118-1 
is deprived by King Olaf of one half of his bailiwick 
Halogaland in favour of Asmund Gran kelson, at whid 
Harek, though obeying the King*s order, is deeply offend 
237,^.25— his dispute with Asmund over an island rich 11 
produce settled by King Olaf in his disfavour, 292-294^- — his 
veiled threat to Asmund, 2 j4^.^ — parts company with K> Olaf 
after the battle of the Holy River and sails home, beginning 
to side with Knut, ZV^i^'hZ'ht — ^^ burns in his house Grankel, 
the father of Asmund, 347n'gi — becomes Knut's landed-man, 
receives grants and the Finn-fare from the King, 3491.^ — re- 
ported to K, Olaf by Biorn the Marshal as one of the chief 
rebels against him in Norway, 3813— recruits a host of warriors 
to oppose Olaf 's return to Norway, 388^.11 — declines, on the 
ground of old age, the chief command at Sticklestead, 420^ 
421^— follows the banner of Kalf Arnison, 42231,2^423^ — ÍD 
the vanguard of the battle, 42 5^^ — makes an onslaught on 

HAR — hel] Index I 99 

Day, son of Ring, at the battle of Sticklestead, 434i8 — slain 
by Asmund Grankelson, iii. 1717-18^5 
HAREK WOLF (H. gandr), King Halfdan the Black's man, 
seizes from Haki the Bareserk the children of Sigurd Hart, 
Ragnhild and Guthorm, and brings them home to his master, 

L 82^-837 

HAWK (Haukr), a Halogalander imprisoned with his brother 
Sigurd by Olaf Tryggvison for refusing to be christened, 
vanishes from prison, turns up at Harek's in Thiotta, whom 
he betrays into the King's power, i. 3248-32610 — thereupon he 
is baptized and becomes the King's servant, 327..^ 

HAWK OF THE FIRTHS (H. or Fjör^um), stationed in the 
forehold on board the Long-Worm, i. 35310 

HAWK HIGH-BREECH (H. hábrók), sent to King Athelstane 
by K. Harald Hairfair with his youngest son Hakon, to 
* knee-set ' him on Athelstane's lap, z.^., to make K. Athelstane 
thereby his fosterfather, * for men ever account the fosterer 
less noble than him whose child he fostereth,' a ruse which 
succeeded, i. 13920-^082 

HEATHMARKERS (Heinir), inhabitants of the folkland of 
Heathmark, ii. 641 iii. 15417 

HEDIN (HeiSinn), a legendary sea-king, i. 24513 27 2599 ii. 


HEDIN HARDMAW (H. har«magi), iii. 3585 

HEIMDALL (Heimdallr), one of Odin's Diar, abode at Heaven- 
berg on coming to Sweden, i. lógg 

HELGA, daughter of Priest Andres, and wife of Einar, 32510-11 

HELGI, son of Halfdan, King in Denmark, invades Sweden, 
and ousts King Adils, robs his queen Yrsa, who was Helgi's 
own daughter, though he knew it not, marries her, and begat 
with her Rolf Kraki; fell in battle when Rolf was eight 
winters old, i. 4927-5 O12 

HELGI THE KEEN (H. hinn hvassi), married to Aslaug, d. 
of Sigurd Worm-in-Eye, their son. King Sigurd Hart, L 8X4^ 

HELGI, son of Stari, iii. 363^ 

HELSING (Helsingr), son of King Gandalf of Vingulmark, fell 
with his brother Hysing in battle fighting against K. Halfdan 
the Black at Eid by the lake Eyir in S. Raumrealm, i. 


HELSINGS, Helsmglanders, folk of: they of Helsingland 


Index I 

[hem — HIA 



(HdaiAglir), the inhabitants of Helsingland, i. 163^ ^^ 

HSMING (Hemingr), son of Hakonj Earl of Ladir, and Thora, 

the daughter of Skagi Skoptison, I 247^ 3771^ 
UEMING, son of Strut- Harald, i, 270-^^^ | 

IlENRV THE HALT (Helnrekr hahi), son of the Danistil 
King Svein, the son of Svdn Wolfson, the first husband of 
Ingirid, d. of Rognvald, their sons : Magnus, K. of Sweden^ 
Rognvald and Buriz, iii. 426.p^,-427.. 437'^^ 
HENRY THE BOUNTEOUS (rf hinn mildi), ̀, H. IlLj 
German Emperor, 1039- 105 6, married Gunnhild, the daughte 
of Knut the Mighty, iii. 25.^^ 
HENRY, son of Frederick Barbarossa, i>. H* VL, Emperorfl 
1190-1197, marries one of the daughters of William, K. of 
Sicily, the son of Roger ' the Rich/ K. of the same dominion, 
ill, 256,^ — slays the Duke of Cyprus and Margritj 'the lord 
of corsairs/ ^567.1^ [The wife of Henry VI. was Constance, 
d. of Duke Roger II. of Sicily, afterwards R. 1,, King of Sicily 
and Naples, ii3i'ii54f not, as Snorri has it, of William L^^J 
1154-1160, his son.] 1^1 

HERDIS, the mother of Stein, the composer of WolPs Flock,^ 

iii. I04iB 

HERLAUG (Herlaugr), son of Hakon, Earl of Ladir, skdn \ 
the second battle of Solskel, i* 1 02^^^^ 

HERLAUG, King of Naumdale, on hearing of HairfaiPs con- 
quest of Thrandheim^ buries himself alive with eleven men in 
a howe he and his brother Hrollaug had been building for 
three summers, i. 97^^30 

HERMOD (Hermóér), one of the gods, son of Odin, i, 19212 

HIALTI (Hjalti), son of Skeggi, married to Vilborg, the^J 
daughter of Gizur the White, converted to Christianity bj^f 
Thangbrand, a favourite of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 3351^ — joinS^l 
with other Icelanders in Nidoyce to promise the King that 
Iceland should be converted to Christianity, 33923-3401*1-^ 
sent together with his father-in-law by Olaf Tryggvison to 
convert the Icelanders, which mission they accomplished, 
354i3^ — ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 'words and tokens' from King 
Olaf Haraldson to come and meet him, ii. 73^.^^ — he comes 1 
and has a good welcome of King Olaf, who invites him to 1 
stay with him ; having a seat at court appointed lo him be- 

HiG — hil] Index I i o i 

side Biorn the Marshal they become speedily friends, ^Svi^ 
— arranges to go with Biorn the Marshal on a mission of 
peace to Sweden, 8631-8710 — takes leave of the King and 
starts on his journey, 881^.25 — receives a loving greeting from 
Ingibiorg, the wife of Earl Rognvald of Gautland, she having 
known Hialti at the court of her brother, K. Olaf Tryggvison, 
and being a cousin of his wife : Viking-Kari : Eric Biodaskull 
— Astrid — Ingibiorg ; Bodvar — Olof — Gizur White — Vilborg, 
8833-894 — ^volunteers to go alone without Biorn to meet the 
King of Sweden, and to find out how matters stand at his 
court, 919^ — his journey to Sweden and reception at the 
court of King Olaf, 91 26-9 225 — gets into great favour with the 
King for pretending to have journeyed all the way to Sweden 
to pay him the land-dues that Icelanders had to pay to the 
ruler of Norway, 94i8-95i6 — he gets him introduced tolngigerd, 
King Olaf the Swede's daughter, and delivers to her message 
and tokens from Ingibiorg, Tryggvi's daughter, recommending 
him to the protection and friendship of Ingigerd, to whom he 
tells that Marshal Biom's mission is purposed for settling 
peace if possible between the two kingdoms, 9516-9610 — he 
broaches the matter of peace and family alliance between the 
two kings to the Swede, who returns an answer of stem re- 
fusal, 9611-9825 — next he persuades Ingigerd to try to soften 
her fathei^s mind in the matter, 982^-992 — watching his oppor- 
tunity he gives Ingigerd a glowing description of Olaf of 
Norway and his ways, and ascertains from her that she would 
be willing to become his queen if he should woo her, 1003- 
10I3 — he confides the secret to two Icelandic poets at the 
court, and together with them converses at all times with her 
on the subject, 10I4.12 — having thus far ascertained how 
matters stood in Sweden, he sends his attendants with letters 
to the lady Ingibiorg in Gautland, 1 01 12.31 1145-8 — ^^^ "^^ 
with princess Ingigerd to Ulleracre to meet Earl Rognvald 
of Gautland, his exchange of civilities with the Swede King 
on the occasion, 1151-17 — returns to Iceland and is seen off 
by Olaf Haraldson with friendly gifts, i37g.a 
HIGH-ONE (Hár) = Odin, i. 20733 "• 43^2? "^- 334i9 
HIGH, the hard-gripping (H. haríSgreipi), li. 40727 
HILD (Hildr), daughter of Eric Agnar's son King of Westfold, 
married to Eystein, son of Halfdan Whiteleg, i. 6817.20 

I02 Index I [hil — hog' 

HILD, daughter of Hogni, King of East-Gautland, L óijj.jj^ — | 
married to Granmar, King of Southrnanlandt oo^^^j 

HILD, daughta- of Roif Nefia, married to Rognvald Mere- 
Earl, Ú 1 1 7 115^ — pleads I in vain, with King Harald Hairfair 
for mercy to her son, Rolf Wend-afoot, nS-|^ , 

HILDA, HILD, a ValkjTJa, i. 249^ li, 407^ iii. ö^j^ 'TSís 

HILDIBRAND (Hildibrandr), a bareserk sldn by King Sigurd 
Hart, i, Si^^jg 

HILDIGUNNA (Hildigunnr), daughter of King Granmar of 
Southmanland and of his wife Hild : be^ars ale to her father^s 
viking-guests, and toasts them, i. 6o^^ — sits, against viking 
custom, and drinks with King Hiorvard, and becomes his 
wife, 60^ ! 

HILDIR, son of King Hpgni of East-Gautland^ i, 61 ^ öi^j^ 

HIORVARD (HjörvarSr), called the Ylöng (Ylíingr), a sea* 
king, comes with his host to Sweden and allies himself with 
King Granmar, whose daughter Hildigunna he marri^, i. 
5 9ig-6o^^ fights in company with his father-in-law against 
Ingiald'EviUheart and makes peace with him, 615-62^— slain 
through treachery by Ingiald Evil -heart, oij^^^ 

HISING- DWELLERS {Hísings-búar), the inhabitants of the 
island of Hisiog, iii. 3733^ 4552« 45^1 459ni 4^0^ 

HLIF (HlíQí daughter of King Day of Westmere, wife of King ^ 
Halfdan the Bounteous and the Meatgrudging, L 70^ 

HLODVER, LODVER {HlöíSver), son of Thorfinn Skull- 
cleaver Earl of Orkney and Grelad, daughter of Dungad Earl 
of Caithness, i. laSj 2413^ ii. löSgpióg^ — was the longest-lived 
of his brothers, ruling the earldom alone when his brothers 
were no morCi ii. lo^toj^ — his son Sigurd the Thick, ii. 

«6912 la 
HLOKK {Hlokk), a Valk>TJa, i. 2071, 2421^ lii* 5is 964 í7S2t 
HLORRID (HlómíSi)-Thor, i. 242,^ 
HNOSS, daughter of Odr and Freya, 1. 24^ 
HŒNIR, a chief among the Asfolk, given in hostage to the 

Vanir, as one meet to be a lord, L 132^-14^ — made lord in 

Vanhome, he proved a failure, wherefor his counsellor Mimir 

must pay with his head, 145.J0 
HOGNI (Hogni), a legendary sea-king, iii. 234^^ 287^^ 
HOGNI, King of East^Gautland, father to Hili the queen of 

King Granmar, i. oi^j.^^ — his dealings with K. Ingiald as the 

HOG — hor] Index I 103 

ally of Granmar, oij^^gg — ^^s raids into Swede-realm in revenge 
for Granmar, 6232^ 
HOGNI, son of Eystein the Mighty, King of the Uplands, 
conquered * all Heathmark, Thotn and Hadaland' from Olaf 
Geirstead-Elf, i. 7223^3 — plans, with his brother Frodi, an 
invasion of Hairfair's dominions, 9I18-17 — ^^ brothers make 
an alliance with Hogni Karason and Hersir Gudbrand, 9214.1^ 
— Harald makes a night attack on them and slays them, 


HOGNI KARASON (H. Karuson), invaded Ringrick, a por- 
tion of Harald Hairfair's kingdom, and made an alliance at 
Ringsacre in Heathmark with the sons of King Eystein of 
Heathmark and Hersir Gudbrand against King Harald, who 
burnt Hogni in his house at Ringsacre, i. 9I17.18 9214-932 

HOGNI, of NiordVisle, i. 52^ 

HOLMFRID (HólmfrfiSr), natural daughter of King Olaf the 
Swede with Edla, daughter of a Wendish Earl, ii. 1394.7 — 
married to Earl Svein, the son of Earl Hakon, i. 37721-22 

HOLMROGA PEOPLE (Holmrygir), such of the Rogaland 
people as dwelt in the islands belonging to the folk-land of 
Rogaland (cf. Holmfolk, i. 11427)1 i. 1843 — a poetical /arj- 
pra-toto expression for Norwegians, 18919 

HOLTI THE NIMBLE (Holti hinn frækni), son of Jarisleif, 
King of Holmgarth, and Ingigerd, daughter of Olaf, the Swede 
King, ii. 15427 

HOODSWAINS (Hettusveinar), the followers of Olaf the Un- 
lucky, iii. 4778 

HORDA-KARI (Hör«akári), a great hersir of Hordland, i. 
21521 — ^^^ descendants, 30334.-1 

HORDA-KNUT (Hör^Saknútr) [son of Earl Arnfinn], King in 
Denmark, father to Gorm the Old, i. 2334.5 

HORDAKNUT, King of Denmark, 1035-1042, of England, 
1040-1042, son of Knut the Mighty and Emma, ii. 2714 — 
appointed by his father viceroy of Denmark, under the 
guardianship of Earl Wolf, the son of Thorgils Sprakaleg, 
2^721-28 3^^10-21 — ^y authority of letters forged by his mother 
under the royal seal, he is elected King of Denmark, 
Earl Wolf being the queen's agent in the affair, 31 621.3 172^ 
— with the aid of Earl Wolf he levies forces by land and 
water to meet the invasion of the allied Kings of Norway 


Index I 



and Sweden, 3173^.3^— finding that his father resented deeply 
his treasonable act of setting up as King of Denmark, he 
follows his mother's advice to Jay his case in his father*s 
hands, who quietly relegates him to his former position, 3 1 8- 
319^ — appointed King of Denmark by his father, 3491,^10 — 
offers rule in Denmark to his brother^ Svein AÍfiva*s son, 
when he was turned out of Norway, iii, 91410 — peace made 
between him and Magnus the Good^ each settling, in case 
of death without male issue, on the longest-lived of them his 
kingdom, lOaa-iij^ 26^.^4 5^2^*3 5 212 i*5 1^5— King of England , 
for two years, buried at Winchester, 2%^^^ 263^ ^SSií I 

HOR OS, Hordfoik, Hordlanders, Hordmen, men of Hord- 
land (HöríSar), i. iir^ \aH\^ ^S^is ^SSs- 3c»5u «■ S^Oy 4^318 
431 lij iii' 3ii. 36^7 15430 *oS.a 224^ 344ití J 

HORN (Horn), one of Freya's names, Freya, iiii 3021^ \ 

HORNKLOFr, ste Thorbiorn Homklofi, 

HOSKULD (Hoskuldr), son of Koll o' Dales and father to 
Olaf Peacock, i, IZA^^.^^ 

HOUND (Hundi), variant of Whelp, the name of a son of 
Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney, Í. 29 17 

HOWARD BUn^ER BREAD (HávaríSr klfningr, the transla- 
tion of ' klfningr ' is a guess-work based on the fact that the 
word is used in the sense in the East of Iceland still ; less 
likely seemed the sense ^ dab of cow*s dung* dried for fuel), 
a captain in K, Ingi Haraldson*s 6eet, iii. 4031^ — slain by 
Hakon Shoulder broad, 4o3;^| — his son kills Eindrid Jonson 
because he had ruled it that his father was slain, 4t5i».is 

HOWARD HEWER (H. höggvandi), a Jomsviking, i, 280,^ 
— shoots Gizur of Valdres dead, and is killed in turn, 182^- 


HOWARD, of Orkdale, a forecastleman on board the Long- 
Worm, i, 3531^1^ 

HOWARD, son of Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, Earl of Orkney, and 
of Greladj the daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness^ ii. 

HRAMMI, a legendary sea-king, iii. 41^^ 

HRANI, see Rani. 

HREIDAR (HreiiSarr), father of Styrkar, the father of Eindrid, 

the father of Einar Thambarskelfir, i* 215^^*5^, 
HREIDAR, son of Erling Askew, set Reidar* 



HRE — hyr] Index I 105 

HREIDAR, son of Gritgarth, read Griotgarth, slain in the 
attempt of rescuing K. Magnus the Blind, in the battle at 
Holm-the-Gray, iii. 3627.1^ 

HRIST, a Valkyrja, iii. 2581^ 

HROLLAUG (Hrollaugr), King of Naumdale, on hearing of 
Hairfair's conquest of Thrandheira, degrades himself from the 
dignity of king to that of earl, by the ceremony of arraying 
on the top of the family howe a kingly throne, and beneath 
it a pillowed foot-pace whereon earls were wont to sit, and to 
let himself roll from the upper unto the lower seat ; where- 
upon he went to King Harald and became his earl, i. 971^- 

HROLLAUG, son of Rognvald the Mere-Earl and a concu- 
bine, i. 1 1 728 ^^580 

HUGH THE THICK (Hugi hinn digri), of Avranches, Earl 
of Chester, tA. 11 01, defeated in Anglesey Sound by K. 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 22327.31 224q> 

HUGH THE VALIANT (H. prú«i), of Montgomery, Earl of 
Shrewsbury and Arundel, ob. 1098, shot dead through the 
eye by K. Magnus Barefoot in a battle in Anglesey Sound, 
i^diere Magnus won the victory, iii. 22337-22425 

HUGLEIK (Hugleikr), son of K. Alf, and King of the Swedes, 
a man fond of peace, music, jugglery and witchcraft, i. 


HULD THE WITCHWIFE (Huldr seiíSkona, völva), em- 
ployed by Drift to kill her husband, K. Vanland, i. 272.38 and 
by the sons of Visbur (Gisl and Ondur) to give them power 
to slay their father, whereto she added the spell that parricide 
should ever go with the blood of the Ynglings, i. 2817.36 

HULVID (Hulvi«r), son of Swipdag the Blind, i. 6124 

HUNTHIOF (Húnf jófr), King of Northmere, married to the 
daughter of Nockvi, King of Raumsdale; these two allied 
themselves against Harald Hairfair when he set out on the 
conquest of the coast kingdoms of Mid- and South-Norway, 
and had a battle with him at the island of Solskel, where botíi 
fell, i. 998o-ioOi7 

HYRNING (Hyrningr), a Lord of the Wick, married Ingigerd, 
the d. of Lodin and Astrid, 01. Tryggvison's mother, i. 30114.15 
— aids Olaf Tryggvison in christening the Wick, 30213-3032 — 
with the combined forces of himself and his brother Thorgeir 


Index I 

[hys — IT 

he slays K. Gudrod, son of Eric Bloodaxe, 34121-342 — joins 
Olaf Tryggvison*s expedition to Wendland, 35S10.10 — repels_ 
Earl Eric's boarding of the Long -Worm in the Battle 

HYSING (Hysingrj, son of Gandalf, King of Vingulmark, 
attacks, together with his brother Helsing, King Halfdan th^^ 
Black by night and routs him, but having brought togethe|^| 
a fresh host Halfdan gave the brothers a battle at Eid ana" 
slew both, i. So^.j^j 

ICELANDER, Icelanders, Iceland men, men of Iceland 
('Islendingr, Islendingar), i. 219^.5 268.^ 3341, 3357 y. 33646 ^ 
339aoi^ "' 69^^.1771724 ^4iiE> M^i ^45330 M9n as ^74is ss^ 

275« 40930 25 ill' 10^23 ^9921 2Ö 20 3^^« ^^^Wi 421^ 

ILLUGI, Bryndaters* skald, an Icel poet, on Harald Hard- 

red/s deeds in Greek service, iii, ^2>\i^^\ 
INGI, son of Ami of Stodreim and Queen Ingirid, iii. 37034 
INGI, the son of Bard, King of Norway, 1203-1217, iii. 184^1^1 

INGI, son of K. Hallstein, King of Sweden, ob* 1125, firs^* 
husband of Brigida, the daughter of King Harald GiUi, iii* 

INGI, son of K. Harald Gilli and of Queen Ingirid d. 
Rognvald, King of Norway, 11 36-1 161, jointly with his half-* 
brothers, Sigurd, Eystein, and Magnus; fostered in the Wick 
by Amundi, the son of Gyrd, iii. ZAIx^m — ^^^^t^" for king on 
the death of his father, 347 jj,— defeats Magnus the Blind and 
Sigurd Slembi- Deacon at Mouth, 34921-35012 — Earl Karl Bona- 
son of Gautland^s projected invasion of Norway defeated by 
Ingi at Crookshaw, 3S^í6"3Si2o^ — ^^^ successful defence of 
Norway against Eric, K* of Denmark, 35 115-35334 — his dealings 
with Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 3552r359io 3Ö^2i"3^7 — ^^^ letter 
to K. Sigurd his brother, calling on him to take his due share 
in the cost of defending the realm, 35913-36018 — Ingi's terms 
accepted by Sigurd, 36021-36121— with K, Sigurd he concedes 
Eystein, his brother's, cfaim to a due share in the kingdom, 
a similar concession extended to the infirm brother, Magnus, 
3683-3693 — Ingi's kind stepfather, Ottar Brightling, murdered 
at the instigation of K, Sigurd, 369,5-3 yoi*. — Ingi's relations to 
Erling Askew, 371 11.14 — Ingi and Sigurd set up a separate 
court, each for himself, Gregory Dayson becoming Ingi's first 


Index I 107 

counsellor, 3773^ — Ingi's personal characteristics, 37821.31 — 
a great favourite with Card. Nicolas (Breakspeare), 37926^ — 
at his and his brothers' request the Card, raises Nidoyce to 
an archbishopric, 37928-3804 — Ingi defeats his brothers' plot 
to depose him, 38519-38695 — after repeated provocations K. 
Ingi consents to fighting his brother Sigurd, who is slain, 
3863,-39010 — Eystein, arriving too late to afford any aid to 
Sigurd, makes a hollow peace with K. Ingi, 39011.24 — Eystein 
commits various deeds of violence against his brother, who 
forces him to accept his own terms of peace at Seal-isles, 
39^i9"3922o — ^'^^^ ^^st encounter and fall of Eystein, 3935- 
301S — ^^^8^ ^"^^ ^^^ partizans of Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
3995-19 — ^^ ^^^ Gregory Dayson put Hakon to flight at Kings' 
Rock, 39921-40215 — King Ingi's men suffer severely at Hakon's 
hands, 40213-4031^ — battle with Hakon in the Gautelf, 40313- 
415JQ — K. Ingi and Sigurd of Reyr, 41527.29 — Ingi's dealings 
with Erling Askew and Gregory in the Biorgvin riot, 41634- 
418,3 — Ingi's sorrow at the fall of Gregory, 422-423^5 — last 
encounter with Hakon and fall, 42317-42712 4561^ — his party 
advocate the cause of Erling and his son Magnus, 43 55-43 7i8 
— his fleet in Hakon's hands, 43817.20 — lost to Erling at the 
battle of Tunsberg, 44024.27 — his death avenged by Erling, 
44^18-25 45^2*4554 — ^^^ popularity the main cause of Erling's 
éivour with the public, 44910-14 
INGI, King of Sweden, io8o-r. mo, son of K. Steinkel, father 
of Margaret Frithpoll, queen of Magnus Barefoot, iii. 2321^.31 
and of Kristin, queen of K. Harald Valdemarson of Holm- 
garth, 27028-27I4 and of Rognvald, the father of Ingirid, the 
queen of K. Harald Gilli, 3142325 — ^^s strife with Magnus 
Barefoot about the boundary between Norway and Sweden, 
2269-22819 2363.10 — battles]at Foxern, 22829-22920 2310-2323 — 
peace made and family alliance arranged between them, 

^3^(wi ^338-d 
INGIALD EVIL-HEART (I. illráíSi), son of K. Road-Onund, 

King of Sweden, fostered by Swipdag the Blind, a kinglet of 
Tenthland, who, in order to increase the boy's pith, gives 
him to eat the roasted heart of a wolf, wherefrom he grew the 
most cruel-hearted of men, i. 558"562 — ^^ married Gauthild, 
daughter of King Algaut of West Gautland, 563.12 — had 
burned in one hall at Upsala six kinglets of Sweden and 


index I 


seized their lands, 57^,- 597— his war with Granmar and Hiar 
vard, 6ij-6j^— his treachery to these kings^ Oaj^.^j— his 
dealings with King Hogni, 6 2 j^^— his children, 613^^-635 — 
slew twelve kings through treachery, whence his by-name, 
^3ö-9 — humed himself with all his men to death, 631^-64^ 

INGIALD (Ingjaldr), son of Olaf Tree^shaver, I 653^— King 
of V erm Ian d^ 6 8 ^ ,^.^ 

INGIBIORG (Ingibjörg), daughter of Priest Andres the son of 
Bruni, wife of Sæmund Housewife, iii. 3151 

INGIBIORG, daughter of tiuthorm the son of Steig-Thorir, 
married to K. Eystein Magnusson, their d. Maria married to 
Gudbraad, son of Shavehew, iii, 165 j^ 

INGIBIORG, d of Harald Hairfair, married to Eari Halfdan, 
their d. Gunnhild mother to Eyvind Skaldspiller, i. i^Z^^ 
ii. 190^- 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Haiald (Mtzislav) Valdimarson of 
Holmgarth and sister of Malmfrid, whom Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer had to wife, married to Knui the Lord, iii. 2711-5 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Ogmund, son of Thorberg, wife of 
Egil^ the son of Aslak of Aurland, iii. 2093^^ 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Thorkel Leira, i. 2 73^^— given by 
Earl Eric in marriage to Vagn Akison, 2833^,93 

INGIBIORG, daughter of K. Tryggvi Olafson and Astrid, 
i. 3oig ii, 83^4 — personal description, i. 356^.^ — her fondness for 
Icelanders, especially Kiartan Olafson, 35^713 — ^^^ betrothal 
to Earl Rognvald of West-Gautland bespoken, 3561^-357^3 — 
their wedding spoken of as eííected in King Olaf s Ufetime^ 
ii. 237.1(1 — hrings about friendship between her husband and 
King Olaf Haraldson of Norway in spite of the Swede-king's 
hostility to Olaf, 833^^-841^ — gives good cheer to Olaf Harald- 
son*s messengers of peace, Biorn the Marshal, Hialti Skeg- 
gison (Sigvat Thordson^ etc.), 882-9 1^ — urges her husband 
to be of avail to Olafs messengers, i^i^i^ 9^4-30 — ^s^g^^*^ ^^ 
Hialti's proposal to go by himself and find out how matters 
stand at the court of Sweden, and fits him becomingly out for 
his journey with tokens to Ingigerd of Sweden to speed his 
errand, 919-92^ — receives messages from Hialtt Skeggison and 
the princess Ingigerd of Sweden relating to prospects of 
peace and family alliance between the Kings of Norway imd 
Sweden, 114^10— ^^^i^ sons, 154,1,^ 



Index I 109 

INGIBIORN SIPIL (Ingibjöm sipill), a landed-man of King 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, Slain by command of Erling Askew, 
iii. 44I5 

INGIGERD (Ingiger^r), iii. \%^^..f-read Ingirid. 

INGIGERD, daughter of Earl Birgir Brosaand Brigida, daughter 
of King Harald Gilli, iii. 379^ — married to Sorkvir, the Swede- 

i^ing» 3797 

INGIGERD, daughter of Harald Hairfair and Ashild, the 
daughter of Ring Dayson, i. i i4ig.2i 

INGIGERD, daughter of Harald Hardredy and Queen EUisif, 
iii. 9623.25 — accompanies the King on his expedition to Eng- 
land, 16522 — ^^^^ behind in the Orkneys, 1665 — leaves the 
west with Queen EUisif, her mother, 1833 — married to K. 
Olaf of Denmark, the son of Svein Wolfson, i9428~i952 

INGIGERD, daughter of Lodin and Astrid, the mother of Olaf 
Tryggvison, i. 301 7 — married to Hyming, a wealthy man in the 

Wick, 30 1 14-16 

INGIGERD, daughter of Olaf, King of Sweden, married to 
Jarisleif, K. of Holmgarth, her children : Valdimar, Vissivald, 
Holti the Nimble, ii. 15420-27 ^"^ EUisif, iii. 762324 772o^i — 
receives from Ingebiorg Tryggvi's daughter message and 
tokens to speed Hialti Skeggison's mission of peace to 
Sweden, ii. 923^ — receives Hialti in audience and their 
acquaintance soon develops into intimate friendship, 95^5- 
961Q — at Hialti's suggestion she pleads for peace with her 
father and receives a stern rebuke, 982^-1002 — her account 
to Hialti of the interview, 1003^ — her converse with Hialti 
and the court poets on the question of being wooed by King 
Olaf Haraldson, 100^^-101^^ — she sends, by Hialti's messen- 
gers to West-Gautland, letters to Earl Rognvald and Ingibiorg 
his wife concerning the proposed wooing on behalf of Olaf 
of Norway, 101^520 — ^^ ^^^ request of Earl Rognvald she 
receives him at UUeracre to talk over matters relating to 
peace and especially to family alliance between the Kings of 
Norway and Sweden, 11425-116^4 — her father, yielding to 
pressure by Lawman Thorgnyr, promises her in marriage to 
Olaf of Norway, entrusting Earl Rognvald with the betrothal 
arrangements, 1 2 1 1^.22 1 22^.20 — she sends Olaf of Norway costly 
gifts, 1 2220^ — theappointed wedding-feast of her and KingOlai" 
comes to nought, 1233.13 ^3726*^3^ í39í6''4°8 — whereat many 


Index I 


people grew dissatisfied and lugigerd particularly troubled 
mind, X4o^.33^her father refuses her peremptorily his consenfi 
to her marriage with Olaf of Norway, 1403^-1422— she sendi 
messengers to Earl Rognvald to tell him the truth about he 
father's change of mind, 143;,.^ — she informs Earl RognvaW 
that she is being wooed by King Jarisleif of Holmgarth, and 
that her father is all in favour of the match, 148^^24 (iSOgg^gii 
— she is formally wooed by and betrothed to King jarisleif; 
her consent being granted on condition that Earl Rognvald 
accompany her to Garthrealm, and receive there the earldom 
of Aldeigia-burg, 15312-15420 — she goes in company with Earl 
Rognvald to Russia, and marries King Jarisleif, 1 54H>(j^^^she 
confers on Earl Rognvald Aldeigia-burg and the earldom 
appertaining thereto, \^^,^-^,^ — receives K. Olaf of Norway a 
fugitive in Russia, sogj^^^g-^urges him to accept K. Jarisleif s 
offer of Bulgaria as a dominion for him, 3815^13 — a similar 
offer repeated in vain, 38524-38611 

INGIMAR (Ingimarr), of Ask, son of Svein, gets his bane- 
wound at the battle of Fyrileif, iii, 3 1 720.^3 

INiilRID (Ingiri^r), daughter of Lodin and Astrid, the 
mother of Olaf Tryggvison, i, 301^— married Thorgeir, a 
wealthy man of the Wick, joiij^i^ 

INGIRID, d. of Rognvald, the son of Ingi Steinkelson K. of 
Sweden, iii* 3149324 — married: i. to Henry the Halt, issue; 
MagnuSj K. of Sweden, Rognvald, 'an earl there,' 426^^.gi and 
Buriz, 437^0-27 — ^- '^ ^^ Harald Gilli, issue: Ingi, K. of Nor- 
way, 3>4íj3 2í. 343jí( 347i4 15— 3^to Ottar Brightling, 369^1.;^— 4. 
to Arni of Stodreim, issue: Ingi, Nicolas, Philippus, Margaret^ 
37022.3T — has a son, Worm King*s brother, with Ivar Skewer, 
370|g^{j^her m^sures for securing the succession in Norwajr^H 
to the sons of Harald Gilli, 347-348i|^incites her son Ing|^| 
to put down his brother Sigurd's repeated acts of provocation, 
3^7h-2& — betakes her to Denmark in company with Erliog , 
Askew, 437i<t^w fl 

INGIRID, daughter of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta, thtfH 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 35^^ — married to Nefstein; ' 
their daughter Gudrun, wife of Skuli King's fosterer, iii. 


INGIRID, daughter of Svein Wolfson, K, of Denmarkj marrie 
to King Olaf the Qtiiet of Norway, iíi. 1 942^ 

iRi — iva] Index I in 

IRISH, Erse-folk (Irar), i. 13237 15517 262gii. 17421 iii. 24013 ^^ 

*4i8 18 28 24226 
IRON SKEGGI, see Jam Skeggi. 
ISLE-DANES (Eydanir), Danes from the islands of Denmark, 

Danes generally, i. 18925 
ISLE-FOLK (Eynir), the inhabitants of the folkland Eynafylki 

(Isle-folk) in Thrandheim, i. 36211 ii. 19631 
ISLEIF ('lsleifr), son of Gizur, the first bishop of Iceland, bom 

1006, bishop 1 056-1 080, i. 619 28 29 

ISLE-SYSLINGS (Eysýslir), inhabitants of Isle-sýsla, ii. 9^ 13 

ISRID ('Isri«r), daughter of Gudbrand Kula, married to Thord 
Bigbelly, ii. 2491^ 

IVAR DINT (Ivarr dynta), son of Stari, in the battle of Holm- 
the-Gray, iii. 3633 — his execution, 36313.27 

IVAR OF ELD A, father to Bergliot and Ogmund, iii, 41522-28 

IVAR GAUDHANK (1. skrauthanki), son of Calf the Wrong, 
bishop of Nidoyce after 1139, iii. 35811 36231.33 — his peril 
at the battle of Holm-the-Gray, 36231-36313 — tells to Gudmn 
Birgir's daughter, and she again to Eric Oddson the story of 
the execution of Ivar Dint, 36313.23 

IVAR, son of a king Guthorm, fell with Eric Bloodaxe in Eng- 
land, i. i54ii 

IVAR, son of Hakon Maw, a captain in Hakon Shoulderbroad's 
host, at the battle of the Gautelf, against Ingi Haraldson, 
1 1 59, iii. 41 215-4135 

IVAR INGIMUNDSON, an Icelandic poet at the court of K. 
Eystein Magnusson, and much beloved of the King, iii. 265 
1^.18 — is cured of love sickness by the King, 26513-26722 — 
sings in the poem called Sigurd-balk of the trial by ordeid of 
Sigurd Slembi-Deacon for his paternity, 3372688 — ^^^ ^^ ^^s 
acceptance as king by Hordlanders and Sogners, 34413^1 

IVAR, son of Kolbein, one of the slayers of Harald Gilh, iii. 
343ð 3^222^ — falls in the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 36213.22 

rVAR, son of Ozur, a follower of Magnus the Blind, captured 
at Biorgvin by K. Harald Gilli's men and blinded, iii. 

323I8 26-27 

IVAR, son of Rognvald the Mere-Earl, fell in Harald Hair- 
fair's warfare in the Scottish isles, i. 11611.12 
IVAR, son of Sigtrygg, of Nerick, ii. 36921 


Index I 

[iVA — ^JAR^ 

IVAH SKEWER (1, sneis), by Queea Togirid Rognvald's 
daughter the father of Worm King's Brother^ iii, S/o^^^ 

I VAR SMETTA (L smetta), stationed in the mainhold of the 
Long' Worm, i, 35334 

IVAR WIDEFATHOM (L VííSfaíSmÍ), son of Halfdan of 
Scania, \- 63,3^^— went to Sweden to avenge the death of 
his father and uncle, and pressed so hard on King Ingi; 
that he burned himself with all his court in a banquet] 
hall, 63,5,-64^— his conquests, 64^.^^ — of his kin are all wl 
since his day have been kings in Denmark, and all who ha^ 
been sole kings of Sweden, 642^^^ — many people fled his 
realm of Sweden and joined Olaf Tree-shaver in Vermlam 

IVAR THE WHITE {I. hvíti), a Norwegian, slays Earl 
Wolf at the behest of King Knut the Mighty, li, 327^,5 

IVAR THE WHITE, daughter's son of Hakon the Mighty, 
a landed-man of the Uplands, father to Earl Hakon (the 
White)i personal description, iii. loSj^.^p 

JADAR (The folk oQ (Jadarby^jar), ii. 268,^; men of J 
specially alluding to the family of Erling Skialgson, 285^ 

JALFAD^ one of Odin*s names, Odin, ii, ^o^ 

JALK, one of Odin*s names, but Jalk of snowshoes = Uller, i 
^4^11 — Odin, ii. 20035 

JAMES (Jakob), King of Sweden, son of K. Olaf the Swede, 
bom on the vigil of St. James, ii* 139811 which name he 
retained until he was elected king, 163^^,^ loSjig is when he 
was renamed by the Swedes Onund^ 16520, ^-^* 


JAMTLANDERS, ste Jamts, 

JAMTS (Jamtr), inhabitants of Jamtland, i* 254^ 255^ ii, 2763 

^778 1» ia 26 ^9425 ^9*^20 i^^- ^^3sa '64s n u 
JARISLEIF (Jarizleifr), Jaroslav, King of Holmgarth, ut,y 
Grand Prince of Kief, i o 1 6- 1 054, sues for the hand of Ingigerd, 
K, Olaf the Swede's daughter, ii. i48j^^^ ^%^ii^ — sends an 
ambassade for her and marries her m due course, 1531^- 
154^— their children, i%Af^,.^ iii. 763^^ *i"t<^.ix — gives a hearty 
welcome to K. Olaf Haraldson on coming to Russia a fugitive 
from his kingdom, 3693^.,^ %v%l^^ — ^presses King Olaf in vain 
to take up his abode in Russia, and become ruler of Bulgaria 
or iome other suitable dominion, jSr^.i^ S^Sm'S^^s^^ — gives 

ti of 




JAR — ^joh] Index I 113 

K. Olaf a most kindly send-off, 3865.11 15.21— on K. Olaf s de- 
parture he retains at his court Magnus his son, 38622 — his 
negotiations with Einar Thambarskelfir and Kali Arnison with 
a view to putting Magnus Olafson on the throne of Norway, 
46619-46734 — receives Harald Sigurdson, K. 01. Haraldson's 
half-brother, and appoints him to command in his land forces, 
43^10-12 ^^- 5^i5"59ip — takes care of the wealth Harald sends 
him during his service with the Greek Emperor, 6334-642 765.13 
— receives Harald most kindly on his return from Greece, and 
gives him in marriage his daughter Ellisif, 765.7 32.39 

JARNSKEGGI (Járnskeggi), son of Asbiom, from Uphowe in 
Yriar, i. 2153^ — commands in Svein Hakonson's division of 
Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorungwick, 27731 — 
opposes Olaf Tryggvison at Frostathing on behalf of the 
bonders on the question of Christianity, 31730.81 — leads the 
opposition against Olaf at the Thing of Mere, and is slain 
by the king's men, 320^.14 30-32 13 ^.^ — in atonement for the 
slaying of him, Olaf Tryggvison weds his daughter Gudrun, 
3223^ — his body, brought out to Yriar, lies buried in Skeggi's- 
howe by Eastairt, 32230-3230 

JARTRUD (JarSfrúíSr), daughter of John Arnison and Ran- 
veig, daughter of Sigurd, the son of Thorir Ho^nd, iii. 1710.14 

JESUS CHRIST, see Christ. 

JOAN, see under John. 

JOHN (Jon), son of Arni, wedded to Ranveig, che daughter of 
Sigurd, the son of Thorir Hound, iii. 1 7ii — flees from Birch- 
isle with his son Vidkunn from Steig-Thorir, and seeks the 
protection of K. Magnus Barefoot, 21 11.30 

JOHN BUTTER-BEAR (J. smjörbalti), the father of Hall- 
kell Hunch, iii. 2951^ 

JOHN BYRGISON, first Archbishop of Nidoyce 1152-1157, 

i"- 3^328 37980 45615 

JOHN of Eastort, son of Sigurd of Eastort, the son of Kari 
King's-brother, had to wife Sigrid, daughter of Bard, sister 
of King Ingi and Duke Skuli, iii. 33635.30 

JOHN, son of Hallkel Hunch, married to Margaret, daughter 
of King Harald Gilli, iii. 37913 — goes over to the side of King 
Ingi in opposition to King Eystein, 3933 jo — gathers a bonder 
host and sets upon Hakon Shoulderbroad*s men — takes 
Kolbein the Woode, 40233.25 — wounded in a further pursuit 

VI. I 

114 Index I [jOH 

of Hakon's men, 4023^ — declines the proposal of Erling 
Askew to set his nephew, Nicolas, son of Simon Sheath and 
Mana d. of Har. Gilli, on the throne of Norway, 435 1«^ — 
Erling Askew seizes Nicolas out of John's house, and secures 
his person, 44325-81 — is given truce by Nicolas, son of Sigurd, 


JOHN KAUDA (J. kau«a), son of Calf the Wrong, brother 
to bishop Ivar Gaudhank, sent by K. Sigurd, son of Harald 
Gilli, in search of Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, an errand of which 
he acquitted himself ignominiously, iii. z^^v^ — married to 
Cecilia, d. of Gyrd Bardson, 3633 — ransoms his brother 
Ivar and Ambiom Ambi from the hands of the victors at 
Holm-the-Gray, 36315.18 

JOHN KITTEN (J. ketlingr), son of Gudrun of Saltness, 
joins the band of Eystein Maiden, iii. At^Zv^^ 

JOHN, son of Lopt the son of Sæmund and Thora the 
daughter of Magnus Barefoot, fostered by Priest Andres at 
Kings' Rock, iii. 3257 — his royal descent acknowledged at 
Biorgvin, 1162, by K. Magnus Erlingson and other relatives, 

46 1 20-26 

JOHN KUTIZA, son of Sigurd Stork, journeys with Erlmg 
Askew and K. Magnus to Denmark to meet King Waldimar, 

iii- 43721 

JOHN, Swedish King, 1216-1222, son of Sorkvir, King of 
Sweden, and Ingigerd, d. of Earl Birgir Brosa by Brigidía, d. 
of K. Harald Gilli, iii. 37831-379« 

JOHN THE STRONG (J. sterki), of Rasmead, son of Wolf 
Uspakson and Jorun, d. of Thorberg Amison, iii. 104^1^ — 
father of Erlend Homebred, who was the father of Abp. Ey- 
stein, io4i8.i4 

JOHN SPARROWHAWK (J. smyrill). Priest, delegated by 
K. Sigurd, son of Harald Gilli, to give chase to Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon in company with Jon Kauda, iii. 35812.18 

JOHN SUETNEB (J. mömefr), iii. 394^^ 

JOHN, the son of Svein, the son of Bergthor Buck, on the side 
of K. Ingi before the beginning of the battle of Oslo; he 
afterwards deserts him and joins the army of Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, iii. 42428.29 425^.10 4263^ — fights on the side of Hakon 
in his last battle, 441 9.10 — falls with Earl Sigurd Hallwardson 
of Reyr in the battle of Re, 4552.3 

JOH — jor] Index I 115 

JOHN TABARD (J. tapartSr), Priest, son of Biami Sigurd- 
son, slain by King Sigurd, son of King Harald Gilli, iii. 


JOHN, son of Thorberg from Randberg, wedded to Ragnhild^ 
daughter of Erling Askew and Kristin King's-daughter, iii. 

JOKUL (Jökull), son of Bard Jokulson, out of Waterdale,an Ice- 
lander in Earl Hakon Ericson's host when pursuing K. Olaf 
Haraldson, ii. 37231-3733 — appointed captain of K. 01af*s 
captured warship the Bison, 3733-12 — falls in with Olaf s host 
in Gotland, on Olafs return from Garthrealm, 1030, and is 
laid hands on, and by the King's orders lead to execution, 
but receives from the executioner only a mortal wound, and 
sings of his dying state, 373i838 

JOMALI, god of the Biarms, placed within a fenced clearing in 
a wood, six men being charged with watching the place at 
night; on his lap a silver-bowl full of silver money, round his 
neck a great necklace; robbed and destroyed by Thorir 
Hound and Karli of Long-isle, ii. 2619-26222 

JOMSBURGERS, Jomsburg vikings, etc. (Jómsvíkingar), the 
celibate band of vikings who held Jomsburg, the castle of 
Jom, and more particularly the captains of them, Palnatoki, 
Sigvaldi and his brethren, the sons of Strut-Harald, Bui and 
Sigurd, the sons of Veseti, and Vagn, the son of Aki, put 
Svein Twibeard on the throne of Denmark, i. 270^.21 — their 
intervention between K. Svein and K. Burislaf of Wendland, 
27031-27 1 17— at the grave-ale after Strut-Harald and Veseti and 
Harald Gormson vows were made from which followed the 
invasion of Norway by these vikings, and of England by K. 
Svein, 27123-273^4 — the Jomsburgers collect in Limbfirth a 
host of sixty ships and set out for Norway, ravaging and 
wasting the country till they meet Earl Hakon in Hiorund- 
firth, 27413-27625 — the battle of the Jomsburgers, 27623-28223 
36I20ÍÍ. 265^4228^ 

JON, see under John. 

JORUN (Jórunn), daughter of Valgerd the sister of Gudmund 
the Mighty of Maddermead, Iceland, married to Eindridi; 
their son Thormod, iii. 1535 

JORUN the Skald-maiden (J. skáldmær), author of a poem 
called Sentbit (Sendibitr), i. 1374^^ 

1 1 6 Index I [jOR — kal 

JORUN, daughter of Thorberg Amison, and sister of Thoia 
the wife of Harald Hardredy, given in marriage by HaraM to 
Wolf Uspakson, iii. 104^^ — her children, 104^.15 

JORUN D (Jörundr), son of K. Yngvi Alrekson, overcame, in 
company with his brother Eric, King Gudlaug of Halogaland 
and hanged him at Streamisle-ness in Denmark, i. Z%^ — 
became King at Upsala, having defeated K. Haki at j^ris- 
mead ; is defeated in Jutland by K. Gylaug of Halogaland 
and hanged there, 398r4i26 

JOSTEIN (Jósteinn), son of Eric Biodaskalli, i. Soi^a — ^is in 
command with his brother, Thorkel Dydril, on the Crane in 
the battle of Svold, 3542-5 

JULIAN the Apostate, Eastern Emperor, a.d. 361-363, ii. \2^^ 

JUTE-FOLK, Jutes (Jótar), i. 523^^ 15618 ^ iii. 38^0 136,4 (cf- 
Jute- in Jute-lord, ii. 31413 32321): 

KALF (Kálfr), see also Calf. 

KALF, son of Amfinn Ammodson, stationed beside his uncle 
Kalf Amison at the battle of Sticklestead, ii. 43X25^ 

KALF, son of Ami Ammodson, ii. 19813 — a much honoured 
henchman of King Olaf Haraldson, 19822^— obtains in 
marriage through the King's power Sigrid, d. of Thorir, 
the wealthy widow of Olvir of Eggja, 1 9825-1 999 — is made 
a landed-man by the King and appointed administrator of 
Upper Thrandheim, 1994.^ — renders his brother Thorberg 
prompt aid against K. Olaf m the affair of Stein Skaptison, and 
brings about terms of peace for both, 28333-28621 — ^intercedes 
on behalf of his stepson, Thorir Olvirson, 341^ 343i8^ — 
celebrated in song by Biami, son of Goldbrow, 36inj^--his 
counsel to Olaf Haraldson to fight Earl Hakon Ericson over- 
ruled, 36132-36321 — ^abandons Olaf Haraldson and goes over 
to Earl Hakon, 36313.1537220-26 — ^g^es to Thrandheim and by 
the insistence of his wife becomes Earl Hakon's liegeman, 
374-375x1 — goes to meet K. Knut in England, and, on Knut's 
promising to make him an earl of Norway, he engages to 
raise a general revolt against K. Olaf, 37512*37625 S^Oaa'S^^s 
— proposes in vain that Harek of Thiotta should take the 
chief command of the army levied against K. Olaf, 4307.15 — 
assumes the chief command at Sticklestead, 42123-4233 — his 
disposition of the forces, 423^1« — his harangue to the peasant 
army, 42427*42511 — altercation between him andK.Olaf on the 

KAL — kar] Index I 117 

field of battle, 426^4-427^ — gives Olaf oneof his death-wounds, 
43311-36 — repulses Da/s brunt, 43412.1« — l^s dealings with his 
wounded brothers, 43528-4365 — settles down in quiet under 
King Svein Alfiva's son, 453313 — finds it soon out what a 
mistake he had made in listening to K. Knut's persuasions, 
all of whose promises were broken, 46213.29 — refuses to lend 
armed aid to Svein Alfiva's son, 46313-464^ — his reply to K. 
Knut's request for a supply of axes, 466^.15 — leaves Norway 
for Garthrealm and places himself at the service of Magnus 
Olafson, 466^9-46724 — strained relations with K. Magnus, iii. 
1 821- 1 920 — forced by the King to go toSticklestead and to con- 
fess where he stood at K. 01af*s fall, he swiftly takes his de- 
parture from Norway and goes on a viking raid in the west, 
1928-2 1 18 — peace made between him and K. Harald Hardredy, 
whose service he enters, 11913-12010 — betrayed by Harald, 
he falls in battle in the island of Fion in Denmark, 12013- 

KALF SCURVY (K. skurfa), a viking defeated and slain by 
Turf-Einar, Earl of Orkney, i. 1234.13 

KAR (Kárr) of Griting, offended at K. Hakon the Good's 
reluctance to join in the customs of heathen feasts, i. 16913 
— joins seven other lords of Thrandheim to force him to it, 
1 70i5.ig — threatened by Olaf Tryggvison with being sacrificed 
to his own heathen gods, 3194.7 

KARI OF BERDLA (BertSlu-Kári), joins Earl Rognvald after 
the burning of King Vemund of Firthfolk, and goes north to 
Thrandheim and becomes King Harald Hairfair's man, i. 


KARI KINGSBROTHER, son of Sigrid, the d. of Saxi in 
Wick, and brother to K. Olaf, son of Magnus Barefoot, 
married Borghild, d. of Day Eilifson ; their sons, Sigurd of 
Eastort and Day, iii. 33620.24 

KARK, a thrall of Earl Hakon of Ladir, i. 29321.22 (bom on the 
same day as the Earl, 29625^), the sole attendant on the 
Earl in his last days, and his murderer, 29321-294, 2962^- 
29721 — beheaded by Olaf Tryggvison's order, 29732-28 — ^ 
head stoned on Nidholm, 29726-2987 

KARL, a goodman of Halland, friend of Earl Hakon Ivarson, 
at whose request he helps Vandrad, ue, K. Svein Wolfson of 
Denmark, to save his life after the battle of Niz, iii. 1385-1400 

1 1 8 Index I [kar — ket 

— is sent for by King Svein, who rewards him royally for his 
avail, 14215.14310 
KARL, King of Sweden, ob. 1167, son of Sorkvir, marries 
Kristin, the daughter of Stig Whiteleather by Margret daughter 
of Knut the Lord and sister of Waldimar I. of Denmark, iii. 

2 71 

KARL O' MERE (Karl mærski), volunteers to King Olaf 
Haraldson to go to Faroe to gather in the King's taxes of the 
islands, ii. 3033-3043 — personal description, 30411.13 — ^joumeys 
to the Faroes and is slain at the instigation of Thrand o' Gate, 
30417-30919 — ^^ unsatisfactory result of the blood-suit after 
him, 309.21.26 — ^^** ^^^^ re-opened later on, 3101^ • 

KARL, the son of Soni by Astrid, d. of Ogmund Ormson, iii. 
35x3.3 — Earl in Gautland, is persuaded by King Magnus the 
Blind to attempt the conquest of Norway, and goes into the • 
Wick, 350^.27 — is met and opposed in Crookshaw by King 
Ingi and defeated, 35023-35 ii — marries Brigida, d. of Harald 
Gilli, 37831-3791 

KARLI of Longisle in Halogaland, brother of Gunstein, personal 
description of, ii. 2 3 731- 2 38^ — his fellowship with Asmund 
Grankelson, by whose recommendation Karli becomes one of 
King Olaf's body-guard, 2387-24O27 — goes on a trading jour- 
ney to Biarmland in even partnership with King Olaf Haxald- 
son, takes his brother Gunstein with him and agrees to Thorir 
Hound in a ship of his own going on the trading journey with 
him, 2583-2602 — his successful marketing, 2603.^ — his share 
in the robbing of the holy place of Jomali, the god of the 
Perms, 2601Q-26317 — his homeward journey and dealings with 
Thorir, who slays Karli at Geirsver, 26313-26523 — Finn Ami- 
son's attempt to obtain atonement for him, 28814-29O32 

KATRIN, daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg, the daugh- 
ter of K. Harald Valdemarson of Holmgarth, iii. 27 1^^ 

KETIL (Ketill), Provost, ward of Mary-church, Alaburg, tells 
Eric Oddson that Sigurd Slembi-Deacon was buried at his 
church, iii. 36723 

KETIL CROOK (K. krókr) [son of Earl Tosti Godwinson], 
brother to Skuli King's-fosterer, accompanies K. Olaf, son of 
Harald Hardredy, from the west — a noble man, and dear to 
the King — fares north into Halogaland, where Olaf gets him 
a good wedding, 1833.17 

KET — ^kin] Index I 119 

KETIL THE HIGH (K. háfi), of Inner-Thrandheim, a fore- 
castle man on board the Long-Worm, i. 3539.10 

KETIL JAMTI (K. Jamti), son of Earl Onund of the Spar- 
biders, fled from King Eystein of the Uplands east over the 
Keel and cleared woods there with a large following, which 
countryside was afterwards called Jamtland, i. 1 62^9^4 ii. 
2763^ — ^s grandson Thorir Helsing colonizes Helsingland, 

KETIL KALF (K. kálfr), of Ringness, married to a half-sister 
of Olaf the Holy, Gunnhild, d. of K. Sigurd Sow and Asta, 
ii. 24813.57 — their children, Sigrid, wife of Eindrid, son of 
Einar Thambarskelfir, iii. 1 061^.13 and Guthorm, 12214.^^ — 
joins King Olaf Haraldson against Earl Svein and Einar 
Thambarskelfir, ii. 549.10 — partakes in the battle of Nesiar 
and is handsomely rewarded by Olaf, 647.10 — betrays the five 
Upland kings who had conspired to fall on King Olaf, and 
assists in taking them by surprise at Ringacre, 1 073-1 0817 

KETIL of Rogaland (K. rygski), stationed in the forehold of 
the Long-Worm, i. 3S3i9^2o 

KETILBIORN THE OLD (Ketilbjörn hinn gamli), an Ice- 
landic settler, grandfather of Gizur the White, i. 334^7^ 

KIARTAN (Kjartan), son of Olaf Peacock, the son of Hoskuld 
and of Thorgerd, the daughter of Egil Skallagrimson, i. 
334i4-i9 — ^s swimming strife with Olaf Tryggvison, 335^5- 
33624 — l^c aiid bis fosterbrother BoUi let themselves be 
christened at the King's request, 33637-33722 — opposes Thang- 
brand's account of the heathen stubbornness of the Icelanders, 
and with other chiefs of Iceland undertakes to bring about 
the conversion of the country, 33917- 34012 — ^kept with other 
nobles of Iceland as hostage, by Olaf Tryggvison, to ensure 
the conversion to Christianity of the island, 35417^0 

KIMBI, of the rebels against K. Olaf the Holy, his and Thor- 
mod Coalbrowskald's dealings after the battle of Sticklestead, 

KINGS' MOTHER (Konungamó«ir), a by-name given to 

Gunnhild, the widow of Eric Bloodaxe, after her and her sons' 

return to Norway on the death of Hakon the Good, i. 2027 
KING'S STEPFATHER, by-name given to Arni of Stodreim 

after his marriage with Queen Ingirid, d. of Rognvald, K. 

Harald Gilli's widow, iii. 37023 

1 20 Index I [kio— KNU 

KIOTVI THE WEALTHY (Kjötvi hinn au«gi), King of Ag- 
dir, joined the alliance of the Kings of Hordland, Rogaknd 
and Thelmark against Harald Hairfair, and fought against 
him in the battle of Hafiirsfirth, and fled to a certain holm 
where there was vantage ground (his ultimate fate is not 
told), i. III9-II21 8 

KIRIALAX, i,e, Alexis I., Comnenus, Eastern Emperor, 
108 i-i 1 18, his and K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's mutual festive 
entertainments, iii. 259i2~^^^28 — provides K. Sigurd with 
horses and guide for his overland journey. to the north and 
receives in exchange all his ships, 261^0^ — has K. OlaTs sword 
Hneitir placed in Olaf's Church in Micklegarth, 42914^ — 
his campaign against the Vlakmen and battle of Petzina won 
by Varangian valour, 42937-431 

KIRIALAX, i.e, Alexis II., Comnenus, Eastern Emperor, 
1180-1183, son of Kaiser Manuel (f.^. Manuel I., Comnenus) 
in Micklegarth and *a daughter of Roger, King of Sicily' 
[mistake; his mother was Maria, daughter of Raymund of 
Poitou, Prince of Antioch], iii. 25611 

KISPING, (an English? or Scotch?) foot-page of Queen Gunn- 
hild, supposed to have given K. Hakon the Good his death- 
wound in the battle of Fitiar, i. 1873.8 

KLACK-HARALD, King of Jutland, father of Thorny the 
grandmother of Harald Hairfair and of Thyri Denmark's 
Weal, i. 83..^ 

KLÆNG (KÍængr), son of Brusi, ii. 5322^ 

KLERK (Klerkr), an Esthonian who buys for slaves Olaf 
Tryggvison and Thorgils Thorolfson, paying a goodly he- 
goat for them, i. 2291^.^5 

KLERKON, an Esthonian, buys Olaf Tryggvison for slave, 
together with Thorolf, his mother's fosterfather, and Thorolf s 
son Thorgils, i. 2295.13 — ^^^^^ ^^^ ^"^^ Thorgils to Klerk for a 
good he-goat, 22914.1^ — killed in Holmgarth by Olaf Tryggvi- 
son, 2301220 

KLYPP (Klyppr), a * hersir,' son of Thord, the son of Horda- 
Kari, i. 2 1 520.21 30034.^ — revenges on K. Sigurd Slaver the dis- 
honour done to his wife and slays him at Alrekstead, 21519^ 
3Q-2i6i4 3^329 ^^^ ^^ himself slain on the spot, 21612.14 

KNUT (Knútr) [known as K. Danaást, Danes' Darling], son 
of K. Gorm the Old, and father to Gold-Harald, i 2171J.14 

KNu] Index I 121 

KNUT, Earl, son of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daughter of 
King Harald Gilli, iii. 3795 

KNUT, son of Harald Kesia and Ragnhild, daughter of King 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 283^7 

KNUT, son of Knut the Old. See Hordaknut 

KNUT LORD (K. lávar«r), ti 131, son of Eric the Good King 
of Denmark, married to Ingibiorg, d. of K. Harald Valdimar- 
son of Novgorod, iii. 2 7 14.5 — their children, 2 7 1 7.10 — ^^is daugh- 
ter Margret married to Stig Whiteleather, 27 1^^, — another 
daughter, Kristin, married to K. Magnus the Blind, 31425^7 

KNUT, son of Svein of Jadar, married to Rimhild; their son, 
Svein, iii. 2991^.17 

KNUT THE MIGHTY, or the Rich, the Old, or the Ancient 
(Knútr hinn riki). King of Denmark 1014-1035, England 
1014, 1016-1035, and Norway 1028-1035, son of Svein Twi- 
beard and Gunnhild, d. of Burislaf, King of the Wends, i. 
27ii7(ii. 2I23 250^0-14) — summons his brother-in-law, Earl Eric 
of Norway, to jom him in an expedition against England, ii. 
2527-261 cf. iii. iS926-i6og — he wins London, ii. 2622-24 — comes 
to England the year that Ethelred died, and married Emma, 
his widow; their children, 27^.^4 — had many battles with the 
sons of Ethelred, 278.11 — made peace with Edmund Ironside 
that each should have one half of England for dominion — 
drives, after the murder of Edmund, all the sons of Ethelred 
out of the land, 2715.34 ^^- "^- 5221-23 — repels an invasion from 
Normandy by the sons of Ethelred in company with Olaf 
Haraldson, 2827-291 — receives honourably and advances his 
nephew. Earl Hakon of Norway, 33311— his e^^niity to Olaf 
Haraldson urged by K. Sigurd Syr on the latter as of formidable 
import, 4022.20 — resides mostly in England and rules Denmark 
by means of chieftains (viceroys), 16720.80 (i88g <^ 2501^.12 iii. 
3^24-26) — receives kindly, and speeds with good gifts on de- 
parture, Einar Thambarskelfir, 2357.3 — ^^aving conquered 
England after many battles and secured his position there, he 
turns his attention to Norway, claiming as his own the whole 
of it, though his nephew Hakon Ericson considered he had a 
just title to some of it, 2512-12 — abstained from giving effect 
to his claim while King Olaf 's popularity and power were in 
the ascendant, 25112.18 — lavished gifts on disaffected fugitives 
from Norway, and thus won much popularity in that kingdom, 

122 Index I [knu 

25118-2526 — ^is lordliness and wealth much famed, sSIsq-m — 
a masterful but just ruler, 2522.5 — receives assurances from 
Norwegian fugitives to the effect that the Norw^ians were 
ready to transfer their allegiance to him, 2520.^7 — sends an 
ambassade to Norway to propose to King Olaf the alternative 
of giving up his kingship altogether or to hold Norway as fief 
of the English King, 25220-2531^ — at King Olaf s peremptory 
refusal, the ambassade returns to England, and gives K. Knut 
a report of its journey, 253^^2545 25515.18 — ^^ generous dis- 
position towards those who submitted to him, 254^-2553 — 
avows determined enmity to Olaf, 2551^^ — ^y^ lordly wel- 
come to the sons of Erling, 25525.32 — alliance, offensive and 
defensive, against him between the Kings of Norway and 
Sweden, 256*2575 — goes to Denmark and makes a futile at- 
tempt to undo the Swedish alliance with Olaf of Norway, 
257^.30 — goes back to England, leaving Horda-Knut regent in 
Denmark, 2671^.01 — defection to him openly threatened by 
the sons of Arni to bring pressure to bear on Olaf of Norway 
in the affair of Stein, 28510.13 — receives in his service Stein 
Skaptison, 28622.25 — 6^^^^ welcome to Thorir Hound, 29I5.23 
— is joined by Erling Skialgson and his sons, 311*1.7 33517.19 — 
his realm of Denmark invaded by the allies, Kmgs Olaf of 
Norway and Onund of Sweden, 3103-31120 3 123-3 1313 — ^hear- 
ing this, King Knut gathers a war-host in Engkuid, second in 
command of which he placed Earl Hakon, 31321.M — Knut*s 
Dragon and great muster of warships, 31513.34 — hebrings his 
whole fleet safe to Limfirth in Denmark, 3169.13 — his way of 
dealing with his brother-in-law Earl Wolf, whom he causes to 
be murdered in the church of St. Lucius in Roiswell, for 
having, in secret concert with Queen Emma, had elected King 
of Denmark his son Hordaknut, whom he prompdy deposes, 
3.1616-31916 32529-3269 17-32715— on his coming to Denmark 
his people renounce allegiance to the Kings of Norway and 
Sweden, 31913-3204 — his fight with the allies off the Holy 
River, 321-32326 — his spies keep watch on the movements of 
the allies, while he himself returns to Denmark, 32519.31 
32724.25 28-30 — ^^ atonement for the murder of Earl Wolf he 
endows richly St. Lucius' church, 3271^.53 — his far-reaching 
bribery of K. Olafs subjects, 3298-M 335ir336e 342£o-343ir 
3729 — Knut's attitude towards Harek of Thiotta and Thonr 

KNU — kol] Index I 123 

Hound, 33182-33224 3491-6— K^i^^^a^^^ Sigvat the Skald, 313,,^- 
31510 33324-33481 iii- I3i4-i5—^laf deserted by Sweden, haying 
to abandon his ships and retreat to Norway, Knut goes into 
winter quarters, 335ioi6 — K.nut prepares for invading Norway, 
345i«^ 346-34^8 — Knut in Norway, Hakon Ericson appointed 
Earl, Hordaknut made King of Denmark, etc., 348-35323 cf. 
37*11-15 — ^'^ chiefs of Norway hoodwinked by his promises, — confers an earldom in Denmark on Harald, son of 
TTiorkel the High, 37517.19 — promises an earldom to Kalf 
Amison for undertaking to organize a rising in Norway should 
Olaf Haraldson attempt a reconquest of it, 37512-37623 — Knut 
breaks his promises to Einar Thambarskelfir, 3881^-38924 
4522^ — chieftains of Norway bound by oath to Knut to take 
the life of K. Olaf, 38927-39015 42024.31 — bishop Sigurd's way 
of pleading the cause of Knut in Norway, 4171^-41920 454i^ 
— Knut appoints his son Svein King of Norway, 44910-4508 — 
Knut*s popularity speedily dwindles in Norway, 46121-46229 — 
Kalf Amison refuses Knut's request for a supply of axes, 4667.15 
— Knut dies, is buried at Winchester, iii. 923.30 — family rela- 
tions, 25524 29315 

KNUT THE HOLY, King of Denmark, 1080- 1086, son of 
Svein Wolfson, King of Denmark, iii. 19423-24 — friendship 
with Olaf the Quiet — meets him in the Elf — suggests an 
avenging expedition to England, which Olaf declines to lead, 
though he supplies sixty ships well fitted out, 19727- 19823 — 
how the expedition came to nought, 19827- 1992 

KNUTLINGS or Knytlings, the kinsmen of Knut the Mighty, 
their unpopularity in Norway, ii. 451 10-19 46331-4643 

KODRAN (Ko«rán), son of Gudmund Eyolfson the Mighty of 
Maddermead, iii. 1533.3 

KOI^ son of Hall of the Side (KoUr Si«u-Halls son), i. 65.^ 

KOLBEIN (Kolbeinn), a young man whose tongue Thora, the 
mother of King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, had had cut out, mir- 
aculously healed by King Olaf the Holy, iii. 3029-303^ 

KOLBEIN HEAP (K. hrúga), an Orkney noble, and follower 
of Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 3687 

KOLBEIN THE STRONG (K. sterki), one of King Olaf 
Haraldson's following; description of his arrayal, ii. 206^.1^ — 
his iconoclastic service in the King's missionary campaign 
through Gudbnindsdale, 20714.19 80"2o8g 

124 Index I [kol — kri 

KOLBEIN, son of Thord Frey's priest, an Icelander converted 
to Christianity in Nidoyce by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 33421 — ^kept 
a hostage with other Icelanders by Olaf Tryggvison to ensure 
the conversion to Christianity of Iceland, 35417^ 

KOLBEIN THORLIOTSON of Batald, lost from Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon's ship,iii. 35 5^ 

KOLBEIN THE WOODE (K. hinn ó«i), a partisan of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, seized by Jon, son of Hallkel Hunch, iii. 

KOLBIORN (Kolbjörn), son of Arni Arnmodson, ii. 19813.1« 
KOLBIORN KLAKK (K. klakki), a chieftain of the Wick, 
iii. 2 1422 — speech at a Thing summoned by Sigurd Wool-string, 
2185.10 19 26 219720 — invites King Magnus Barefoot to a feast, 
2 2022-28 — manages as royal property the lands K. Magnus 
forced Sveinki Steinarson to give up, 22024.29 
KOLBIORN THE MARSHAL (K. stallari), one of Olaf 
Tryggvison's captains on board the Long-Worm, i. 3523^ — 
jumps overboard, at the same time as Olaf Tryggvison, from 
the Long-Worm, is caught and pardoned by Earl Eric, 

3743-6 14-81 

KOLLI, an Icelandic poet, celebrates m song the battles at 
Mouth, iii. 3503.12 — and at Crookshaw, 35112-30 

KONOFOGOR (Conochbhar), an Irish King, gives a severe 
defeat to Earl Einar Sigurdson of Orkney in Ulfreksfirth in 
Ireland, ii. 13712-23 i74i8-22 

KORMAK (Kórmakr), son of Ogmund, Icel. poet, i. 1667.17 

KRAKI, al. Rolf Kraki, see below, p. 173, his scattering of 
gold over Fyris-mead a frequent element of kennings, iii. 
964.5— cf. note, p. 497- 

KRISTIN, daughter of Eari Birgir Brosa by Brigida, daughter 
of King Harald Gilli, iii. 379^ 

KRISTIN, daughter of Ingi (the elder) King of Sweden, m. to 
Harald (Mstislav), son of Valdemar, Grand Prince of Kief, 
their daughter Malmfridwhom Sigurd Jerusalem-farer married, 
iii. 2712 

KRISTIN, daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg, d. of 
K. Harald Valdemarson of Holmgarth, iii. 27 1^ — the wife 
of King Magnus the Blind, 3142629 

KRISTIN, called * King's-daughter,'d. of King Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer and Queen Malmfrid, married to Erling Askew, iii. 

KRi — lei] Index I 125 

37 1 18-14 — ogives a good welcome to Gregory Dayson at Studla, 
39 '816 — ^s minded to leave Oslo, but persuaded by King 
Ingi to remain there, 4232.15 — lays out the body of King Ingi, 
4273^ — sends word to her husband, Erling Askew, not to trust 
King Hakon and his men, 4272Q.26 — goes to Denmark and 
prepares peace between her husband and King Valdemar, 
4712^-4725 — leaves Norway with a paramour, Grim Rake, 
lives and has children with him in Constantinople, 4749.14 — 
said to have had a son, Harald, with K. Sigurd Mouth, son 
ofHarald, 47728-4782 

KRISTIN, daughter of Stig Whiteleather by Margret, the 
daughter of Knut Lord and sister to Valdemar I. of Den- 
mark, iii. 27111 — married to Karl, the son of Sorkvir, King of 
Sweden, 27111.12 

KRISTROD, brother to King Harald Gilli by the same mother, 
iii. 31527 — fights without a byrny in the battle at Fyrileif, 
where he is slain by a bonder, 31630.24 317418 

KYRPING-WORM (Kyrpinga-Ormr), son of Svein Sveinson 
and Ragna, whose parents were Earl Worm Eilifson and 
Sigrid, d. of Earl Finn Arnison; Kyrp. -Worm's wife: Ragn- 
hild, d. of Sveinki, son of Steinar; their son Erling Askew, iii. 
37X3^ — ^6 gives fostering to Magnus, the fourth son of 
Harald Gilli, 36822-28 

LATINS (Látínumenn), men of Romance nationalities, iii. 6227 

LAW-BERSI (Lög-Bersi), the father of Gyrd, whose son 
Amundi was the fosterer of King Ingi, son of King Harald 
Gilli, iii. 347i6 17 

LAWMAN (LögmaíSr), son of Gudrod, King of the South Isles, 
or Sodor, charged with the defence of the northern group of 
the islands, flees from one place to another before King 
Magnus Barefoot, but is finally taken and put in irons, iii. 


LAXE-PAUL (Laxa-Páll), father of Einar, iii. 35821 38915 
LEIF THE LUCKY (Leifr hinn heppni), son of Eric the Red, 
christened by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 341 10-20 — ^^ent to Greenland 
accompanied by a priest to christen the country, in which 
journey he saved a shipwrecked crew, and discovered Vine- 
land the Good (North-America), 3558-18 — *o ^^™ ^^^% Olaf 
Haraldson wanted to send his kinsman, the blinded King 
Rcerek, so as safely to get rid of him, ii. 13430-82 

126 Index I [lei — lod 

LEIF (Leifr), son of Ozur, of Faroe, summoned by King Olaf 
Haraldson, goes to Norway with many representatives of the 
islanders; becomes a member of King Olaf Haraldson's 
household and bodyguard, and agrees to the subjection of 
the islands to Norwegian rule, ii. 2461^2473^ — is summoned 
again to Norway by King Olaf, but, in concert with other 
chiefs of Faroe, he leaves the mission to Thoralf of Dimon, 
2694.18 — receives Karl o' Mere at King Olafs request, and 
entertains him through the winter, gathering in for him the 
taxes of the Southern Faroes, 30421-30533 — his dealings with 
Thrand o' Gate over the bad money the latter wanted to palm 
off on Karl o' Mere as payment of the King's taxes, 306-308 
— Thrand's people having slain Karl o' Mere while Leif 
was temporarily absent, he takes up the bloodsuit, and, 
refusing settlement by weregild, outlaws the perpetrators, 

LESIAR (the folk of) (Læsir), inhabitants of part of the upper 

reaches of Gudbrand's dale, ii. 204,3 
LESIARS (Læsir), the Liachs (Poles), iii. 59^ 
LEWIS, son of Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, see Hlodver. 
LEYFI, a sea-king of fame, i. 37611 
LIOT (Ljótr), son of Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, Earl of Orkney, 

by Grelad, daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, i. 241,5 

ii. 16832-1692 
LODBROK'S SONS (Lo«brókar synir), the sons of Ragnar 

Lodbrok, see Ragnar Lodbrok. 
LODIN (LoiSinn), * a wealthy man of the Wick and of good 

kin,' finds, in a merchant journey to Estland, Astrid, the 

mother of Olaf Tryggvison, in a slave-market, buys her (at 

her request), brings her home to Norway and marries her; 

their children, i. 3007-301^ — aids Olaf Tryggvison in christen- 
ing the Wick, 302^2-3032 
LODIN, son of Erhng Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 

of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 24^ 
LODIN SUP-PROUD (L. saupprúíSr), of Linestead, falls in 

the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 36213 — his body brought to 

Tunsberg, 36733 
LODIN of Vigg (L. af Viggjum), a supporter of Olaf Harald- 

son in his strife for the kingdom of Norway, ii. 481^17 — ^his 

son, Sigurd Wool-String, iii. 21Og.11 

LOD — mag] Index I 1 27 

LODIN VIGG-SKULL (Lodinn Viggjar-Skalli), see Lodin of 

LODVER, son of Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, see Hlodver. 
LODVIR THE LONG (HlöíSvir langi), from Saltwick in 

Halogaland, a forecastle man on board the Long-Worm, i. 

LOFT (Loptr), one of the names of Loki, his friend = Odin, i. 


LOGI, son of Frosty, lord of the Finns, i. 3321 

LOPT, Priest, son of Sæmund, staying at Kings' Rock with his 
son Jon when the wonders there befell, iii. 325^.9 — goes to 
Biorgvin with all his belongings, 32613.15 

LOTHAIRE (Lozarius), Duke of Saxony, 1106, afterwards 
Roman Emperor, the second of the name, 11 25-1 137, wel- 
comes and treats most hospitably Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 


LUCIUS (Saint), 21st Bishop of Rome (25 Sept. a.d. 252 — 
4th or 5th March, 253), patron saint of the church of Rois- 
well (Roiskelda), in Sealand, ii. 32 7^ 

MADDAD (Maddaí5r), the father of Earl Harald, who was cap- 
tured by King Eystein at Thurso, iii. 37423 

MAGNI, Bishop of Biorgvin, intercedes with King Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer on behalf of Sigurd Hranison, iii. 2761^.19 — 
remonstrates with the King against marrying Cecilia, whilst 
Queen Malmfrid was still alive, 3079.2^ — goes home happy in 
mind because he has done a sacred duty, SoS^.^^ 

MAGNUS BAREFOOT (M. berfcettr). King of Norway, 1093- 
1103, son of K. Olaf the Quiet and Thora, d. of Joan, iii. 
1952-6 — ^^^ called Bareleg (berbeinn), or the High (hávi), or 
Stour-whiles-Magnus (Styrjaldar-Magnús), 23320^22 — married 
to Margaret FrithpoU, d. of Ingi, K. of Sweden, 23219.21 2333^ 
28421^ — t^^i"" daughter Ragnhild m. to Harald Kesia, 28314.15 
354iM2 — ^^s natural sons, Eystein, Olaf, Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer, Harald Gilli, 2333.14 29519.27 — ^"d Sigurd Slembi-Dea- 
con, 33617-20 3377-9 3655-7— ^^^n to king over all Norway 
after the death of his father, 2055.7 — strained relations between 
him and K. Hakon Magnusson, his cousin, 2061^-20723 — 
his warfare in Halland, burning of Viskdale, return with much 
booty, 208^3.27 — ^^ punishes Steig-Thorir and Egil for raising 
up a rebelhon against him by having both hanged in Wamb- 

1 28 Index I [mag 

holme, 209.2-21313 — stamps out treason with ruthless punish- 
ments, 2i3ig.28 — maintains his power with great vigour, 214^ 
— K. Magnus and Sveinki Steinarson, 2 1410-2 2 1^ — K. Magnu? 
expedition to the West: Orkney, 22ii2.ig — South-Isles, 221,9- 
2 22i2 — Holy Isle, Islay, Cantyre, Man, 22215-22323 — Angle- 
sea, 223.2^^-2242^ — peace with Malcolm, K. of Scotland, 224^- 
2 25i2 — the whole of Sodor incorporated in the dominion of 
Norway, 2251^.19- gets to his son Sigurd for wife Biadmynia, 
d. of Myrkiartan, K. of Connaught, 22^y^^ — return to Norway, 
2252324 — strife with Ingi, K. of Sweden: occupation of 
Kvaidins-isle, resulting in disaster, night attack at Foxem, 
battle of Foxem, 2269-2323 — peace and family alliance be- 
tween Magnus and K. Ingi of Sweden, 232^^1 233-^ — his 
height marked on the stone wall of Mary's Church in Nidoyce, 
23323.32 — love songs to the Kaisar's daughter attributed to 
him, 234 — his dealings with Skopti Ogmundson and his 
sons, 235-23717 — his second expedition to the West and fall 
in Ireland, 23822-242 247^ 24814.15 24 — personal description, 
and relations to Vidkunn Jonson, 243 
MAGNUS THE BLIND, King of Norway, 1130-1135, son of 
King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and his concubine Borghild, 
daughter of Olaf o' Dale, iii. 27820^25 — married to Kristin, d. 
of Knut Lord, 31405^7 — sent for fostering into Halogaland 
to Vidkunn, son of Jon, 27825.2© — Harald Gilli bound by 
treaty not to claim the kingdom while Magnus lives, 2964.7 — 
his wager with Harald Gilli, 29719-2993 — being in Oslo on his 
father's death he takes to himself all the king's treasures, 
31012.14 — taken to king at Oslo; his description and character, 
313,^.1,5 — agrees to share the land with Harald Gilli, 3148-13 — 
retains to himself the ships, chattels, etc., of Sigurd his father, 
3141321 — discards his wife and sends her back to Denmark, 
31425.31 — he and Harald Gilli always on the point of open 
breach, 3153.7 — gathers a host to drive Harald Gilli from his 
kingship, 3i58.ig— battle between him and Harald at Fyrileif, 
3 ' 53i"3' 724 — becomes sole lord of the kingdom, 3180^ — against 
the advice of his counsellors he leaves the Wick open to 
Harald's operations and goes into winter quarters in Biorgvin, 
3^^8-10 — hearing that the Wick had rallied to the standard 
of Harald he takes counsel with his advisers and, refusing 
them all, abides Harald in Biorgvin, 319^9-32122 — he is de- 


Index I 129 

feated, captured, maimed and deposed, 32125-32325 — ^is 
friends are searched for his treasure and hardly dealt with, 
32329-32421 — Magnus retires to a monastery, 334^.7 — he is 
taken out of the monastery of Holme by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 
34828-3493 — goes into the Uplands and gets followers there, 
349ifr2o — ^^"g I'^gi defeats him in the battle at Mouth, 34921- 
35012 — he flees to Gautland and so to Denmark; persuades 
Karl Sonison, Earl in Gautland, to invade Norway, 35013.2^ — 
prevails with K. Eric Everminded of Denmark to attack Nor- 
way, himself joining in the ill-starred expedition, 3Si28"3538i — 
joins Sigurd Slembi-Deacon in a fresh raid on Norway from 
Denmark, 35511-82 — flees with Sigurd to Halogaland, wintering 
in Birch Isle, 3561.18 — proceeding south along the coast from 
Halogaland he and Sigurd commit a series of cruel outrages 
and go to Denmark, 357i8-359io — leaves Denmark with Sigurd 
on a fresh raid on Norway, and is killed in the battle of 
Holm-the-Gray, 36124-3621. — his life, written by Eric Oddson, 
3^5hi7 — ^^s body taken by Thiostolf Alison to Oslo and 
buried beside his father's, 36726-28 

MAGNUS, son of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daughter of 
King Harald Gilli, iii. 379^ 

MAGNUS EINARSON, Bishop of Skalaholt in Iceland, 1134- 
1 148, well received and honoured by Harald Gilli on his com- 
ing from Iceland for bishop's consecration, 33420-3353 — ^^s 
conversation with the King and Queen and their presents to 
him, 3354-27 — g^es back to Iceland to his chair, 33523 — ^^^ * 
chalice made from the beaker, and copes made from the pall 
which the King and Queen gave him, 3361.11 

MAGNUS, son of Earl Erlend of Orkney, forced into his 
service by K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 2394.5 — escapes by night 
from the King's ship to the court of the King of the Scotch, 


MAGNUS, King of Norway, ii62-(ii84), son of Erling Askew 
and Kristin, d. of Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, taken for king, iii. 
4366-43713— ^oes with Erling into Denmark to meet King 
Valdimar, who undertakes to support Magnus in the kingdom 
of Norway on Denmark's old dominion in the Wick being re- 
stored to him in return, 437i6-43^i^ — leaves Denmark and sails 
out from Vendilskagi, 43813.15 — with Erling his father in the 
battle of Ve-isle, where Hakon Shoulderbroad fell, 44319-4477 

VI. K 

130 Index I [mag 

— he and Erling go with the host north to Cheaping (Nidoyce) 
and lay all the land under them, Magnus being proclaimed 
king of all the land, 44719.^ — always kept in his father's 
company; goes with him to Biorgvin and thence to Tunsberg, 
exercising royal sway over the Wick, 44823^ — the men of 
Wick his friends, 44910-14 — crowned by Abp Eystein, 4633- 
46431 — King Valdimar demands fulfilment of the promises 
given to him in respect of dominion over the Wick, but the 
people refuse it utterly, 4653-4673 — pleads in vain with his 
father for the life of Harald, the reputed son of King Sigurd 
and Kristin King's-daughter, 47811.^5 — K. Magnus and the 
Birchlegs, 47830-48020 484-48611 (battle at Re), 48613-4873 — 
much renowned for his victory over the Birchlegs, 487^.14 — 
personal description, 481 5.7 
MAGNUS THE GOOD (M. hinn gó«i). King of Norway, 
1035-1047, and of Denmark, 1042-1047, natural son of K. 
Olaf Haraldson byAlfhildKing's-bondmaid,ii. 23535 — hisonly 
child a daughter named Ragnhild (basebom), iii. ii4ji9^ — 
baptized by the order of Sigvat the Skaldj who stood gossip and 
named the apparently dying child after Karla-Magnus ('Carlus 
Magnus \ ii. 23514-2369 3.^ — soon a hopeful child, 237,^ — 
taken by his father to Holmgarth when he had to flee from 
Norway, 369.2 39.30 — left behind in Holmgarth when his father 
sets out for the re-conquest of Norway, 38633 — Einar Tham- 
barskelfir and Kalf Arnison invite him to assert his king- 
ship over Norway, which invitation he accepts on theur 
becoming his linemen, Kalf undertaking his fostering, 46619- 
46734 iii. lOii^ — his journey to Norway, iii. 1-711 — P*^ 
claimed king, 714^ — straightway he gathers a host to fall on 
Svein Alfiva's son, who speedily flai to Denmark, 733-91« 
1O3.10 — he is confirmed in the kingdom all over the land, 
9i9-28 — peace with Hordaknut of Denmark to the effect that 
the realm of him who should die without male issue before 
the other should be the survivor's lawful inheritance, 1O13-1I14 
— his stepmother. Queen Astrid, went with him from Sweden 
to live with him in Norway, 11 1^.19 I5i5 — Sigvat enters into 
service with K. Magnus, 1431.33 153.38 — ^ Magnus enshrines 
his father and institutes Olafs mass, 16-174 — K. Magnus and 
Harek of Thiotta, 1717-18^9 — K. Magnus and Kalf Arnison, 
1 831-2 1 19 — he proceeds with relentless severity against his 


Index I 131 

father's enemies, and disaffection becomes widespread, 21^^- 
22i5 — he relents through Sigvat's 'Staves of naked says,' and 
becomes universally popular and styled Magnus the Good, 
22jg-252 — causes the law-code called 'Greygoose' to be 
wntten, 2433.35 — becomes King of Denmark in virtue of the 
peace treaty with Hordaknut, 26-28 — Svein Wolfson, later 
King of Denmark, becomes K. Magnus's man and is ap- 
pointed by him earl over Denmark, 2923-3125 — his suc- 
cessful punitive expedition to Jomsburg, 31 28-336 — ^^s great 
victory over the Wends at Lyrshawheath, 340-3732 — his vic- 
torious dealings with his rebel earl, Svein Wolfson, 339-343 
38-5113 — K. Magnus' claim to the kingdom of England 
sternly refused by Edward the Confessor, 5122-5316 ^^- ^^^zv 
i6ig — on hearing of the alliance of his uncle Harald Sigurd- 
son with Svein Wolfson he prepares an armed expedition to 
Denmark, 772825 79i9-82 — ^^ breaks up their alliance and 
makes peace with Handd, 8015-8313 — gives the half of Norway 
to Harald and receives gifts from him, 831^-871^ — K. Magnus 
guarded and kept the keys of his father's shrine and clipped 
the saint's nails and hair every twelve months, 8723.23 — 
strained relations between nephew and uncle, 8730.32 8817- 
9^18"" ^^^y g^ ^ J^^"^ expedition to Denmark against Svein 
Wolfson, 8817.18 9021.27 — K. Magnus' death, 9023-9I28 — his 
funeral, 9213-937 2124 943-19 95i 97^.7 i5424-2ú 2849.13— personal 
description, 933.14 — on his dying day he bequeathed Den- 
mark to Svein Wolfson, sending his brother Thorir with his 
last will to Svein, 91 10.15 cf. 9317-940 — his building under- 
takings, 10421.30 — ^- Magnus' appointments in respect of 
Einar Thambarskelfir adhered to by Harald Sigurdson, 1063.3 
— Einar and his son buried beside K. Magnus, n 02^.23 — his 
daughter's lament at being bereft of his protection, 1 1 51^.21 — 
his banners come into the possession of his son-in-law. Earl 
Hakon Ivarson, 15020.21 

MAGNUS, son of Harald Gilli, taken to king has his share of 
the realm, diseased in his feet, dies, iii. 36822-369^ 

MAGNUS, King of Norway, 1066-1069, son of King Harald 
Hardredy by Thora, daughter of Thorberg Amison, iii. 961^^23 
'4'i&-ití — commands one of Harald's ships at the battle of Niz, 
i4ii^ig — and in the fight of Vener-water against Earl Hakon 
Ivarson, 1 5220.33 — is made King of Norway by his father before 

132 Index I [mag — mar 

he himself sets out for England, 16517.3^ — rules over Norway, 
first by himself and then jointly with King Olaf his brother, 
1^34-0 1^73-8 — ^^'^y "iake peace with King Svein of Dennuurk, 
iSyjo-iSSg — Magnus dies of the ringworm plague at Nidoyce, 


MAGNUS, son of Harald Kesia the son of K. Eric the Good 
of Denmark and Ragnhild, daughter of King Magnus Bare- 
foot, iii. 28317 

MAGNUS, King of Sweden, 1160-1161, son of Henry the Halt 
and Ingirid, the d. of Rognvald; M. was the third husband of 
Brigida, daughter of K. Harald Gilli, iii. 378,^-3791 42629.» 

MAGNUS THE STRONG (M. inn sterki), son of the DanSh 
K. Nicolas, the son of Svein Wolfson and Margaret Frithpoll, 
daughter of Ingi Steinkelson, whose former husband was 
King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 284,9^4 

MALCOLM (Melkólmr) II., King of Scotland, 1005-1034, 
father-in-law of Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney, ii. ioq,, 

MALCOLM (Melkólmr) III., King of Scotland, 1058-1093, 
made peace with King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 2243^-225, 

MALMFRID, daughter of King Harald (Mstislav), son of 
Valdemar of Holmgarth (Kief), marries K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer, iii. 27028 — their daughter Kristin, mother of K. Magnus 
Erlingson, 37118 4383 — intercedes with her husband for 
Sigurd Hranison, 2761^ 

MAN-FOLK (Manverjar), inhabitants of the Isle of Man, 
iii. 223e 

MANI (Máni), son of Mundilfœri, a giant, i. 17915 

MANUEL, Kaiser, in Micklegarth (1143-1180) [son of Kalo- 
Johannes], married to the * daughter of Roger, King of Sicily,' 
iii. 256^0 (a mistake; his second wife was Maria, d. of Ray- 
mund of Poitou, Prince of Antioch, cf. Kirialax). 

MARGARET, daughter of Ami of Stodreim by Queen Ingirid 
d. of Rognvald, iii. 370^5 — married first to Biom the 
Buck, 37026.26 — and afterwards to Simon, the son of Kari, 

MARGARET FRITHPOLL (M. fri«kolla), daughter of King 
Ingi, son of K. Steinkel of Sweden, and wife, first, of King 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 232^9^1 233,^ — their daughter Ragnhilc^ 
wife of Harald Kesia, 28314.1^ — ^secondly, of Nicolas, K. of 
Denmark, 28419^,4 

MAR — mel] Index I 133 

MARGARET, daughter of King Harald Gilli, married to Jon 
son of Hallkel Hunch, iii. 379i8.i6 

MARGATH, King of Dublin, 1035-1038, 1046-1052, allows 
Guthorm, the son of Ketil Kalf, ' a land of peace ' in Dublin, 
and has him in great favour, iii. 12228-25 — in a joint war-raid 
into Anglesea they come to blows over the division of their 
booty, in which affray Margath falls, 1234-124 

M ARGRET, daughter of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daugh- 
ter of King Harald Gilli, iii. 3799 

MARGRET, daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg, d. of 
King Harald (Mstislav) Valdemarson of Holmgarth, married 
to Stig Whiteleather, iii. 2719.1Q 

MARGRIT, the lord of corsairs, marries one of King William 
of Sicil/s daughters, iii. 2563 — slain by Kaiser Henry, 256^ 

MARIA, daughter of a brother to Queen Zoe who refuses to 
consent to her marrying Harald the Hardredy, iii. 722^-733 — 
is taken away by Harald at night to Seawood-sound, and sent 
back with an escort to Queen Zoe, 7429-7521 

MARIA, daughter of King Eystein Magnusson and Ingibiorg, 
the daughter of Guthorm the son of Steig-Thorir, married to 
Gudbrand the son of Shavehew, iii. 2655 ^ — her son Olaf the 
Unlucky, 474im9 

MARIA, daughter of King Harald Gilli, and wife of Simon 
Sheath, iii. 3799.11 — her son Nicolas, 44328-29 

MARK-MEN, men of the Marklands, Woodland men (Marka 
menn), the inhabitants of the Marches between Sweden and 
Norway, ii. 39527 4197 "i- 22623 22815 ^^^\% 

M ARKUS O' SHAW, a kinsman of Eari Sigurd Hallwardson of 
Reyr, fosters Sigurd, the son of K. Sigurd Haraldson, whom 
the Uplanders take for king, iii. 4483.14 — his and his foster- 
son's contests with Erling Askew, 45519-45824 — are both 
caught in the island of Skarpa and executed, 45827.31 

MARY, the mother of Christ, i. 1663^ 

MARY al. Maria, daughter of King Harald Sigurdson and 
Queen Ellisif, iii. 9634 — accompanies Harald on his expedition 
to England, 16522 — left in the Orkneys, 1665 — dies the same 
day and hour that her father falls, 1831.3 

MATILD (Mathildr), Mathildis, a Kaiser's daughter, iii. 234, 

MEITI, a l^endary sea-king of fame, i. 24523 24831 

MELBRIG«A, see Tusk-Melbrig«a. 

134 Index I [mer — ner 

MERCURY (St), ii. 1 231 For the legend referred to see Ælíric's 
Lives of Saints, ed. W. W. Skeat, ill. 241-276. 

MERE (They of) (Maerir), inhabitants of the folkland of Mere, 
i. 16427 — ^"' Meres (in a verse), iii. 4633 

MICHAEL (Mikjáll), Archangel, i. 272^^ 

MICHAEL (Mikjáll) IV., Katalactus (Money-changer), other- 
wise: the Paphlagonian, Eastern Emperor, 1 034-1041, rules 
over Greekland with Zoe the Rich, iii. 5935 63^^ 

MI MIR, the wisest of men, sent with Hœnir as hostage from 
the Asfolk to the Vanir, i. 142.3 — taught all good counsel to 
Hœnir, 145.12 — beheaded by the Vanir and his head sent back 
to the Asfolk, 1414.15 — ^^ head, embalmed and enchanted by 
Odin, told him many hidden things, 1415.19 ^^i«-i8 

MORKAR (Mörukári), Morcere, Earl, son of Earl Godwin by 
his wife Gyda, ii. 32610.12 iii. 15521 — comes down upon King 
Harald Sigurdson when lying in the Ouse with a great host, 
1675.9 — a battle ensues in which his army is defeated and he 
is slain, 16723.24 1681.17 — (Morcere was son of Ælfgar, an Earl 
in Mercia, 1057; and was Earl of Northumberland 1065; 
died after 1087). 

MULL-FOLK (mýlsk JJJÓS), the inhabitants of the island of 
Mull, Scotland, iii. 22211 

MUNAN, son of Ali the Un-Skauned, slain at Saur-Byes by 
Gregory Dayson, iii. 41912-16 

MUNAN OGMUNDSON, brother to the mother of Earl Karl 
Sonison, falls in the battle at Crookshaw, iii. 35 ig 

MYRKIARTAN (Myrkjartan), son of Thialfi, U. Muirkertach, 
son of Tirdelvagh, Irish king, 1086-1119, not of Connaught, 
as Snorri states, but of Munster; father of Biadmynia, the 
first wife of Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 2251P.22 — his and K. 
Magnus Barefoot's warfare as allies in Ireland, 2391^.20 — ^^ 
betrays K. Magnus, 23923-24213 

NANNA, one of the goddesses, Balder's wife, ii. 14813 

NARFI of Staff, one of eight lords of Thrandheim who com- 
bined to force Hakon the Good to join in heathen festivals, 
i- 17019 

NARVI, son of Loki, i. 2469 

NAUMDALE-FOLK, Men of Naumdale (Naumdælir), i. 163^ 
ii. 19O30 27617 iii. 27425 

NEREID THE OLD (NereiíSr hinn gamli), an Earl (caUed 

NER — NIC] Index I 135 

in one recension of Landnáma ' the Old and the Miserly;' in 
Fagrskinna, 10^4 'the Redewise/ hinn rá^paki, and a kins- 
man of Harald Hairfair), ii. 363 

NEREID, of the landed-men of King Magnus the Blind, hanged 
by King Harald Gilli, iii. 3191024 

NICOLAS (Nikolas), son of Ami of Stodreim and Queen Ingirid, 
d. of Rognvald, iii. 37034 

NICOLAS BEARD (N. skegg), slain by Bergliot and his 
brethren, the sons of Ivar of Elda, iii. 41521-26 

NICOLAS (Breakespeare), Cardinal, afterwards Pope Adrian IV., 
sent by the Pope into Norway, 1152, iii. 37921.24 — his attitude 
towards the sons of Harald Gilli, Sigurd, Eystein and Ingi, 
37924-28 — consents to the consecration of Jon Byrgison, Abp 
of Thrandheim, 37930-3^04 — ^is reforms and personal charac- 
ter gained immense popularity for him, 3805.12 — his election 
as Pope, and fondness for the people of Norway, 38012.28 — 
landed in Norway half a month before the latter Olaf s mass, 
/>. July 20, 38ig.<j 

NICOLAS MEW (N. Mási), the father of Ragna, wife of King 
Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 37821 42625.20 

NICOLAS, son of the Danish King Nicolas Sveinson and of 
Margaret Frithpoll, whose former husband was King Magnus 
Barefoot, iii. 28423 

NICOLAS PERIWINKLE (N. kúfungr), son of Paul, the son 
of Skopti, a landed-man of K. Magnus Erlingson, lays hands 
on Harald, who was said to be the son of King Sigurd Harald- 
son and Kristin King's-daughter — brings him to Biorgvin and 
hands him over to Earl Erling, who has him beheaded in 
Northness by Biorgvin, iii. 47720-47817 

NICOLAS, son of Sigurd, the son of Rani, by Skialdvor, 
the daughter of Bryniolf Camel and Thora Joan's daughter 
(the mother of K. Magnus Barefoot), a follower of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, iii. 4077.3 — commands a ship in Hakon's fleet 
in the battle of the Elf, 4084 — after the battle he is pardoned 
by King Ingi, under whom he served for the rest of his life, 
41 5 j^ — ^is one of the captains charged with the defence of 
Biorgvin, 45720 — declines to put up for the kingdom of Norway, 
43521-4363 — scatters the fleet of Markus o* Shaw and King 
Sigurd off Biorgvin, seizing their ships, 458^^^ — his dealings 
with Markus and his followers, 45825.31 — his family connec- 

136 Index I [NIC — nor 

tions, wealth and influence, 48 ig.^^ — of him and Eric Amison, 
his son-in-law, 481 24-48 222 — surpnsed and slain by the Birch- 
legs, 48224-48314 

NICOLAS, son of Simon Sheath and Maria, daughter of King 
Harald Gilli, iii. 3799.1^ — taken from home by Erling Askew 
and secured on board his ship the Beechboard, 44329.11— slain 
by Erling's men on board the Beechboard, 4464^ (He had 
the same title to the kingdom of Norway as Magnus Erlingsoxu) 

NICOLAS SKIALDVORSON, or son of Skialdvor, 'sister's 
son to King Magnus Barefoot ' = Nicolas, son of Sigurd, the 
son of Rani, q.v. 

NICOLAS, King of Denmark 1103-1134, son of K. Svein 
Wolfson of Denmark, married to Margaret Frithpoll, d. of K. 
Ingi Steinkelson of Sweden, the former wife of K. Magnus 
Barefoot; their sons: Nicolas and Magnus the Strong, iii. 
2841^24 — welcomes K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer at Heathby, 
^^^itf-20 — invokes K. Sigurd's aid towards converting the 
people of the Small-lands in Sweden to Christianity, 284^- 
2853 — cause of K. Nicolas giving up the enterprise, 2854.1^ 

NIORD THE WEALTHY (Njör«r hinn au«gi), one of high 
degree among the Vanir, given as hostage to the As-folk, i. 
1327 — niade by Odin a temple priest and *Dii' among the 
As-folk, 1420-21 — was, while among his tribe, the Vanir, married 
to his sister, 1420-20 — abode, on coming to Sweden, in Noa- 
town, 1627 — wedded Skadi and was deserted by her for Odin, 
2025 — ruled the Swedes after Odin, and was worshipped by 
the Swedes as the giver of plenty of the year and the wealth- 
hap of mankind, 22^^.^^ — in his day died the more part of 
the Diar, 2215.1^ — he died in his bed, marked himself unto 
Odin, and the Swedes bewailed him sorely, 22^3^ — his name 
in *kennings,' 1733^ i^^j^ 18733 2563 339^ 348. ii. 21,. 52^ 

NOCKVI (Nökkvi), King of Raumsdale, allied with King 
Hunthiof of Northmere against Harald Hairfair, when he 
first invaded the mid-Norway kingdoms, fought against H. 
at the island of Solskel, and fell, i. 9933-100^7 

NOKKVI, son of Paul, one of the warders of Biorgvin, iii. 457^ 

NORN (norn, pi. nornir), fairy dispensers of fate, i. 126,^ 

NORTHLANDERS (Nor^lendingar), the inhabitants of the 
North Quarter of Iceland, cf. Saga Lib. i. xxxiii-xxxiv, ii. 

243l 19 

NOR — ODi] Index I 137 

NORTHMEN (NoriSmenn, NortSmeíSr), Norwegians, Norse- 
men, Norway men, i. 43^ 5130 ii3i8 "^si "^2^ '5228 2» ^534 16 
154814 16318 ^787 1^45 33 ^^S\K 23127 36716 »• 138 Mai 225e 
99io I37j5^ 16025 18727 2964 32I25 33014 335i6 39ii6 394$ 451» 

4675 12 ill. 4i9 137 3810 398 45l2 489 7624 9211 28 9325 IOOig29 
IOI26 I2O28 I22ii I25i5 I3O29 I324I8 13882 I39l8 MI8 11 
14690 I5O28 ^5^2818 '5982 l6026 '^'iS '6^17 '671^22 168737 
I7O7 '73l222 I74l4 I7646IOI8 '7728 17830 I79l820 l87i821 227i420 
228112 23O10 2311024 237lG 24I1427 24226 26 24724 252308! 
253l6 2d27 28511 36I27 37210 38O1422 46627 

NORTHUMBRIANS (not, as in the text: 'Northumbrian 
(Nor^imbrar), i. 26133 

ODD (Oddr), Kikina-skald, an Icelandic poet, sings of the 
battles of K. Magnus the Good in Denmark, iii. 5023.32 — of 
the death of Magnus, 91 19.28 

ODD, son of Kol (O. Kolsson), a grandson of Hall of the 
Side, a saga-teller; after his telling Ari the Learned wrote the 
lives of the kings of Norway, which Odd himself had leamt 
from the Norwegian Thorgeir Afradskoll of Nidness, i. 63.^ 

ODIN ('0«inn), after his death called Odin the Old ('0«inn 
hinn gamli), i. 2534 — Odin of the As-folk ('AsaóíSinn), i. 173 
— sire of As-folk ('Asa ni^r), 2I2 — chief of Asgarth, which 
he ruled by twelve * Diar,' 1211.21 — his divine nature and 
qualities, 1221-135 — he lays hands upon and gives blessing to 
his warriors, 1227.30 — ^^^ fondness for wandering, 134.1^ — his 
dealings with the Vanir, 131^-141^ — he and Mimir's head, 141^ 
i8ig — made Niord and Frey temple priests, 1420 — ^^^ wise in 
wizardry, 1 513 — migrates with his Diar to the North, leaving his 
brothers Ve and Vili in charge of Asgarth, 1512- 163^ — his 
dealings with Gylfi, 1 524-1 621— being the source and author 
of the useful arts, he and his Diar teach them to mankind, 
1 73.9 — beautiful in peace, terrible in war, 1 712.15 — could change 
shape at will, 1715 1851^ — ^^ *^^ ^^ ^^^^ spoke in verse and 
brought the art of skald-craft first to the North, 1721.26 — ^^^ 
magic powers, 1720 1811-193 — Bareserksgang due to his spell- 
working, 1729-183 — his converse with the dead, 1813.21 — his 
ravens, 182224 — ^^^ mastery in runes, wizard songs and spell- 
craft, 1825-193 — the power of his enchantments, 198-28 — child- 
ren named after Odin, 1924— his legislation, 203.23 — his mili- 
tary and pontifical expenditure defrayed by a polltax on all 

138 Index I [ODR — OGM 

Swedes, 2O20.28 — h&d many sons with Skadi, 20^-2 ij, — died 
in his bed in Sweden, 213^ — let himself, at point of deathybe 
marked with a spear-point and claimed as his all men dead 
by weapons, said he would go to Godhome and welcome his 
friends there, 2X22^ — believed to have gone to 'Asfl^uth of 
old days,* 2\,^ — then began anew the worship of 0<£n, ^\^ 
— often seen m visions by the Swedes, 21 2^.33 — was bumra 
in the seemliest wise, 22 ^ — unto him Niord marked himself 
before his death, 22jg — K. Sw^dir with twelve men goes on 
a pilgrimage to Odin the Old in Godhome, 25,2^ — human 
sacrifices made to him, 42^8.21 8r43i6 — K*"g O^^ Treeshaver 
sacrificed by his subjects to him for plenty of the year, 66^«^ 
— sword-smitten hosts sent to him, 1551144 ^^728-» *S9« 
29823.26 — Odin's cup drunk at sacrificial feasts for victory to 
the king and increase of his power, 16529^ '^9i4ið — Odin as 
lord of his Elect (valr), and host in the Hall of the Elect 
(Val-höll), 1895.1Y I9i]8-i93i2 — Odin's acceptance of a sacrifice 
for victory signified by the ap[)earance of two croaking ravens, 
258^1.27 — Earl Hakon the Mighty of Ladir alleged to have 
sacrificed his son to Odin, 2832(5^ — Odin's attempt to b^uile 
Olaf Tryggvison, 31428-3^61^ — worshipped in Gautland still 
in the days of Olaf the Holy, ii. I46i7.,9 — Odin in * kenmngs,' 
i. 19I2 2074 24908ÍÍÍ. 4018 

ODR CO«r), Freya's husband, i. 245 

OGMUND (Ögmundr), baseborn son of Erling Askew, iiL 

OGMUND, son of Foli, ii. 4131 

OGMUND HAMMERER (Ö. dengir), brother of ErUng Askew 
(presumably, therefore, son of Kyrping-Worm and Ragnhild, 
d. of Sveinki, cf. iii. 3713.5), so much superior to his brother 
that he was held of little account while Ogmund lived, 37718.15 

OGMUND, son of Horda Kari, i. 3032« 

OGMUND IVARSON, slain at Elda, iii. 4167 

OGMUND SANDY (Ö. sandi) of Halogaland, a forecastle man 
on board the Long- Worm, i. 3537.8 

OGMUND, son of Skopti the son of Ogmund Thorbeigson, 
his marriage and children, iii. 22527.31 — ^^ ^^^ ^^ devotion 
towards K. Magnus Barefoot, 231 17-2322 — in the dispute of 
Skopti with K. Magnus he goes to the King to plead for his 
father, and, offended at the King's obstinacy, he leaves his 

OGM — ola] Index I 139 

service and goes south to Rome, and dies on the journey, 


OGMUND SWEEP (O. sviptir), one of the counsellors of K. 
Sigurd son of Harald Gilli, iii. 35933 377i8 

OGMUND, son of Thorberg Amison, father of Skopti of Gizki, 
and of Ingibiorg, wife of Egil, s. of Aslak, iii, 18411 ^^922 22527 

OGMUND, son of Earl Worm the son of Eilif, and Sigrid, the 
d. of Earl Finn Arnison; his children Munan and Astrid, the 
mother of Earl Karl Sonison, iii. 3518-8 

OGVALD (Ogvaldr), a mythic king after whom Ogvaldsness 
was named, worshipped a certain cow which he took with 
him wheresoever he went, and of whose milk he always 
would drink for his health (the tale told by Odin), i. 3155.18 
cf. 31610-14 

OLAF ('Olafr), bonder. See Olaf the Quiet. 

OLAF, a king, * whom Edmund had set there (in the South of 
England) for the warding of the land,' defeats Eric Bloodaxe 
in a great battle, i. i5382-i54i6 

OLAF [son of Amfinn Arnmodson, and brother to Kalf Arn- 
finnson], stationed by the side of Kalf Amison his kinsman, 
/>., first cousin, in the battle of Sticklestead,ii. 43126 — receives 
his death-wound from King Olaf, 43232 

OLAF, son of the Swedish king Biorn, brother to K. Eric the 
Victorious, and father to Styrbiom, i. 1247 

OLAF BUTTERBREAD ('O. kliningr), father to Gudrod 
King of the South-isles, iii. 4242- 

OLAF THE FARSIGHTED ('O. hinn skygni [second- 
sighted?]). King of Nerick, father of Alof, the mother of 
Gauthild wife of Ingiald Evil-heart, i. 6527.23 

OLAF O' DALE ('O. í Dali), a wealthy goodman dwelling in 
Aumord in Mickle-dale, iii. 27713.21 — his children Hakon 
Fauk, son, and Borghild, daughter, 2TJ2122 — ^^^ stay in 
wintertide at Burg with his children leads to his becoming 
maternal grandfather of Magnus the Blind, 2 7 724-2 7835 

OLAF GEIRSTEADELF ('O. Geirsta«aálfr), son of Gudrod 
the Hunter-king and his first wife Elfhild, i. 323 702430 — ^^^' 
brother to Halfdan the Black, 7032-7117 — father to Rognvald 
Higher-than-the- Hills, 328-4i — succeeds his father and shares 
the kingdom with Halfdan, 7215.31 — his death, 731.19 cf. 7711.14 

OLAF GEIRSTEADELF ('O. Geirsta«aálfr), son of Harald 

Index í 

Hairfaírand Swanhild, the daughter of King Eystein (Eystein* 
son of Heath mark ?)^ Í, t t4j^— proclaimed king by his father, 
1 5I18— succeeded to the kingdom of Guthrod his brother, 
^3^17 18 — threatens vengeance on his brother Eric foi the 
murder of their brother BÍorn Chapman, i JSai ás ^^^^^ whose 
fall he possessed himself of his dominion in Westfold, and 
took his son Gudrod into fostering^ 1423.^— made sovereign 
king by the Wick-men when they heard of Eric Bloodaxe's 
elevation to that dignity, 142^.^3 — his contest with Eric and 
fall in the battle of Tunsberg, \^^^.^^—\i\^ howe on the brent 
east of Tuns berg, where he fell^ \^^^.^^ 

OLAF| son of Harald Kesia and Ragnhild, daughter of King 
Magnus Barefoot, and sister to Sigurd Slembi-deacon, iii. 
283^ — 'Sigurd Slera hi -deacon defeats him in the Elf, S54i0'i8 

OLAF KUARAN ('O, kvaran), t98o, king of DubUn, father 
(not brother, as Snorri has it) of Gyda, who married Olaf 
Tryggvison, i. 2 642^3^^— entertains at his court Olaf Tryggvi son 
( 2 66^,2j ) 2 8 9(0, J j) jy,j^^ — Th is i s i mpossi b I e, as Ola f left Wen d- 
land for Britam not till about 986. 

OLAF THE LAD ('O. drengr), stationed in the forehold of the , 
I^ng-Worm, t. 3531^^ 

OLAF, t^irsg of Norway 1 103-1 1 15, son of King Magnus Bare- 
foot and of Sigrid, the daughter of Saxi in Wick, iii. 2331 1.^ 
33^30-21 — shares whh his brothers Eystein and Sigurd tne 
kingdom of Norway after the death of Magnus^ and, being a 
mi nor, his share of the realm is looked after by his brothers, 
247^.ijj cf. 2623^.;,. — ^personal description, soSj.^— his short 
life foreshadowed in a dream to his brother Sigurd, 2692» 
2 7o^.g— falls sick and dies, 277g.j2 

OLAF (Peacock) {'O. pdi), son of Hoskuld, and father o^_ 
Kiartan, i. 33415.^ ■ 

OLAF THE QUIET ('0!afr hinn Kyrri), King of Norway 1067-^ 
1093, son of King Harald Sigurd son by Thora, daughter of 
Thorberg Arnison, surnamed * Quiet * or ^ Bonder/ married 
to Ingirid, d. of K. Svein Wolfson of Denmark, no issue; 
had a son, Magnus (Barefoot), by Thora, d. of Joan, iÍÍ. 9615^28 
194^^-195^— accompanies his father on his expedition to 
England, 1653^.^^— with him at the battle on theOuse, t68p.yj 
^-one of those left behind to guard the ships when his father 
landed his army at Stamford Bridge^ I7<^ts-i9 — allowed by 


Index I 141 

King Harald Godwinson to go on his way after the battle at 
Stamford Bridge, 1813.7 — brings his host away from England 
and arrives in the Orkneys, where he stays through the winter, 
18227-1834 — in the summer he goes east to Norway and is 
taken to king with Magnus his brother, 1834^ — ^gets Ketil 
Crook a good wedding in Halogaland, 18314.13 — ^^^ relations 
with Skuli the King's fosterer, 1 838-1844 — gives Skuli in 
marriage Gudrun, daughter of Nefstein, 1844.^ — rules over 
Norway jointly with Magnus his brother for three years, 1873.3 
— K. Svein Wolfson's threatened breach of peace and invasion 
of Norway averted and secure peace arranged, 18711-1883 — 
sole king of Norway after the death of Magnus his brother, 
i88g 1914.5 — personal description, 1910.22 — ^^st to move the 
high-seat from the middle of the side-bench of the hall to the 
dais at the end of it: to introduce stoves in halls, and to lay 
floors with straw in winter as well as in summer, 1923.^ — 
founds the mercantile port of Biorgvin, 19212.13 — builds 
churches, 1921518 1959-17 — promoter of Guilds and Scot-houses, 
' 9^18-26 — encourages new fashions, 1 9230- 1933 — his courtly 
life and body-guard, i936-i94i6 — his peaceful ways, wise and 
sympathetic rule, 19620- 19724 — his relations to his brother-in- 
law, K. Knut the Holy of Denmark, 19 727- 1992 — ^- ^^^ 
and the soothsayer, 1994-201 — his death and burial, 202. 

OLAF [Hunger], King of Denmark 1086-1095, son of Svein 
Wolfson, King of Denmark, iii. 19425 — married to Ingigerd, 
daughter of K. Harald Hardredy, 1942329 

OLAF THE SWEDE ('O. soenski), K. of Sweden, ob. 1024, 
son of K. Eric the Victorious and of Sigrid the Highminded, 
d. of Skogul Tosti, i. 2133.^ 28412.14 35623-24 "• 231112 i»- 293 
— tenth King of Upsala of them that have taken that kingdom 
one after the other, ii. 9710-11 — his children; in wedlock: 
James (Jacob, afterwards called Onund, 1393-13) and Ingi- 
gerd; by Edla, a concubine: Emund, Astrid, Holmfrid, 1397.3 
— gives harbour to the sons of Earl Hakon of Ladir when 
Olaf Tryggvison sets up for king of Norway, i. 29913.1^ 
cf. 30O1.2 345680 — ^"^ ^s mother marrying King Svein Twi- 
beard of Denmark, close p)olitical relations follow between 
Sweden and Denmark, 34823.32 — at K. Svein*s request he 
allies himself with him against K. Olaf Tryggvison, 35912- 
3603 — watches with Svein Twibeard and Earl Eric the 

142 Index I [oLA 

fleet of Olaf Tryggvison sailing out to Svold, 36224-364^ — 
arranges terms with King Svein and Earl Eric for the spoils 
of war in case of victory, 3643,^ — takes part in the battle of 
Svold, 36721-28 36827.81 3698-10— gív^ ^is daughter Holmfrid 
in marriage to Earl Svein, son of Earl Hakon the Mighty, 
37721-22 — confers, on tributary terms, on Earl Svein the share 
of Norway that fell to him after the faU of Olaf Tryggvison, 
37725-81 — ^^^ defensive measures against Olaf Haraldson (the 
Holy) on his viking invasion of Sweden, ii. 70-825— his enmity 
to Olaf Haraldson urged by K. Sigurd Syr as a formidable 
obstacle to Olaf s gaining the kingdom of Norway, 40^2^ — 
he receives Earl Svein, his son-in-law, after his defeat at 
Nesiar, and promises to restore him to his dominion in Nor- 
way, 6511.28 — receives Einar Thambarskelfir as fugitive from 
Norway and entertains him at his court, ooj^^j ^1^15^ — is 
deeply offended at Olaf Haraldson's appropriation of Earl 
Svein's dominion which the latter held as fief of his father-in- 
law, 6621-671 — sends a mission to Norway to gather the taxes 
he laid claim to there, which ends in failure, 6924-72,2 — 
moreover, by King Olaf Haraldson's conquest of the sea- 
board and islands of Ranrealm (1017), 7832^ — by the com- 
plete loss of that province to Norway through Eyvind 
Urochshorn's victory over Roi Squinteye,— and byThor- 
gaut Harelip's discomfiture at- the hands of Eyvind Urochs- 
horn, 833.11 — the Swede King was so enraged that no man 
durst mention Olaf of Norway as king to him, 8422^ 9^-io 
97jj.7 — King Olaf Haraldson, pressed by his own people, 
853.18 26*8627 — having sent a mission to Sweden to open 
negotiations for peace between the two realms, 8619-9 1^ — re- 
ceives an angry reply in return from the Swede king, and 
an equally decided refusal of marriage alliance, 9611-9822 9^- 
loog — his relations to Hialti Skeggison of Iceland, and to his 
Icelandic court poets, ^\^^.^ 927.25 94i8-95i6 96ii-98«5— his 
bombastic account of the relations between Sweden and Nor- 
way from the reign of Harald Hairfair to that of Olaf Harald- 
son, 9717-9822 — his angry refusal to his daughter Ingigerd to 
listen to counsels of peace with Norway; threat to invade 
Norway, 9923-1003 — his attendance in state at Upsala-Thing, 
11814.1^ — ^^is insolence to King Olaf Haraldson's messengers 
of peace, 11910.12 29"^2^9"~^o^^ ^7 Lawman Thorgnyr^s 


Index I 143 

threatening speech, he agrees to settlement of peace between 
the two realms and promises his daughter Ingigerd in marriage 
to Olaf of Norway, charging Earl Rognvald with the execution 
of all the affairs relating to the betrothal, 1 22^.^3 — breach of 
the covenant as to Ingigerd's marriage, 138^.2^ i398o-^4^2ð 

His character, 1 3920-80 — ^ successful fowling sport made 
light of by Ingigerd as compared with Olaf Haraldson's capture 
of fív^ Upland kings at one swoop, whereto the father's answer 
was blank refusal to marry her to Olaf of Norway, 14023-1423 
— receives in a friendly manner a message from King Jarisleif 
of Holmgarth soliciting in marriage his daughter Ingigerd, 
'4^18^ — ^^ formally engages Ingigerd to K. Jarisleif and 
consents to her conditions including the transfer of Earl 
Rognvald of West-Gautland to the Earldom of Aldeigiaburg, 
1 53i2-i548i — disaffection in West-Gautland after the departure 
of Earl Rognvald, 15511.30 — ^^^ dealings with Emund lawman 
of West-Gautland, 1 5612-1 5927 — customs at his court, 1595^) 
— his councillors, 1 5917.19 — his zeal for justice, 15919.22 — ^^' 
planation of Lawman Emund's enigmatic law cases which 
the king unwarily had decided against himself, 1 5927-1 623 — 
his three faithful advisers, Amwith, Thorwith and Freywith 
allay disaffection in the realm and save him his crown, lóogQ- 
1667 — his son James proclaimed king and co-regent by Frey- 
with's prudent diplomacy, 164-1667 — Olaf to remain lung on 
condition of keeping on friendly terms with Norway, 16531- 
1662 — ^peace settled at last between the two Olafs at Kings' 
Rock, 16611-1673— his death, 21011 
OLAF THE THICK, the Holy ('O. hinn digri, hinn helgi). 
King of Norway, loi 5-1030, son of Harald the Grenlander 
and Asta, d. of Gudbrand Kula, i. 630.21 ^426-27 28714.19 — 
married to Astrid, natural d. of K. Olaf the Swede, ii. 1534.5 
iii. 4^10 — their daughter Ulfhild, ii. 3691 iii. 34ii.,2 — has by 
Alfhild, king's bondmaid, a son, Magnus (the Good), ii. 235^ 

His future greatness taken to have been revealed to his 
ancestor Halfdan the Black, i 84^i.ig 25.2r~christened, when 
three years of age, Olaf Tryggvison being gossip to him, 
31 1 14.17 — lives in childhood first with his grandfather, Gud- 
brand Kula and then with K. Sigurd Syr, his stepfather, 
31I9.12 ii. 35.7 — his foster-father being Rani the Widefaring, 

144 Index I [ola 

37-9 — personal description, 39.12 4i4-8i — ^^^ contemptuously 
with his stepfather, 3i9-4n — takes to the profession of Vikingt 
at twelve years of age, with Rani for captain, himself being 
king of the host, ^^.^^ — wars in Denmark, ^^^jg^ — ^harries 
Sweden, in revenge of his father whom Sigrid the Hauj^ty 
had caused to be slain, victory in Sotisker; warfare in the' 
Low and escape by Agnisthwaite; submission of Gotland, 
528"9§ ^^- 9^10-20 — ^^^" ^^ victory in Islesysla, 9^^ — his warfare 
in Finland, lo-ii^ — his raid on Denmark and victory in 
Southwick, 1 17.2ft — attack on Frisland, 1 2^,^^ — ^goes toEngland, 
1 2 ^g 26 — allies himself with Ethelred against the Danes, breaks 
down London Bridge, and carries the Danish positions in 
South wark, 1210-154^0-80 — ^^^ victory on Ringmar-heath, 16-^5 
— capture and burnmg of Canterbury, 1 73.24 — commands Uie 
fleet and gains victory over the Thingmen (Danes) at New- 
mouth, 17^-184 — collects Ethelred's tribute, 185.15 — ^his wars 
and victones in France, 1820-2O13 27-2 iis — bas a dream that 
designates him King of Norway, so he turns northward to 
Rouen in Normandy, 2013.24 2727-281 — he undertakes to re- 
instate the sons of Ethelred on the throne of England and, 
on failing to oust the Danes, parts company with the princes, 
sailing to Northumberland and fighting victoriously at Wald, 

Sails from Northumberland to Norway and lands at the 
island of Sele, 291Q-3O17— sails south to Saudungsound and 
overcomes Earl Hakon, son of Eric, and gives him pardon 
on oath that he will never again bear weapons against him, 
3O18-3334 — visit to, and reception by, his mother and stepfather, 
3322"37i8 — ^^ discloses his plans at a family council, 3721-4117 
— the kings of the Uplands, at his stepfather's counsel, declare 
for him and give him the title of King of Norway, 4iso-45o — 
Olaf's progress through the Uplands, Gudbrandsdale and 
north over the mountains into Middledale in Thrandheim, 
where a meeting of the franklins accepts him as king, 4512- 
469 — coming to Orkdale he takes, after some trouble, oaths 
of allegiance from the liegemen of Earl Hakon Ericson in 
four folklands of Thrandheim, ^(i>^'4,Z^^ — goes down to the 
sea, where he gets together a small fleet of three longships and 
four or five cutters, and starts up Thrandheim firth for Steinker, 
where Earl Svein Hakonson was banqueting, 4813-4921 — 


Index I 145 

finding the earl gone from Steinker Olaf plunders the place 
and repairs for Nidoyce, which, neglected by the earls, he sets 
to restoring, in order to spend Yule there, 5014-511 — King 
Olaf and the poets Thord Sigvaldi's skald, and Sigvat his 
son, 51^52 — Olaf s flight before Earl Svein and Einar Tham- 
barskelfir from Thrandheim south over the mountains to the 
Dales, 53 — he gathers a host from the Uplands and arrays 
a fleet in the Wick, 542.18 — Olaf's victory in the battle of 
Nesiar, Earl Svein's and Einar Thambarskelfir's flight, 5521- 
6410 1055^ — ^^^s himself be proclaimed king at Things all 
through the western Wick unto Lidandisness, and proceeds to 
Thrandheim, where the people, except Earl Svein's liegemen, 
submit to his sway, and he sets about rebuilding Nidoyce 
which Earl Svein had burnt, 6412-657 — on the death of Earl 
Svein all Thrandheim yields fealty to King Olaf, whence 
sprang great enmity from Olaf the Swede lang, 66^3-6718 — 
King Olaf's court arrangements, 671^-685 — daily habits, 685.14 
— his manners and character, 6829.81 — ^*^ interest in legislation 
secular and ecclesiastical, 6814.28 — ^^ concern for Christianity 
in the Norwegian colonies, 691.19 — ^^ dealings with the 
messengers of Olaf the Swede long claiming suzerainty over 
Norway, 6924-72 — his messages to Hialti Skeggison and Skapti 
the speaker-at-law, and to the people of Iceland concerning 
amendments of Christian law there, 734.10 — he journeys south 
along the land promulgating Christian law to his subjects, 
73ig-748— he is proclaimed king at every * Law-Thing,' 744.^ — 
he makes peace with Erling Skialgson, 747-7515 cf. 5512.19 623.11 
— he sails to the Wick and brings under his sway all the eastern 
part thereof from Swinesound south to the Gautelf, 7517-7825 
he founds the fortified town of Sarpsburg and forbids exports 
from the Wick to Gautland, 782^-7918 — King Olafs bounty to 
Eyvind Urochshorn and Bryniolf Camel, 7915-807 — highly 
offended with the Swedes for slaying his tax-gatherer in Jamt- 
land, and confiscating the tribute, 801Q.17 — canon law promul- 
gated through the Wick, 8020-818 — commissions Eyvind 
Urochshorn to slay Roi Squinteye,an encroaching tax-gatherer 
from Sweden, 81 5.19 — procures from Russia robes of Slate and 
costly table-service, 8123-8315 — settles with Earl Rognvald of 
Gautland peace between his dominion and Norway, 8319-841^ 
— becomes master of the whole of Norway south to Gautelf,. 

VI. L 

146 Index I [oLA 

84^28 — incurs the implacable hatred of Olaf of Sweden, 
8423.28 — accedes to a proposal of Biom the Marshal to make 
overtures for peace to the King of Sweden, 85,-86^, — sends 
Biom and his companions with messages of peace to Sweden, 
87,9-8820 — goes through the Uplands enforcing Christian law 
with severe cruelty where he meets resistance, 101^-102^-con- 
spiracy by five Upland kings detected and cruelly punished 
by Olaf, 103-10920— on the death of Sigurd, his stepfather, 
Olaf alone bears the title of king in Norway, 10937^ — King 
Olaf entertained by his mother : his converse witíi her sons, 
10923-11128 — Biom the Marshal returns from his mission to 
Sweden, which had been so successful through the adroitness 
of Hialti Skeggison, the backing up of Earl Rognvald and the 
masterfulness of Lawman Thorgnyr, that peace was established 
between the two kingdoms, and Ingigerd the daughter of the 
Swede king was promised Olaf of Norway in marriage, 88^ 
10 1 21 113,7-122 — King Olaf, on receiving the news, summons 
to him a great and noble company to go east to Gautelf, where, 
in autumn of the year, he was to be married to Ingigerd of 
Sweden, 12 33.18 — King Olafs dealings with King Roerek the 
blind, 123,4-137, — King Olaf and Thorarin Nefiolfson, I33g- 
1373 — King Olaf sees Hialti Skeggison off with friendly gifts, 
1 3 77-9 — he goes with a brave company to Kings' Rock for his 
bridal, but learns there, after a long tarrying, that the King of 
Sweden has broken his covenant; advised by his counsellors 
not to avenge the snub with war, he goes back to the Wick 
and takes up winter quarters at Sarpsburg, 13718-138,8 i39m* 
14025 1 4 1, ,-1445 — he accedes to Sigvat the Skald's offer to 
go to Earl Rognvald to find out what the intention of the 
King of Sweden was, 14416^, — on Sigvafs return Olaf learns 
that his bride, Ingigerd, has been betrothed to King Jarisleif 
of Holmgarth, 148,3.24 i.'>025.29 — but hearing that her sister, 
Astrid, who was staying at the court of Earl Rognvald, was 
in every way an equal to her sister, Olaf, encouraged by Eail 
Rognvald, married her without asking the father's consent, 
^508i-i539— O^ o^ Sweden's anger hereat, 1548-12 ^SSio-w— 
peace settled between the two Olafs at Kings' Rock, 166}}- 
1673 — Olaf of Norway goes back to Tunsberg and thence to 
Thrandheim, wintering in Nidoyce, and now bore as King of 
Norway as extensive a sway as Harald Hairfair ever did. 


Index I 147 

^^7ii-«)"'^98-ii — ^"^g ^^ avenges the death of Eyvind 
Urochshom on Earl Einar Wrongmouth of Orkney, i74s8- 
17820 — his dealings with the broSiers of Einar, Brusi and 
Thorfinn, who both acknowledge him li^e lord of Orkney, 
1782J-18717 — his journey to Halogaland and enforcement of 
Christian law there, return to, and wintering in Nidoyce, 
189-192 — King Olaf's dealings with the heathen worshippers 
of Upper-Thrandheim, slaying of Olvir of Eggja, 193-19812 — 
he gives the widow of Olvir in marriage to Kalf, son of Æii, 
1 9815- 1 997 — missionary expedition to Lesjar, Dovrar, Lora- 
dale, and other countrysides in the upper Uplands, 19910-200^0 
— King Olaf brings about Gudbrand a-Dales' conversion to 
Christianity, 20059-2093 — christening of Heathmark, 209^.15: 
of Thotn and Hathaland, 20915.17: of Ringrealm, 20917.1^: 
of Raumrealm, 20919-210^: of Solisles, 2107.3 

K. Olaf sets up the legislative assembly of Heidsævi for all 
the Uplands, 21O15.21 — thereupon he betakes himself out to 
Tunsberg in the Wick, whence he issues an order forbidding 
export of cereals from Agdir, Rogaland and Hordland, and 
then goes east to the land's end, 21022-21I14 — makes peace 
with Einar Thambarskelfir, 21115.23 — K. Olaf goes to Sarps- 
burg and resides there into the early part of winter, 21128^1 
— K. Olaf rebukes Erling Skialgson for his masterfulness, 
2 1 2-2 i4ij — K. Olaf s dealings with Asbiom, son of Sigurd, and 
his uncle Erling Skialgson anent the murder of Thorir Seal, 
222^-23015 — full enmity between K. Olaf and Erling, 23117^ 
— K. Olaf christens Vors, 23121-232^ — christens Valdres after 
wasting it with fire and sword, 23213-23428 — hence he goes 
north through the Dales unto Thrandheim, and spends the 
winter (loth regnal year) in Nidoyce, 23424.29 — to K. Olaf is 
bom a natural son baptized without his leave by Sigvat the 
Skald, 23514-2373 — K. Olaf appoints Asmund, son of Grankel, 
to the half of the bailiwick of Halogaland against Harek of 
Thiotta, the real object being that Asmund should slay, as 
he did, Asbiom Sealsbane for having broken the covenant of 
Ogvaldsness, 237^-24027 — in the spring of this year he goes 
along the land atoning litigants and mending the religious 
ways of his people all the way to the lands' end (Gautelf), 
241 2.10 — cultivates friendship with Iceland for a deep-laid 
political purpose, 24113-2422 — sends a message to Iceland 

148 Index I [oLA 

praying that the island of Grimsey should be given to him — 
the Icelanders' cautious reply, 242^2461^-— having made friends 
in Faroe (24118.15) chiefs from those islands go to King Olaf 
at his request and give the islands into his power, 2461^-24711 
— but a ship sent with the king's tax-gatherers on board never 
reached its destination, 247^0^ — Íxovcl the eastern land's end 
(24 1 3) K. Olaf went, in the autumn, to the Upper Vi^ck and 
the Uplands settling law and right among the people and 
amending Christian law, 2483.12 — ^^^ marries GunnUld, his 
half-sister, to Ketil Calf, and Isrid, his aunt, to Thord GuÚi- 
orm's son, 24813-249^ — thereupon he goes south over ThotUa 
Hathaland, Ringrealm, to the Wick, and, in the spring, tarries 
long in the market-town of Tunsberg, 2491(^14 — "^ ^ summer 
several sons of Icelandic chiefs enter the king's service 
^4919-29 — ^^^ summer King Olaf heard of the loss of his first 
tax-gathering ship sent to Faroe — another sent» on receipt of 
the news, had the same fate as the first, and much misgiving 
this caused in Norway, 249^0-2507 — King Oiafs masterfubiess 
drives many out of the land to King Knut of England, s5X]u 
25 2^.12 — ^^^ repels in bold language King Knut*s daim to me 
crown of Norway, 25220-2545 2551,^ — lUng Olaf concludes 
in autumn an alliance with K. Onund of Sweden, 256-857^ — 
he spends the winter following in Sarpsburg, 25&L4 — sends 
Karli the Halogalander to the north country with his errands 
and on a trading trip to Biarmland, which Thorir Hound 
brought to a disastrous end, 2584-267^ — Kings Olaf and 
Onund of Sweden meet at Kings' Rock, taking privy counsels 
together, whereupon Olaf goes back to the Wick, then west 
to Agdir and north to Hordland, 267^19 ,g-268— King Oiaf 
and the misdoers of Faroe, 269-274^2 — failure of attempt to 
get himself acknowledged king over Iceland, 274j(-275jg — 
this winter, the thirteenth year of his kingdom, he spends in 
Nidoyce, 27534.29 — Olafs relations to Sweden concerning the 
possession of Jamtland, 276-277 — King Olafs dealings with 
Stein the son of Skapti, and Thorberg Amison, 278-2861^ — 
Olaf sends Finn Amison to Halogaland to call out a muster 
for next spring, and to punish Thorir Hound for the slaying 
of Karli and the robbery of the king's goods, 2862»-29i — ^King 
Olafs adjudication of a dispute between Harek (h Thiotta and 
Asmund son of Grankel, 292-2943 — he sends Thorod, the son 


Index I 149 

of Snorri, to gather taxes from Jamtland, with the result 
that the mission failed utterly, 29411-302^^5 — King Olaf sends 
Karl o' Mere to the Faroes to clum tribute thereof, but at 
Thrand o' Gate's instigation he is slain, and King Olaf never 
lived to avenge him of this wrong, 302^-3101 

King Okf sets out on his expedition against Knut the 
Mighty, gathering forces from Thrandheim and the country 
north thereof, as well as North-Mere, Raumsdale and South- 
Mere, awaiting the concentration of the northern fleet at Her- 
isles, 302ig.27 — every landed man from the North-Country 
joined him except Einar Thambarskelfir, 3103.17 — the King 
commanded a new built war-galley, the Bison, the greatest of 
all ships, and made with his fleet south past Stad into Hord- 
land, 3 1 ©18.82 cf- "i- 2712 — learns that Erling Skialgson and 
his sons had left the land and gone to join Knut in England, 
31I1.7 — being informed that Knut is still in England, but 
preparing for war, he sends home the less fightworthy part of 
his host and makes for Denmark with the rest, 3117.32 — 
harries Sealand in Denmark, and hearing that K. Onund of 
Sweden, according to the covenant of Kings' Rock (pp. 267- 
268) was warring on Skaney, he takes his fleet to the east 
and joins Onund, whereupon they proclaim their intention of 
subduing Denmark to their sway, 3128-31318 — on hearing 
that Knut had arrived from the west with an overwhelmingly 
strong fleet, Olaf and Onund turn their war eastward and 
ravage Skaney on their way till they come to the Holy River, 
where they make a halt, 31910-3207 — the battle of the Holy 
River and retreat of Kings Olaf and Onund, 3207-3232^ — 
they sail along the coast of Sweden to Barwick, where, at a 
council of war, Onund declares that he has given up all idea 
of continuing the war, and Olaf decides to wait and watch 
King Knut's movements, 32329-3251^ — learning that King 
Knut had gone back by the Eresound to Denn^ark, King 
Onund steered home with all his host, K. Olaf abiding behind, 
3272^-3283 — decides to go back to Norway overland through 
Sweden, and to leave his ships in charge of his brother-in- 
ÍA^. 32925-33O25— ^is arrayal for the journey, 33 1 16-19— ^s 
ships hauled ashore in Kalmar, 331 19.22 — Olaf s journey, ar- 
rival at Sarpsburg in the Wick, furlough given to many of his 
host, 333(Mi— Olaf and Sigvat his marshal, 33324-335$ 3378-28 


Index I 


— Kfl^Oliricceifes&ocis inaÐfioiiECCsiKm bow, with Effing 
SkÍÉ^Mn te^mmag to hk ^aaies^ mc M c o g e ts from E^ Kattt 
loftded vieh motiey came into tlie land and wcDt wide about 
bribing, J55|^336^— after Yde be breaks up oa a jcMmier 
tbroagb the Uplands to ThfamJlieiai from where no dues had 
yet been paid him this year, ZMm'Z^^w — OlaTs dealings with 
Biom, the steward of Queen A^rid, and Red of Eastern Dalet 
aiid \m sons, j^^irj^ij-^finding out that Thofir the son of 
Olvir of Eggja had received a bribe of Kbui to take his life 
King OM has hiro executed, 3415-34330 — Grioig^xd, the 
brother of Thorir, set upon by King Olaf and slain, 344-345* 
— Olaf gi¥es up the journey to Thrandheim, goes back to 
Tunsbei^ in the Wick and <^ls out a host, but speeds slowly 
with that muster and finds that he cannot avail himself of 
the ships left in Sweden on account of Ring Knut's fleet, 
345fri4 — ^^ hearing that K. Knut was preparing an invasion 
of Norway, Olaf takes counsel with his diminishing followers 
and Sigrat advises flight, 346- 34 7 ^— while Knut invades Nor- 
way and sails for Agdir and the northern folldands, K. OM 
awaits in Tunsberg the arrival of his ships which followed in 
the wake of the Danish fleet going to the north, and with these 
ships K. Olaf sailed through Oslo flrth into Drafn and laf 
there till Knut had gone south again to Denmark, Z^^ib^u 
3 5/21-35 3i""i^™ir>g ^hat Knut had gone to Denmark he 
sails down to Tunsberg with thirteen ships and thence along 
the coast towards the north, staying a long while in the Seal- 
isles and some while in Eikund-sound, 3532o'354ifl' — from 
here he sails for the north past Jadar, pursued by Erling 
Skialgson unto Bokn, where he defeats Erling, who is slain by 
mishap, 354^0-3598 — hence he sailed north past Stad unto 
Her4sles and learnt that Earl Hakon was out with a great 
host, he goes on to Stonebight, thence to Nyrfi, past Hound- 
ham, Borgund, and in through Waysound and Skot, holding 
on till he came to a place called Suit in Todarfirth, where he 
landed and beached his ships, 3603^,,^ 3613^^2 J^^fi'3^3ii — 
from Suit he causes a road to be opened through Skerf-skree 
and gets over the mountains to Lesiar, 363511-36724^^*^^ go^s 
unto Gudbrandsdale and Keathmark and finds alt people 
turned away from him by reason of the slaying of Thorir the 
son of Olvir of Eggja, 367^^-368^ — he gives furlough to his 


Index I 151 

following who were anxious about the fate of their homes and 
families, 3687.11 — he breaks up with a chosen company and 
his queen and children and leaves Norway by the Eidwood, 
goes through Vermland and Nerick, where he tarried through 
the spring and, when it was summer, sailed to King Jarisleif 
in Garthrealm, where he was well entertained, with his com- 
pany, 36812-4704 — his religious devotion in adversity, and 
plans to right his own and his country's cause, 3704.18 — main- 
tenance of evenhanded justice the cause of K. Olaf 's down- 
fall, 37022-37215 — Biorn the Marshal's defection from and re- 
turn to the allegiance of Olaf, 37723-3814 — by the advice of 
his counsellors Olaf declines the offer by Jarisleif of vice- 
royalty over Bulgaria, 38ig.,7 — he halts between the alterna- 
tive of going back to Norway, or into some monastery, 38117- 
3821^ — he has a dream (cf. 2011.24) ^" which he decides 
to win his kingdom of Norway again, 38214-38324 — King 
Olaf's healing powers, 38327-3852 — his self-inflicted penance 
for not heeding holy hours, 385^.22 — when he makes his re- 
solve to regain mastery over Norway known to King Jarisleif, 
every assistance is promised him, 38524-38611 — he leaves 
Garthrealm after Yule and sails to Gotland, and then to the 
Low and to Riveroyce, and meets his brother-in-law and 
Queen Astrid, 38615-3871^ — on hearing that Olaf had come 
to Sweden the chiefs of Norway called out a war-levy through- 
out the land, to oppose him, 38927-39O15 41 620-41710 — at the 
same time OlaPs faithful men to the number of 720 join 
the standard of his brother Harald Sigurdson and go to meet 
him in Sweden, 39O18.31 — King Olaf tarries through the spring 
in Sweden, is supplied with 480 picked men by King Onund, 
3913.24 — he meets in Ironstone-land his auxiliaries from Nor- 
way and then had a host of 1,440 strong, 3923.15 — Day son 
of Ring joins King Olaf's standard with another 1,440 men, 
392i8"393i2 — ^^ sends out invitations to mercenaries to join 
him, and makes his way to Jamtland, marching in three 
columns, himself with his Northmen, Day with his band, and 
the Swedes by themselves, 39315-3945 — King Olaf refuses the 
help of non-Christian auxiliaries, 3948-3952^ — his vision when 
from the Keel mountain Upper-Thrandheim opened to the 
view, 396 — King Olaf 's arrival down from the mountain to 
Sula in Upper Veradale, and his dealings with Thorgeir Fleck 

Index I 

and his sons, 397-39815— he marches from Sula to Staif 
(Stave) and musters his forces and christens heathen auxili- 
ftries and sends away such as m^otild not become Christians, 
398,8-399— his address to the army, 400-40 tj,^ — he holds a 
council of war and decides, against his men, not to burn and 
plunder the country, 40 1 1^-404^^ King Olaf charges his skalds 
to stand next 10 him in the battle, in order that they may 
sing of coming events as eye-witnesses and not from hear- 
say, 404jj('4o65 — King Olaf^s offering for the repose of the 
souls of his enemies, 4063-407^— King Olaf calls on Thormod 
Coalbrowskald to sing at the dawn of the day of the battle of 
Sticklestead, 407^-408^15 — King Olaf charges the Icelanders in 
his host to slay Ram of Vigg and his band of spies, 409^.2« 
— he arrives at Sticklestead and makes a halt, awaiting the 
company of Day, 4093^-4104 ^2^.^-^2^y^ — he orders the Up* 
landers to carry his banners and his young brother Harald to 
withdraw, which he refuses to do, 4to^.2& — ^í^irig Olaf's behest 
to the goodman of Sticklestead to look after the wounded* 
4iOgg-4rij^ — his charge to the troops and explanation of his 
tactics, 41 11^-41 1^ — his standard borne by Thord son of Foli, 
412^5-4134 — his armour and weapons in the battle, 4137.31 — 
King Olaf has yet a dream, which Finn Arnison aredes aB be- 
tokening the king's death, 41307-414 — Olaf accepts the war 
service of Arnliot Gellini after having christened him, 415- 
4i6|y^ — altercation between Olaf and Kalf son of Ami» 4*^14- 
42 7jj— the battle of Sticklestead, fall of Olaf, 4271,^-434 
44*20 81 — Thorir Hound gives him lyke-help and is h^ed by 
his blood, 435^,20^^^^^ body is hidden away in an outhouse 
at Sticklestead by Thorgils son of Hal ma and his son Grim, 
444j.ii— then, lest it should be discovered, they hide it away 
in a neighbouring meadow, 44534.31 — ^^^ n^^ make a chest 
for it and carry it on board a boat, hiding it below deck, placing 
a dummy coffin on deck filled with straw and stones, 447^-4485 
— at Nidoyce they hand the false chest to K. Olaf's enemies, 
who sink it into the deep of the FÍrth^ while Thorgils and his 
son take the chest with the king*s body up the river N id and 
land it at the spot called Saurlithe, and wake it in a lonely out- 
house, 448g.jg — failing to persuade friends of the dead king to 
take charge of his body, they bring it further up the river and 
bury it by night in a sandhill on the bank, and go back toj 


Index I 153 

Sticklestead, 4482^-4497 — the holiness of K. Olaf begins to take 
hold of peoples' minds, 45 2^.^^ ^^^ 45321-27 454415— ^^i^gOlaf 's 
body is unearthed and * buried in earth at Clement's Church,' 
4554-17 — *^"^^ when twelve months and five nights were worn 
from the death ' of the king * his holy relic was taken up ' 
(translatio) and his body was placed over the high altar in 
Clement's Church, 45517-4572 iii- 93ö7 — churches reared on 
sites where the body of the king had been placed, 4575^ — 
miracles reported by Thorarin Praisetongue, 45814-46014 — 
calculation of Olaf's regnal years, 46017-4612 — his miracles to 
be written in chronological order (not in a bulk), 4611^.13 — 
Queen Astrid's devotion to his memory, iii. 4i8-585 — Swedes 
discontented at the result of their alliance with Olaf, 431.88 — 
Sigvat's lament on the fall of Olaf, 125.14 — enshrinement, 
many miracles at the shrine, 163-174 — Thorgeir Fleck's re- 
flections on Olaf's death, 195.15 — Olaf's traitors punished, 
2 1 1^26 — Olaf's holiness and miracles known over all lands 
(A.D. 1042), 2814.1^—* Glad,' a bell given by K. Olaf to St. 
Clement's Church in Nidoyce, 3524.20 — ^- Olaf's axe *Hell* 
borne by Magnus, his son, 361^ — K. Magnus' trust in the 
power of his father as intercessor, 3924.20 — appears to Harald 
Hardredy when taken to prison in Constantinople, promising 
his help, 73i5.i7 — a chapel built and hallowed to Olaf, in the 
street where he appeared to Harald, 7317.^ — gave his son 
Magnus a ring for a parting gift, 8613.20 — ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ '^^^^^ 
clipped by K. Magnus, 8728.28 — foreshadows in a dream King 
Magnus' death, 9023-917 — K. Magnus' dead body brought to 
his father, 9213.13 933.7 — K, Olaf's Yelic kept in Olaf's church 
while Mary church was building, 1053.3— the evil resulting 
from the treason against Olaf held out as a warning to people 
driven to despair by Harald Hardredy's tyranny, 11310.12— 
K. Olaf's rule to have only one earl in the country followed 
as a principle by K. Harald, 11 63.5 — Olaf's wake, 1242 4677.3 
— miracle at the battle between K. Margath and Guthorm 
Gunnhild's son, 1 243.33 — a certain count in Denmark struck 
blind by a miracle of Olaf's, 1251.30 — Olaf's mass in Den- 
mark, 12531 — * cripple of Valland healed by going, at 
Olaf's behest, to a church consecrated to him in London, 
1 261.30— Olaf 's shrine never opened after a.d. 1066, when 
Harald Hardredy threw the keys of it into the river Nid, 

or £. 

10 be 
imf tn úm Votm oo tfee idd* of ff^n% 4S9^r4^t—K. 

OL^ufnÍEáHAVER TO^ trélc^pa 
oí imtim, wem hj ím matibm imoi 
fafter4ltfeef'i, in W«« Cími!mhI> L 62^^j 

lo hk iktiiei^ tiflgðoBt bf tlic awedcs, md so 
the colo«n£Ítig King of Vermlaad bf cÍBttráig tl^ 

iricfcMiiMid Tree-^iimvs' for hk ttoabl^ 65^^ 
Solf«% diuigliier of fbraœ ^^ 
'^ ^Spm^^ death, 6^^ 
TR\ )H (0. Tri^gvasofiX Knig oT Nomr, 

995 fóöo, %oít i4 Tiyagvi tbe son of Olaf Geiistead^lf aiKÍ 
oí Ami id^ d of Eric BiocbalcaJli^ i. 225^. ,^^ iL 89^ — mairieci 
i^ Oeírat d* of K. Burialaf ín Wendland, 252^^—2, Gyda 
the Enictinh, 266,^j ; tbeir «on Tiyggvi, ii 463^^ — 5, GtidmÐf 
d. of Jam»kisggí, 331^1^ — 4^ Thyri, d. of K, Hamld Gormson, 
35^fT*} — '^*^'^ ***" Iiarald, died in childhood, 355i|^^^ 
foufid^ of the town of Nídoyce, 6j(>— fell wellnigh eighty 
yeui before the death (toSo) of bp Isleif, 6^^ 

Born on a holm in a certain water where his mother kept 
in hiding froni Gunnhild'a sons after the murder of her bus> 
hntui, a33|^|t — lives his fim year in hiding with his mother 
At hin grand fa therms, ii^^g^zt^^^ — adv'enturous ðight out of 
Ntjrway to Sweden to lijikon the Old, where Okf was wel- 
comed and where he lojourned 



Index I 155 

failure of Gunnhild's plan to fetch Olaf from Sweden in order 
to be fostered by her, 22733-22824 — taken captive on a journey 
to Russia and sold for a slave when three years old, in 
which condition he lived for six years, 2 2820-2 292P — he is ran- 
somed from slavery by Sigurd, his mother's brother, and 
brought to Holmgarth, 22923-230^ — he slays Klerkon, the 
murderer of his foster-father, and is protected by the queen 
of Holmgarth, Allogia, who atones the manslaughter and 
brings it about that King Valdimar entertains Olaf at his 
court for nine years, till he was eighteen years old, 23O12- 
23124 — personal description, 23135^ — youth and manhood: 
held in high favour at court, he was appointed captain of the 
king's forces, had some battles and his command was success- 
ful, 2504,19 — his free living and bounty to his men, 25013.23 — 
slandered to the King, he loses favour and leaves Russia, 
dropping his proper name and calling himself Oli the Garth- 
realmer, 25023.33-25122 26229.31 — makes a raid on Borgund- 
holm and gains a battíe there, 25123.27 — driven from Borgund- 
holm by storms he sails to Wendland and in the winter weds 
Geira, the daughter of K. Burislaf, 2 5 23-2 5 3^ — he subdues 
certain countries in Wendland that had broken away from the 
rule of his wife, 2549.ig — next spring he carried war into Skaney 
and came ofif victorious, 25419.33 — thence he sailed east to the 
island of Gothland and gained the day in two engagements, 
254^4-2553 — Olaf joins the Emperor Otto II. on an expedition 
against Denmark, 25511.15 26011.12 — when he had been three 
winters in Wendland Geira, his wife, died and Olaf took to his 
ships, warfaring in Friesland, Saxland and Flanders, 26021- 


Olaf in the West. — From Flanders he sailed to England, 
northward to Northumberland, thence to Scotland, to the 
Southern Isles, to Man, to sundry parts of Ireland, to Wales, 
to Cumberland, to Valland (N.W. of France), and carried 
war into all these lands for four years, 26115.26 — ^^^^ \^<^ to 
England and comes to the Scilly Islands, where he falls in 
with a soothsayer who converts him to Christianity, 2612«- 
26412 — leaves the Scillies and goes to the mainland of England, 
where he meets Gyda, a daughter of K. Olaf Kuaran of 
Dublin, to whom, after a successful duel with a rival, Alfwin, 
he is married, and they abide in turn in England and 


Index I 

Ireland, 26415-166^1 — Olaf purchases the dog Vigi for a golden 
ring in a foraging' raid in Ireland, 266^^-26715 — ^^^ Hakon 
commissions Thorir Klakka to betray Olaf, iSS^g-aSgi^ — Olaf 
Tryggvison and Thorir Klakka, 28913*291 

Olaf, King of Norway. From information received from 
Thorir Klakka, Olaf broke up from Dublin and set sail for 
the east, touching Sodor, the Orkneys, where he christened 
Earl Sigurd H lod verso n, and making Most isle, oflT South- 
Hordknd in Norway, 2890^-29113 cf* ii. 1691^^.37 180^10 — 
keeping bis identity and errand secret, he sailed north day 
and night till he hove into Thrandheim-firth and encountered 
and slew Erland the son of Earl Hakon, 29114^3, 2953,2« — 
Olaf proclaimed king provisionally by the yeomen of Thrand- 
heim flocking to him, 296^^ — goes to Rimul in Gauldale, 
where Earl Hakon was hiding in a hole beneath a swine-sty, 
and from a stone close by that sty harangues his following, 
and sets prbe on Hakon 's head, 296y^iý^has Hakon's thril 
Kark beheaded at Ladir for the murder of his master, the 
Earl, 297g.^5^01af proclaimed legally at Ere- Thing king 
over all Norway, 2993,^— went that winter and the next summer 
through the land receiving the allegiance of the people, 299^- 
300^ — he christens the people of the Wick, dreadfully mis- 
handling those who opposed him, 5O2g-303ig--thence be went 
west to Agdir, and christened the people there, 303,gj»3' — ^from 
Agdir he went north into Rogaland, and had a meeting with 
the * bonders * whose pre-concerted opposition failed, and all 
those who attended the meeting were christened, Z'^A\€^y^%^ 
—next he proceeded to the Gulathing in Hordland to mee^H 
the mighty kindred of Hordakari, who had made among themlH 
selves a plan to resist all forced conversion^ but accorded to 
the king's will when he consented to marry his sister Astrid 
to Erling of Soli, the great-grandson of Hordakari, 303HJ- 
3*^4 ]fl 3°^3"3^73& — ^^ confers on Erling dominion from Sogn 
to Lidandisness on Harald Hairfair's terms, 308^1^ ii, ajg,^ — 
in the same autumn Olaf summons to a meeting at Dragseid 
on the peninsula of Stad» the representatives of Sogn, the 
Firths, South mere and Raumsdale, and awes them into con- 
version to Christianity by superiority of force, 3081^-3094 — 
then he christens the folk of North- Mere, 309^^ — ^he breaks 
down and burns the temple of Ladir, and appropriates all 


Index I 157 

the wealth thereof, and burns the ruin, 309^12 — rebellion 
threatened in Thrandheim, 30913.15 — Olaf sets sail out of 
Thrandheim for Halogaland to christen people there, and 
on hearing that a war-host was out there to meet him he 
turns south along the land all the way to the Wick, 30915.39 — 
Olaf and Queen Sigrid the Haughty of Sweden become be- 
trothed, 3103.9 — Olaf sends her the great gold ring he had 
taken from the temple door of Ladir, and, to Sigrid's great 
indignation, it proves all brass inside, 3109.29 — betrothal 
violently broken off, 31 1 24-31 2^2 — Ringrealm christened, King 
Sigurd Syr and his family converted, Olaf Haraldson (the 
Holy) baptized, 31030-311 17 — from Ringrealm Olaf goes into 
residence at Tunsberg in the Wick, 31I17.20 — his dealings 
there with wizards and spellworkers, 31218-31314 — he levies a 
war-host out from the Wick to go into the north country (/>., 
Thrandheim), and, passing through Agdir, proceeds, late in 
Lent, to Rogaland, and arrives at Ogvaldsness for his Easter- 
feast, with nigh 360 men, 31317.20 — his dealings with his kins- 
man the wizard Eyvind Wellspring (they were both great- 
grandsons of Harald Hairfair), 31213-31314 28"3^425 — ^"^g 
Olaf and Odin (a legend), 31428*31614 — he draws a host 
together against the Thrandheimers, but being faced at 
Frosta-Thing by an overwhelming armed multitude, and 
stoutly opposed, especially by Iron-Skeggi, he temporizes 
with the franklins, putting matters off till the midsummer 
sacrifice at Mere, 3 1617-3 183 — gives a great feast at Ladir 
to the mightiest men of Thrandheim, and at a busting de- 
clares that at the forthcoming; sacrifice at Mere he will have 
eleven (or rather twelve) chiefs of Thrandheim sacrificed 
to the gods, so all the assembled guests took Christianity on 
oath, and gave hostages in security of their good faith, 3185- 
31922 — ^At the Thing of Mere the bonders through Iron-Skeggi 
declared they would not be christened; so Olaf agreed to go 
with them into the temple, where he and his men smote down 
the images, slew Iron-Skeggi, and made ready to fight, where- 
upon all the heathen congregation let itself be christened, 
giving hostages to the king, and in a short time all Thrand- 
heim was converted to Christianity, 3 1925-3 21 is — Olaf founds 
the town of Nidoyce, 69.11 3212129 ii. 5019.22 — atones the slay- 
ing of Iron-Skeggi by marrying his daughter Gudrun, who 


Index I 


makes an attempt on his life the first night of their bridal 
and never joined the king again, 32 2^,^^ — Olaf causes a great 
war galley, 'The Crane,* to be built, 52 a^^.^ — Olaf sends 
Thangbrand to Iceland to christen the people, jas^.^^ — **^^"g 
Olafs way of kidnapping Harek of Thiotia and Eyvind Rent- 
cheek, 324-3282{> — Olaf christens Halogaland, 328.23-3295- 
ZZ^^-ti. 333ar334s^^i^ dealings with Thorir Hart and Raud 
the Strong, 329nr33öí6 33*5-3332«— J^^^tims from Halogaland 
in autumn^ and spends the winter in Nidoyce, 3333^334^*^^ 
King Olaf and the Icelanders in Nidoyce, 334io-340|^ — King 
Olafs accomplishments and character, 340^^^-341^^ cf. iL 191^^- 
19%^ — Olaf christens Leif the son of Eric the Red, 341 ifl^^^- 
causes the Long- Worm to be built, 3434-3455 cf. iii. 2S32<>^ 
— ^Olaf marries Thyri the sister of K. Svein Twibeard, the run- 
away queen of K, Burislaf^ 3S%3i — is urged by Thyri to 
claim her dominions in Wendland, to which he reluctantly 
consents, 350^^-35183 — his levy for the Wendland expedition, 
352^-3547 — ^sends Gizur the White and Hiaiti Skeggison to 
christen Iceland, and Leif Ericson the Lucky on the same 
errand to Greenland, 354i„.25 3S58 vy-^-Ws son Harald dies a 
year old, 355-jo8o^'^^ arranges for the betrothal of his sister 
Ingibiorg to Earl Rognvald of West-Gautland, 3 5015-35 7.,^, — 
marriage effected in his lifetime, ii. 237.10 — ^^ goes with stxty 
longships to Wendland and settles his claims with King 
Bnrislaf, and spends much of the summer there, i. 358^^— 
alliance against Olaf, at the instigation of Sigrid the Haughty, 
arranged between Sweden and Denmark, joined by Earl Eric 
the son of Hakon, 3582ö"3^^íj 3^4^^ ze ^^^ ^*- 98^,^— Olaf led 
into a trap by Earl Sigvaldi of Jomsburg, 360^-362 ^^ — his 
enemies' comments on the appearance of his fleet, 362^^-364,2, 
— King Olaf scorns flying away for overwhelming odds, 365 j^.^^ 
—the battle of Svoldr, 366.374^^ ii, 26^,y — ^'^'^Z 01^ jumps 
overboard, various theories about his end, 374j4'3778 cf, ii. 
2i|g 2 2 in gSpj.g — his example urged as a warning to Olaf 
Haraldson by K* Sigurd Syr 40341.^11 ^^ ^ri encouragement by 
his mother Asia 41 mo — adverse comments on his reign by 
Rœrek King of Heathmark, 43217 — ^^^ policy copied by Olsif 
Haraldson, 4729-31 ^^^ ^7 20-31 — '^^^ ^'s example serves him as 
a warning not to engage too rashly in a íight, 330j^^ — he 
counsels Olaf the Holy in a dream to reconquer Norway, jSi^^- 

OLA— OLv] Index I 159 

38311 — Sigvat presses his example on K. Magnus the Good, 

OLAF THE UNLUCKY ('O. ógæfa, lit. Ill-luck), son of Gud- 
brand the son of Shavehew and Maria, d. of K. Eystein the 
son of EL Magnus Barefoot, fostered by Sigurd Bait-hat in 
the Uplands, iii. 47417.20 — 01^^ and Gudbrand raise the 
standard of revolt against Erling Askew and his son K. Mag- 
nus, Olaf being proclaimed king by the Uplanders, 47420^ — 
his dealings with Erling, fights at Rydiokul and Stangs, in 
both of which Olaf is worsted, 47424-47720 — ^ death and 
burial-place, 47720 28 
OLAF THE WHITE ('O. hviti) (King of Dublin), i. 1161Í.20 
OLI GARTHREALMER ('Oli gerzki), an incognito name 
assumed by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 26231 26511 28825 29 289^2 20 

28 26 

OLMOD (OlmóíSr), son of Horda Kari, i. 3033^ — treats with 
Olaf Tryggvison to have Hordland converted to Christianity 
on condition of his grand-nephew Erling Skialgson obtaining 
in marriage Astrid, the king's sister, 3043.13 3063-30790 

OLVER (Ólvir), the name of three goodmen in West-Gautland, 
who, each in his turn, refused night quarters to Sigvat, ii. 

OLVIR MICKLEMOUTH (O. mikilmunnr), his deed of 
valour at the siege of Kings' Rock by the Wend King Rettibur, 

"»• 32826-32982 

OLVIR OF EGGJA (Ö. á Eggju, nom. Egg, a form which for 
obvious reasons was discarded), son of Thrand o' Chin, married 
to Sigrid d. of Thorir, ii. 19825.2a; ^^eir sons: Thorir, 341 5 
and Griotgarth, 3443 — heads a number of goodmen sum- 
moned from Upper-Thrandheim to answer charges of per- 
formances of heathen sacrifices brought against them by King 
Olaf Haraldson, 1933- 1949 — meets the King again on similar 
charges, 19418-19520 — set upon at Mere by King Olaf and 
killed, 19632-1974 16.18 — the King judges that he shall not be 
atoned for, and confiscates all his property, 1985.7 — his widow, 
Sigrid, given by the King in marriage to Kalf, son of Ami 
Arnmodson, 1 9825-1 99^ — his slaying made use of by Sigrid for 
turning Kalf into a traitor to K. Olaf, ii. 3742-37614 

OLVIR THE SAGE (Ö. hinn spaki). King Halfdan the Black's 
foster-father, falls in fight with the sons of Gandalf, i. 8019 


Index I 

[ONA — ON! 


ONAR ('Onarr), the father of Earth (therefore a giant), i 

cf. S.E.J 1. 330i3 

ONUND (Ónundr), earl of the Sparbiders and father of Ketil 

Jannti, L 163, 


ONUND, son of Eystein the Mighty or the Evil, set ruler over 
Isles*-folk and Spar-biders-folkj when they were subdued by 
Eystein, slain by the Thrandheimers, i. loij^^j 

ONUND, a name given to James or Jacob, son of K, Olaf the 
Swede, on the day he was elected king when ten or twelve 
years old, ii. 165172^5 (cf. James) — surrounds himself with a 
bodyguard, appoints capiains^ etc., 16534.33— remained J^**"^ 
king of Sweden with his father till the latter's death, loi^jj^ioo- 
210^1— enters an alliance with Olaf Haraldson of Norway, 
offensive and defensive, against KnuE the Mighty, 256^-257^ 
— resists King Knut's attempts to draw hini from that alUance, 
257^.3^— his progress with 5,000 men over West-Gatilland and 
arrangement with Olaf of Norway to have a tryst next spring 
at Kings'-Rock, 26711 ^j^—cordiaj meeting with Norway's king 
at Kings'-Rock — secret treaty of alliance in view of King 
Knut of Denmark's attitude, ^^1x^\.ix 2i( 268^^return into 
West Gautland, 268^^-^ harries the east coast of Skanefj 
with a large fleet at the same time that Olaf of Nor^'ay ii 
vades Sealand* 31213.^5 — ^he and Olaf join forces, declare their 
intention to take Denmark, and subdue wide tracts of that 
realm, ^i^j^'JiJig — hearing of Knut*s arrival from the west 
they harry Skaney, 3 19^^-3 2 o^—^ battle at the Holy River, 320^- 
3^326 — ^^ retires from the war with Knut after being deserted 
by the main body of his fleet, 3232ö'325iö 327is^32^ft — meets 
K, Olaf on his return from Russia and gives him cordial wel 
come, 3^74,1^ — his somewhat tardy aid to his broth er-in-lavr 
for the re*conquest of Norway, 39 1 y.25 

ONUND, by-named ROAD-ONUND {Braut-Ommdr), King 
of Sweden, son of K. Yngvar, and father of Ingiald Evil- 
heart, avenged his father on the Esthonians, caused wild 
woodlands to be colonized, made roads throughout the 
countryj whence his by-oame, and built royal manors in every 
shire, i. 547,53-551 — ruled over many shire or district kings, 
SSiw^his death, 5 614^5 7^^ 

ONUND, son of Simon the son of Thorberg, iii. %*i%^ — a 
foster-brother and follower of Hakon Shoulder broad, 399^11 

ORK — ott] Index I i6i 

— with Hakon when defeated in the battle of Tunsberg, 43932- 
440^2 — takes an active part in Hakon's last expedition against 
Erling Askew, 44ie.11 44225-28 444i5i7 — ^^ one of the chiefs 
who keep together the following of Hakon after his fall, 44715.19 
— (he joins the party of Markus o* Shaw and Sigurd, the brother 
of Hakon Shoulderbroad, and on its dispersion by Erling) 
took to the main sea, but turned to land when opportunity 
offered, and robbed and slew Erling's men, 4595.11 — entrapped 
by Erling in a certain haven, he escapes and flies to Den- 
mark, 46021-461]^ 
ORKDALERS, Orkdale folk, men of Orkdale (Orkndœlir, 
Orkdœlir), inhabitants of Orkdale, in Thrandheim, Norway, 

i. 999 ii. 4724 4^28 

ORKNEYINGS (Orkneyingar), ii. lóSjg 

ORM, the son of Eilif, iii. 35 15; see Worm, son of Eilif. 

ORM King's-brother, iii. 4752 47^26^ see^oxm King's-brother. 

ORNOLF RIND (Órnólfr skorpa), he and others rob and 
slay the friends of Erling Askew, iii. — caught by Erling 
in a certain harbour in the Wick he escapes and flees to 
Denmark, 46022 4619.10 

OSPAK, see Uspak. 

OTTA (Otta), /.^., Ordulf, Duke of Saxland, />., of Brunswick, 
1062-1073, married to Ulfhild, d. of K. Olaf the Holy, joins 
K. Magnus the Good, his brother-in-law, with a large follow- 
ing, to fight the Wends at Lyrshaw-heath, iii. 3410.14 — urges 
the King to fight the Wends in spite of their overwhelming 

Oáá&y 3428-29 

OTTAR BALLI ('Ottarr balli), the son of Asolf of Rein and 
Thora d. of Skopti, joins other chiefs of Thrandheim in pro- 
claiming Sigurd, the son of Harald Gilli, king, iii. 34728-3485 

OTTAR BRIGHTLING ('O. birtingr), a bonder's son, and a 
candleswain at the court of K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, receives 
high reward from the King for fearlessly rebuking him and 
unflinchingly braving a threatened punishment for it, iii. 28817- 
291^ — joins other chiefs in Thrandheim in proclaiming king 
Sigurd the son of Harald Gilli, 34728-34^2 — ^^^ conciliatory 
reply to K. Ingi's appeal to his brother to share with him in 
due measure the cost of safe-guarding the peace of the realm, 
35922-36 ig — married Queen Ingirid, the widow of Harald 
Gilli, 3690.7 — disliked by K. Sigurd for his leanings towards 

VI. M 

Index I 

[OTT 02U 

!h% K Ingi, 369s isr— his fall, 3'^9ia it 377i2— l^i^ son, 
RutHan, 369,^ 

K SWART ('O* svarti), or the Blacky the son of a sister 

. ^. w I'hurdson, ii. i48,^.g,^^an IceL poet, sang a song on 

KilifE t)laf the Holy (Höfuíilausn, head -ran some), iL Sj^^ 

^i«^íí'*í!* "So^sö ^^xV'B i7ri& '^T-u ^^3u-^«4 *9is M 2s-3<^i 311^» 
—41 Uvoured court poet to Olaf, King of Sweden, 911^^ 
1 4 R^jj— receives Hialti Skeggison with greM kindness, and 
Ui^ictluT with Gizur the Swart introduces him to the King^ 
^hn *Hi« in ^^^ ^^^^1 ^^ to Ingigerd, the king's daughter, 95ifrn 
-mcksi eagerly Hialti^s suit for the hand of Ingigerd on be- 
tiAJt of thu King of Norway, 1014,10 — ^^ ^^ hoXd of speech 
mid fond of great lords, loi^^ — his song on the overthrow of 
ihii conspiring Upland kings by Olaf Haraldson, loS^g-iog^ 
—in the year following on the death of King OM of Sweden 
he comes to King Olaf of Norway praying to be allowed to 
become his henchman, aio^^j^— his drapa on Knut the Mightf 
t|iioted, 323^.^^ 

iVn AR VENDILCROW ('O. Vendilkraka), son of K. Egil, 
King of Sweden^ — his dealings with K. Frodi, invasion of 
Denmark^ and ignominious end, i, 473.^7 1^-48 

irrrAK, V^xl of East-Gautland, falls in a battle with Eui 
liakon of Ladir, i. 258.^-2592 

OrrO (^Otta), Bishop, (half-) brother of William the Bastard, 
ttt:com panics William on his expedition 10 England, iii. 180^ 

OrrO ('Olta) II., Roman emperor (973-983), invades Denmark 
10 force Chnstianity on that kingdom, Í, 253^^.^! ^55n ib ^S^&' 
3 57i i^m— peace concluded and the Danes and Earl Hakon 
of Ladir's host christened, 257.^-258,, — reported to have been 
gossip to Svein, the son of Haraldi from whom he parted 
friends, 26oji.g 

OTTO SVEIN, the name that some people say was given by 
Kaisar Otto to Svein Twi beard at his baptism, i. 260^ 

OUTER'THRANDHEIMERS ('Ut þrændir), 1, lyoj^ (^^ g,) 

OZUR (Ozurr), Archbishop of Lund in Skaney, sends word to 
tiie people of Kings'-Rock to be on their guard agaij)5t the 
Wends, iii, 326^7 .j^ 

OZUR» a rich bonder of Rising, speaks tip for the Hising* 
dwellers at a Thing held by Erling Askew, iii. 459^^ — Erling 
iGti fire to his hotise and burns him therein, iti. 46 07 


ozu — phi] Index I 163 

OZUR, son of Agi, the foster-father of Thyri, sister of Svein 
Twibeard, accompanies her to her forced marriage with King 
Burislaw in Wendland, and aids her in running away from 
her husband, i. 349i9-350i8 

OZUR, the father of Ivar who was taken prisoner by King 
Harald Gilli's men, iii. 32 3^^ ge 

OZUR TOT (Ó. toti), of Halogaland, the father of Gunnhild 
Kings'-mother, i. 12^^^ 13O20-28 

PALNATOKI (i.e. Tóki son of Pálni), a lord among the vikings 
of Jomsburg, aids Svein Twibeard, son of Harald Gormson 
in his rebellion against his father, and fights with him the 
battle in which Harald came by his death, i. 2707.17 

PAUL (Pall), son of Andreas, charged with treason by Erling 
Askew, iii. 4691.4 

PAUL, married to a daughter of Aslak the son of Erling of 
Soli, father of Hakon Pungelta, iii. 3567 

PAUL FLIP (P. flipr), son of Sæmund Housewife and of 
Ingibiorg, d. of priest Andres, iii. 3252 

PAUL, son of Skopti, father of Nicoal Periwinkle, iii. 47727 

PAUL, son of Thorfin, Earl of Orkney, father to Hakon his 
successor in the earldom, when Sigurd Jerusalem-farer suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom in Norway, iii. 24814.20 — ^joins King 
Harald Hardredy's expedition to England, 1662.4— one ^^ 
those left behind to guard the ships at Stamford Bridge when 
Harald marched out for York, 17013.20 — arrested by King 
Magnus Barefoot and sent east to Norway, 2211^.17 — buried 
in Biorgvin, 22525 

PEACE-FRODI (Fri«fró«i), see Frodi. 

PERMS, inhabitants of lands round the White Sea, see Biarms. 

PETER (Pétr), the Apostle, iii. 3073^ 

PETER BURDENSWAIN (P. bur^arsveinn, for the origin of 
his nickname, cf. iii. 36 1^.^), son of Sheep- Wolf, father of Wolf 
Fly and Sigrid, iii. 10412.13 — one of the chiefs in Thrandheim 
who combined to proclaim Sigurd, the son of King Harald 
Gilli, king on the death of his father, 34728-34^8 — carries the 
Child-King Sigurd Haraldson to a Thingmote at Nidoyce, 
36ig.11— one of the torturers of Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, 3663.^ 

PHILIPPUS, the son of Seed-Gyrd, iii. 32933-3301 foster-brother 
of K. Sigurd Mouth, son of Harald, 39180-3^ — outlawed for 
having abetted King Eystein, son of Harald, m acts of arson. 


Index I 

[phi — RAG 

39^i(Ms — ftgiits on the side of Hakon Shoulderbroad in his 
last battle with Erling Askew, 441 nit — niakes peace with 
Erling Askew, but is afterwards slawi by the men of Earl 
Sigurd of ReyTp 4503^^ 

PHILIP, Earl, son of EaxJ Birgir Ðrosa and Brigida, d. of Harald Gilli, iii. 3794^ 

PHILIPPUS IN HERDLA, son of Ami of Stodram and 
Queen Ingirid, lii- 370^^^ 

PHILIPPUS, the son of Peter, fights on the side of Hakon 
Shoalder broad in his last battle with Erling Askew, iiL 441^5 

POPPO, missionar)' bishop, converts Harald Gormson to 
Christianity under the ægis of the Roman Emperor, i, 257,^^ 

QUASIR (Kvásir), the wisest of the Vanir, given in hostage to 
the Asfolk, i, 14^ 

RAGNA, daughter of Nicolas Mew, the wife of King Eystein, 
s, of Harald GilU, iii. 3783^1 — after Eystein's death betroth^ 
to Worm ICingV Brother, the son of Ivar, 42 o.^^ 

RAGNA, daughter of Earl Worm Eilifson and Sigrid, the 
daughter of Earl Finn Arnison, married to Svein, the son of 
Svein who was a son of Eriend of Garth; the son of Svein 
and Ragna : Kyrping-Worra, the father of Erling Askew, iii. 

RAGNAR LODBROK (R. Lo^brök), l 81^— son of Sigurd 

Ring, ioS->4J2rj — 'his sons, conquerors of Northumberland^ 

RAGNAR RYCKIL (R. rykkill), son of Harald Hairfair and 
Swanhild, daughter of Eystein* King of Heathmark, i. 1 141749 

—proclaimed king by his father, 131^ 

RAGNFRID, i. 24710 ^^^ Ragnhild 

RAGMFROD (RagnfroSr), son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunn- 
hild, i. I45,i — flies, together with his mother and Gudrod his 
brother, to the Orkneys, when Hakon, the Earl of Ladir, 
becomes Harald Gorm son's viceroy of Western and Northern 
Norway, 2403^-24 1^ ^^^,^ ^434 t — ^^*^"" ^*^^ winter's stay he 
goes back with a war-host to Norway and has an indecisive 
battle with Earl Hakon in South- Mere, 24317-24430 — goes 
south beyond Stad and makes himself master of Firthland, 
Sogn, Hordland and Rogaíand, 2^^^,^^ — loses a battle with 
H^on at Thingness in Sogn, and flies away from Norway » 


rag] Index I 165 

RAGNHILD (Ragnhildr), daughter to Ami Arnmodson, 
mamed to Harek of Thiotta, ii. 19819.20 

RAGNHILD, d. of Day and sister to ' K. Ring the son of 
Day,' who had fled his land in Norway before Olaf Harald- 
son, consequently was one of the five dispossessed Upland 
kings, and had taken up his abode in Sweden, from where 
Red, Ragnhild's husband, states he had run away with her, 

ii- 3398-10 34O4-7 Cf- 39218-26 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145^ 
— ^given in marriage to Arnfinn Thorfinson, Earl of Orkney, 


RAGNHILD, daughter of Erling Askew and Kristin King's- 
daughter, wedded to Jon, the son of Thorberg, 4749.11 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, 
daughter of King Tryggvi Olafson, married to Thorberg, son 
of Arni, ii. 242^.27 ^Sog.^ — receives with open arms Stein 
Skaptison seeking refuge at her home after slaying one of 
King 01. Haraldson's stewards, 280^-28 i^j — threatens her 
husband to leave him unless he protect Stein from the king's 
wrath, 28 1 14-2 8 2^5 — sends messengers to her father to come 
to her husband's aid with his folk, a request promptly com- 
plied with, 28328-2841 

RAGNHILD, a natural daughter of Earl Hakon the Mighty of 
Ladir, married to Skopti, the son of Skagi, i. 2471Q.12 — mother 
to Earl Worm Eilifson, iii. loogj 3719.11 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Harald Goldbeard, King of Sogn, 
first wife of Halfdan the Black, with whom she had a son 
Harald; she died nine years after her marriage, i. 79^0-22 

RAGNHILD, daughter of K. Magnus Barefoot, given in 
marriage to Harald Kesia, son of Eric the Good, K. of Den- 
mark; their children, iii. 28314.17 35411-12 

RAGNHILD, daughter of K. Magnus the Good, asked for in 
marriage by Hakon Ivarson as a condition of peace with 
Harald Hardredy, iii. 11415.21 — ^^^ refuses to marry an un- 
titled man, 11510-21 — ^" ^^ death of Earl Worm Hakon is 
made earl and she becomes his wife, 1197.13 

RAGNHILD THE MIGHTY (R. hin rika), daughter of Eric, 
King of Jutland, one of Harald Hairfair's wives, i. 11412.15 28 
— lived for three years after she came to Norway, 11833-119^ 

RAGNHILD, d. of K. Sigurd Hart and of Thorny, d. of Klack- 

avaONHILD, daughter oi 
to Kyrping-Worm, theii 
Hammerer, iii. 3713.5 
RAGNIR (Rögnir), one of 
RAKNI, a legended sea-kii 
RAM OF VIGG (Hrútr ai 
K. Olaf at Sticklestead, 
I , 1 Guests, 40916-28 

^ 1 1 RAN (Ran), a goddess, wife 

RANFOLK (Rænir), inhabit 
Swedish King Eric the son o 
the lands between Swinesou 
} > I ' Eric incorporated in West Gs 

ii I against Harald Hairfair, iiO] 

•T: . RANI THIN-NEB (H. mjóneí 

■ ; Sigurd Syr (Sow), ii. 362.3 


King's fosterer (konungs fós 
*, White, and foster-brother of H 

** he flees from Grenland to th 

'^ \ 2i2ii.iy— left in command oi 

\ was murdered by Sigrid the Hi 

* I and the ships to Norway and t 

j ] of his death, 28631-2878 — he 

Harald, ii. 37^— commands Í 



» his viking wo'-^'* 

RAU — Ric] Index I 167 

to Joan son of Ami, their children Vidkunn of Birchisle, 
Sigurd Hound, Erling, and Jartrud, iii. iTh-h 

RAUD, see also Red. 

RAUD THE STRONG (Rau«r hinn rammi), of God-isle in 
Salpt-fírth in Halogaland, a wizard who had wind at will 
wherever he wanted to sail, defeated by Olaf Tryggvison in 
a great sea-battle in Halogaland, whence he fled to his home 
in God-isle, i. 32910-33O7 — cruelly put to death by Olaf Trygg- 
vison for refusing to be a Christian, 331 14-33310 — his property 
confiscated by Olaf, 333ii^6 

RAUMSDALE (The folk, they, of) (Raumsdœhr), inhabitants 
of the folkland of Raumsdale, Norway, i. 16427 30^22 

RAUMFOLK, Raumrealm folk (Raumar), the inhabitants of 
Raumrealm, ii. 209^^ iii. 1542 378^3 

RAUMI, father of Vakr of the Elf, i. 353^ 

RAZrB ARD (Raza-Bár«r), a disaffected Thrandheimer charged 
with treason by Erling Askew, and heavily fined on being 
brought to book, iii. 4691^ 

REAS, an Esthonian, buys Olaf Tryggvison as slave for a good 
coat, i. 229i5.ig — sells Olaf and Thorgils Thorolfson to Olaf's 
uncle Sigurd, son of Eric Biodaskalli, 23O5.7 

RED (RauiSr), a Swede of high degree, a dweller in the Eastern 
Dales, married to Ragnhild the daughter of Day, their sons 
Day and Sigurd, ii. 3398-3407 — receives visit from K. Olaf 
Haraldson, 33929.31 — gives the king a stately feast and relates 
his history, 3401.7 — sees the king off with great gifts, 34029.31 

REIDAR (Hrei^rr), base-born son of Erling Askew, iii. 474^ 

REINALD, Bishop of Stavanger, an Englishman, charged by 
Harald Gilli with having in his keep much wealth which had 
belonged to K. Magnus the Blind ; denying the charge Harald 
fines him heavily and on his refusing to pay the fine, has him 
hanged, iii. 3245.34 

REKON, wife of Reas the Esthonian, i. 2291^.17 

REKONI, son of Reas and his wife Rekon, Esthonians, i. 22917 

RETTIBUR, King of the Wends, ix,, Ratibor, son of Mistevin, 
Duke of Citerior Pomerania, ob. 1 151, his expedition to, and 
siege of. Kings' Rock, iii. 32627-333. 

RICHARD (Rikar^r), a priest, fearfully mutilated and mira- 
culously healed by Olaf the Holy, iii. 38111-3851^ 

RICHARD I., Duke of Normandy, 942-996, son of William I., 

1 68 Index I [ric — ^roa 

Duke of Normandy, 927-942, i. 118^ ii. sigj^^ — fttfaer to 
Queen Emma, iii. 15515 
RICHARD II., son of the preceding, Duke of Nonnandyy 996- 
1026, i. 1 1827 ii. 2\^ 30 — the 'father' of Queen Emma, iriio 
* was the mother of King Edward,' is a mistaken statement 
by Snorri; he was the brother, not the father of the Queen, 

i"- i55i5 

RIG (Rigr), father to Danp, the first who bore the title of king 
in the tongue of the Danes, i. 31 14.15 

RIMHILD, married to Knut, son of Svein of Jadar, and mother 
to Svein, iii. 2991^17 

RING (Hringr), son of Day, who was the son of Ring, the sod 
of Harald Hairfair, ii. 340^7 39220-28 brother to K. Roerek, 
whom Olaf the Holy blinded, both of the kin of Handd 
Hairfair, joint kings of Heathmark, iL 4X20^ — declares in 
favour of Olaf Haraldson, whom he urges the other Upland 
kings to aid towards obtaining the over-kingship of Norway, 
4328"44i8 — \^^^^ tbe other four Upland kings in a conspiracy 
against Olaf for his cruelty to heathen Uplanders, 103^-106 
— is laid hands on together with his feUow-conspirators at 
Ringacre by King Olaf, who banished him from the land to- 
gether with two of the Upland kings, 1083^ — he goes to 
Sweden and secures for himself dominion there, V^^^|^ — 
after taking up his abode in Sweden, his sister Ragnhildnins 
away from him with Red of the Eastern Dales, 3399.10 34(Vt 

RING DAYSON of Ringrealm, father to Ashild, one of Harald 
Hairfair's wives, i. 11419 

RING, son of Harald Hairfair and Ashild daughter of Ring 
Dayson, i. 11 420 — made king by his father, 131J0 — ^father to 
Day, whose son was King Ring of Heathmark, whom K. Olaf 
Haraldson drove away, ii. 39218.03 

RINGFOLK (Hringar), the inhabitants of Ringrealm, iL 413^ 
iii. i54i9 

ROADONUND, see Onund. 

ROALD (Hróaldr), father of Thorir * hersir ' the foster-father of 
Eric Blood-axe, i. 11 93 1281^ 

ROALD LONGTALK (H. langtala), Priest, sent by the 
people of Tunsberg to obtain a truce for them from Erling 
Askew, iii. 43924-28 — urges the condemnation of Earl Sigurd 
of Reyr, 4500.5 

ROA — rœ] Index I 169 

RO ALD RIG (Roald and Rig, i. 1 1 1 ^^ is a misprint), (H. hryggr), 
lord of Thelmark, joined the kings of Hordland, Rogaland 
and Agdir, and fought against Harald Hairfair in the battle of 
Hafursfirth, from which he apparently escaped by flight, i. 

ROBERT LONGSWORD (Ro«bert löngumspa«i), />. R.I., 
the 'Magnificent' or Me Diable,' duke of Normandy, 1027- 
i03Si son of Richard II., 996-1026, nephew to Queen Emma 
and father of William theConqueror, i. i iSggii. 2 124-25"^- ^ SSu-ie 
The by-name * löngumspa^i ' (longspade), a mistranslation 
of * Longa spatha ' (longsword) Snorri transfers from duke 
William I. to his great-grandson. The statement ii. 21 23.26 that 
while the Earls Eric and Svein sons of Hakon, and Hakon 
Ericson ruled in Norway, />. 1000- 1 01 5, there reigned in 
Normandy *two Earls, William and Robert,' is incorrect, 
during that period there ruled in Normandy Richard II. 
alone, 996-1026. His brother Robert was Abp of Rouen, 

RODI (Róíi), a legendary sea-king, ii. 5733 

RŒREK (Hrœrekr), (son of Day, who was the son of Ring, 
the son of Harald Hairfair), brother to K. Ring, * both of the 
kin of Harald Hairfair,' and joint kings over Heathmark, ii. 
4120^ — refuses to join the four kings of the Uplands in lend- 
ing his kinsman, Olaf Haraldson, his aid towards obtaining 
the over-kingship of Norway, 421Q-4327 — roused by Olaf's mis- 
handling of heathen Uplanders, he joins the other four Up- 
land kings in a conspiracy to slay Olaf, for which purpose they 
kept assembled at Ringacre in Heathmark, 103-106 — betrayed 
by Ketil of Ringness, and laid hands on at Ringacre together 
with his fellow-conspirators by King Olaf, who had him blinded 
and kept a prisoner at his court, 107-10821 12314.19 — his un- 
happy stay at Olaf's court and plottings against Olaf's men 
and his life, 12314-126^ 9-132 — his journey to Iceland, stay 
at Thorgils Arison's, at Gudmund of Maddermeads', at Calf- 
skin, where he died, i34ao"i3688 — *the only king that rests 
in Iceland,' 136331371 

RŒREK, son of Harald Hairfair and, apparently, Gyda, the 
daughter of King Eric of Hordland, i. 1 149 — was kept at his 
father's court, but had large bailiwicks about Hordland (and 
Sogn ?) 13127.29 

lyo Index I [rog 

ROGALANDERS, men of Rogaland (Rygir), inhabitaiits of 
the district of Rogaland, i. iii^ iL aiy^i 2i3|3 433u 43iit 
iii. 30121 

ROGER, King of Sicily, gives King Sigurd Jerusalan-fiurer a 
hearty welcome on his arrival in Sicily — ^is given the title of 
King of Sicily by Sigurd, 255^2^— wins ^ Apulia and many 
other islands in the Greekland main — called Roger the Rich, 


Roger II. bore the title of Count of Sicily, i loi-i 130; hewas 
crowned King of Sicily in 11 30 by the Antipope Anadetos 
II., he reigned, as K. Roger I., till 1 154. On the death of his 
cousin William, Roger secured the possession of the dukedom 
of Apulia, 1 1 27. At the time of K. Sigurd's visit in SSdty, 
1 109, Roger was only twelve years of age and a ward of the 
regent Count Robert of Burgimdy. This is the Roger to which 
our text refers by mistake. But the Roger that entertained K. 
Sigurd and by him was proclaimed king on New Year's Day 
mo, was Roger Bursa, son of Rob. Guiscard by a seocod 
wife, Duke of Apulia, who died mi. In the ' Man-matching * 
between Kgs. Sigurd and Eystein the Cod. Frisianus, ^^yy^ 
makes Sigurd say: 'I went to Jerusalem and touched at 
Apulia ... I gave the title of king to Earl Roger the Mighty;' 
Morkinskinna (1873) and Hulda (Fms. vii. 123^) have: 'I 
went to Jerusalem and touched at Apulia,' no mention being 
made of Sicily. Cf. Munch, N.F.H., ii. 579, note 4. 

ROGNVALD (Rögnvaldr), one of *five' kings who fell with 
Eric Bloodaxe, i. 154^2 

ROGNVALD of Ærwick, commands in Svein Hakonson's 
division of Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorungwkk 
against the Jomsvikings, i. 27701 

ROGNVALD, son of Brusi, Earl of Orkney 1012-1045» iL 
i74io — goes with his father to Norway, 17924^ — left at the 
court of K. Olaf Haraldson when Brusi became the King's 
Earl over Orkney, 1862J.20 1871.2 — ^personal description, i87jjf 
— accompanies K. Olaf in his flight out of Norway, 3691 — 
removes Harald Sigurdson wounded from the battlefield di 
Sticklestead to a 'bonder' to tend his wounds, 4381.11 iiL 
57i9-2i — sojourned in Sweden for a time after the battle of 
Sticklestead, 589 

ROGNVALD, son of Henry Halt and Queen Ingirid, brother' 


Index I 171 

of Worm King's Brother and of K. Magnus of Sweden, iii. 
hæri), King of Westfold, son of Olaf Geirstead-Elf, i. 331.22 


ROGNVALD, son of K. Ingi of Sweden, the son of Steinkel, 
father to Ingirid the Queen of Harald Gilli, iii. 3142425 

ROGNVALD KALI, son of Kol [by Gunnhild d. of the Ork- 
ney Earl Erlend Thorfinson], Earl of Orkney, 1135-1158, 
joins Erling Askew on his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, iii. 37120- 


ROGNVALD KUNTA, fights on the side of Hakon Shoulder- 
broad in his last encounter with Erling Askew, and loses his 
life, iii. 44I13 4475 

ROGNVALD MERE-EARL (R. Mærajarl), called the Mighty 
(hinn riki), or the keen-counselled (hinn ráíSsvinni), son of 
Eystein Glumra, i. 10O21.29 ii. 1687.3 — appointed King's Earl 
over North-Mere and Raumsdale after Har. Fairhair's first 
victory at Solskel, i. 10O21.29 — whereto was added Southmere 
after Harald's second naval victory at Solskel (jsee Arnwid), 
^°3iM2 — ^^s winter expedition against, and burning in his 
house of, King Vemund of the Firths, 1031^.33 — receives from 
Harald Hairfair as a gift the Orkneys and Shetland, which 
he again gives to his brother Sigurd, iio^.^g cf. ii. 168^.3 — a 
most beloved and honoured friend of King Harald, 1 1 7 15.13 
— married Hild, daughter of Rolf Nefia and had with her two 
sons, Rolf and Thorir, 11713.20 cf. ii. 2133-221 — had three 
sons, Hallad, Einar, Hrollaug, by concubines before marry- 
ing, 1 1 720-25 — confers on Hallad the Earldom of Orkney on 
the death of Sigurd, i2 2ig.ig — Hallad failing to maintain him- 
self in the earldom Rognvald gives it to Einar, whom he fits 
out with a longship, 12220-1230 — burnt in his house with sixty 
men by Halfdan Highleg and Gudrod Gleam, sons of Harald 
Hairfair, 12422-27 

ROGNVALD, son of Wolf who was the brother of Sigrid 
the Haughty, foster-son of Thorgnyr, the famous lawman of 
Tenthland, ii. 233.12 11 325 11720 — ^^^^ of West Gautland for a 
long time, ii. 23^ — sues for the hand of Ingibiorg, sister of Olaf 
Tryggvison, i. 35613-35723 — their wedding effected in 01af*s 
lifetime, ii. 237.1Q — sides with King Olaf Haraldson i^ainst 

172 Index I [rog 

the Swede King, through the pleading of his wife Ingibion 
King Olaf's cousin, 83-32844 — has a friendly meedog wiu 
King Olaf, from which they part with mutual gifts, Rognvald 
presenting the king with a sword, 844.^^ — whidi sword Kiiig 
Olaf gave to Marshal Biom next summer, 88^ — gives good 
welcome to Biom as King OlaTs messenger of peace to 
Sweden, who brings him for gift a ring from Olaf, SS^.^ ^j^ 
^9io — Isolds a family council with King OlaTs messengen 
and through his wife's insistance promises to back them iq>, 
89JQ-9I3 — receives messengers from Hialti Skeggison and 
Ingigerd, King Olaf the Swede's daughter, with letters in- 
forming him how matters relating to peace stood at the court 
of Sweden, ioi|o.2i 1145.16 — ^^^ ^^^ imparts the news to 
Marshal Biorn, i \a\^\ — l^e goes with Biom the Marshal and 
a following of sixty men to Sweden and at Ulleracre meets 
Princess Ingigerd who lays the matter of her betrothal to 
King Olaf of Norway in his hands, 1 1421-1 16^ — goes to meet 
lawman Thorgnyr, who gives the Earl a good welcome and, 
after a while, promises to stand by him so that he may give 
a fearless utterance in the face of the King to his pleading of 
Olaf Haraldson's cause, Ii6i3-ii8i<i — his attendance at the 
Upsala-Thing and dealings there with King Olaf d Sweden, 
^ '^711 16-20 ^1914-1209 — through lawman Thorgnyr's interven- 
tion he settles peace between Norway and Sweden, and is 
charged by the Swede King to arrange the betrothals of the 
Princess Ingigerd and Olaf of Norway, 1225.13 — returns to 
his dominion of Gautland, 12223^4 — arranges with Olaf of 
Norway, through Marshal Biom, to come east to the Elf in 
autumn after the Upsala-Thing to marry Ingigerd of Sweden, 
1 2223-1 23i8 — his explanation of the King of Sweden's defimlt 
in that matter, 13726-138 — he incurs heavy ill-will of the 
Swede King for the disrespectful treatment he received at the 
Upsala-Thing, i392rt-3o — be is informed by Ingigerd of Sweden 
that her father has broken off the intended match with Olaf 
of Norway, 142518 — Earl Rognvald warns his people of Gaut- 
land of the unsettled state of affairs, and opens n^otiations 
for peaceful relations with Olaf of Norway, 142^4^ — the Earl^ 
sincerity towards King Olaf Haraldson called in question in 
Norway, i44g.i4 — but Sigvat the Skald would reassure the 
King of the Earl's fidelity, and goes as the King's ami 

ROG — rolJ Index I 173 

to the Earl, with whom he tarries long, and learns true tidings 
from the Swedish Court, 14415- 14834 ^5^9-21 — ^^ ^^^ receives 
a visit from Astrid, the daughter of the Swedish King, and 
entertains her in a grand manner and, with her consent, re- 
solves to give her in marriage to King Olaf, with which plan 
he sends Sigvat back to Norway, 14824- 1497 — ^^ knowing 
that King Olaf accepted the match, Earl Rognvald, accom- 
panied by one hundred and twenty men, brings the bride to 
Sarpsburg, where he gives her away under the terms of the 
marriage contract of her sister Ingigerd, and then returns to 
Gautland with great gifts from King Olaf, 15125-1539 — he 
leaves Sweden, in attendance on Queen Ingigerd, for Novgorod, 
and receives for his maintenance Aldeigia-burg and the earl- 
dom thereto appertaining, 15319-22 24-^5431 i55im2— ^is sons, 

1548182 "'• 5S2Ö-80 

ROGNVALD STRAIGHTLEG (R. réttilbeini), son of Harald 
Hairfair and Snowfair, the daughter of Swasi, i. 1203 31227.28 
— repudiated by the father after Snowfair^s death, i2ig^ — 
restored to favour by Thiodolf of Hvin, 1 2 igg-i 224 — appointed 
King of Hadaland, 1224 13120-22 — became a great wizard and 
was burnt in his house, together with eighty wizards, by his 
brother, Eric Bloodaxe, 13368 17-25 

ROI SQUINT-EYE (Hrói skialgi) a bailiff of King Olaf the 
Swede over the southern portion of Ranrealm, a man of high 
degree and much wealth, ii. 763.7 — goes with a band of 
armed men about Ranrealm, gathering in taxes on behalf of 
Olaf the Swede King, and is attacked and slain by Eyvind 
Urochshorn in Howesound, Sijo-iq 

ROI THE WHITE (Hrói' hviti), ii. 81^7 = Roi Squinteye. 

ROI THE WHITE (H. hinn hviti), a * landed man ' of Gren- 
land, foster-father of Harald the Grenlander, i. 2 1 2^^^ 

ROLF KRAKI (Hrólfr Kraki) son of Helgi, K. in Denmark 
by his daughter Yrsa, i. 50^^ — was proclaimed a king at 
Hleithra when eight winters old, 5011.13 — his journey to Up- 
sala alluded to, 5010^1 — (told at length in S. E. i. 394-398) — 
fell at Hleithra in the days of Eystein the son of Adils, si.^ 
— a toast to his memory drunk by Hildigunna, daughter of 
King Granmar, 60^,7 

ROLF NEFIA (H. nefja), father to Hild who wedded Rognvald 
the Mere-Earl, i. 11 719 nS^g 


Index I 

[rol — SAX 

ROLF OF THE SHOOTING {H. skjótandi), ÍL 407?^ 
ROLF WEND-AFOOT (Göngu-hrólfr), Duke of Normandy, 
tgji — son of Rognvald Mere-earl and his lawful wife Hild^ 
Rolf Nefia*s daughter, called Wend afoot because * no horse 
might bear hiro/ a great Viking who harried much in the 
Eastlands, i, 1 1 7.20 2^30 cf, iu aig^-^^i — inakes a raid on the 
Wick, for which Harald Hairfair made him an outJaw from 
Norway notwithstanding the intercession of his mother, 1 1 1^- 
I i8j„— went west-over-sea to the South-isles, thence to Val- 
land, where he won a great earldom and peopled the land 
with Northmen, whence its name Nonnandyj n^^/^^ — of his 
kin are come the earls of Normandy and kings of England, 

Il83tj.52 Ih J3| 

ROMAN FOLK (Rilmverjar), i. 15^, 

RUNOLF THE PRIEST (Runólfr goBi), son of Wolf, a raighi 

chief in the south of Iceland when Christianity was introduced^ 

i- 33423 

SÆMING (Sæmingr), son of Odin and SkadÍ^ i, lo^g — back to 

him Earl Hakon the Mighty traced his descent, aij^ 
SÆMING, son of Yngvi-Frey, i. 4„— identical with the preced 

(Sæmundr húsfreyja), ruler 
íngíbiorg, d. of priest Andres 
flip and Gunni fiss, ill 324^3- 
Asmund, J^Ss-^ J30ia2a— %^^ 

King's Rock, married to 
Brunison, iheir sons Paul 
3253 — has a baseborn 

and falls in the siege of Kings' Rock by Rettibur, 

33<^is-i6 33i33 
SAX I ; in the phrase of Sigvat i ' The son of mighty Sajci Nought 
found IV which means ; 1 did not find the son of mighty Wolf 
= I did not find Earl Rognvald, who was the son of Wolf, 
the son of Skogul-Tosti, seems to be either a by-name that 
Wolf bore, or to be meant for a poetical synonym for Wolf^ 

ii* Í471718 

SAXI THE SPLITTER (Sasd flettir, perhaps Fletcher, maker 
of flint arrows), son of Bovi of West-Gautland, i, 63^^ 

SAXE, or Saxe of Wick, father to Sigrid, concubine of Magnus 
Barefoot, iii. 233n.jg ^"^ *^ Thora the mother of Sigurd 
Slembi- Deacon, iii. 336^^ 

SAXOLF (Söxolfr), an Icelander, iii. 354ts 

SAXONS (Saxar, North-Germans), i, 257^ 26i| li. i27g m. ^Oj*- 


SCA^ — SIG] 

Index I 


SCANIKGS* SKANINGS (Skánungar), inhabitants of Skaney, 

L 36217 ÍÍ. IZl^^ \± 31i^ 4332 4532 47|2 4^22 

SCOTCH (The), Scotchmen, Scot-folk, Scot-host (Skotar), 

I IT 6, 2622 ii. lóg^g ÍÍÍ, 223i2 239p 

SEA BEAR (Sæbjörn), father of Arm Stour, who was a partisan 
of King Eystein Haraldson, iii. 3931^ 

SEALTHORIR, see Thorir Seal, 

SEED-GYRD (SáÍSa GyríSr), son of Bard, fosterer of Sigtird the 
son of Ring Harald GÍHi, iii. 347j3~fails in having Sigurd 
Siembi-Deacon caught, 358^1^ — King Ingi addresses a letter 
to him amongst others, requesting that his brother should 
pay his share of the cost of the defence of the realm. 3595^3- 
360^^ — unwholesome relations arise between the Kings Ingi 
and Sigurd (Ha raid's sons) after the death of Gyrd, 3778.10 

SERK OB^ SOGN (Serkr or Sogni), one of the followers of King 
Magnus Barefoot on his warfare in Ireland, iii. 238^,^, 2863J 

SERKMEN (Serkir), inhabitants of Serkland = North- Africa, 
Saracens, iii. 63^^ 254^ 

SHAVEHEVV (Skafhogg), father of Gudbrand who married 
Maria, d. of K. Eystein Magnuson, iii. 265^ 4^6^^ 474iii 

SHEEP^WOLF (Sau^a Ulfr), son of Brigida the daughter of 
Wolf, the son of Uspak, iii. 10411,13^ — Sheep-Wolf s son Peter 
Burden-Swain, 1041^ 3ÖI010 

SHETLAND ÉRS (Hjaltlendingar), ii. 18710 

SHIELDING (Skjoldungr) descendant of Skiold, King of Den* 
mark (Saxo Gramm. i, 23-26), hence used by the poets as a 
synonym for prince, ii. 3571^ iii- 337'>r 

SHOCK'HEAD (Lúfa), Harald FairhWs by-name, i. 11 231 

SHOULDER BROAD, the nickname of King Hakon, its 

origin, iii. 447a^ 
SIGAR (Sigarr), legendary king who hanged Hagbard for 

seducing his daughter, iií. 31923 
SIGAR D (Sigar^r), a landed man, goes to Skurbaga with two 

hundred men to fight the Wends besieging Ring*s Rock, and 

is slain with alt his men, iiÍ, 3301,7 
SIGAR^S FOE, s€i Hagbard. 
SIGFROD (Sigfro^r) or Sigrod (Sigröír), son of K. Harald 

Hairfair and Asa, the daughter of Hakon Griotgard's son, i. 

176 Index I [siG 

11023 — fostered first by his grandfather, Earl Hakon, and, 
after his death, by his son, Sigurd, Earl of Hladir, i37fi^ — 
made king by his father in the Thrandheim districti i3T«g- 
132.2 — proclaimed supreme king by the Thrandheim peiMNe 
on the death of his brother Halfdan the Black, ^^^^Mlk — ^ 
contest with Eric Bloodaxe for the supreme power in Tnnmd- 
heim, alliance with K. Olaf of the Wick, fight at Tuosbeig 
and fall, 1447.25 — his howe on the brent east of Tunsbeq;, 


SIGRID (Sigri^r), daughter of Bard, sister to K. Ingi Bardaon 
and Duke Skuli, married to Jon Sigurdson of Eastort, iiL 

SIGRID, daughter of Day, and sister to Gregory Dayson, wife 
of Haldor Bryniolfson, illtreated by Hakon Shoulderbroad, iiL 


SIGRID, daughter of Earl Finn Amison, married to Earl Worm 
Eilifson, iii. 11321-28 3515-6 37i8^> 

stórrá^a), daughter of Skogul-Tosti, married to Eric Vic- 
torious, King of Sweden, their son Olaf King of Sweden, L 
2133.8 28412-14 "• 23iM2 — h^r dealings with, and murder of, 
Harald the Grenlander, i. 2841^-28625 ^^1^\% — accepts Olaf 
Tryggvison's suit, but resents his present of a ring supposed 
to be all gold, but found to be but brass inside, 310^^ — the 
suit broken off in an insulting manner by Olaf on her refusing 
to become a Christian, 31I04-31215 — marries King Svein 
Twibeard, their daughter Astrid mother of K. Svein Wol&on 
of Denmark, 34828-81 35806-27 "*• 298-io — ^^' implacable hatred 
of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 31211.13 3S828-359i— eggs King Svdn 
on to avenge him on Olaf for having married his sister Tbyri 
unlawfully, and brings about his alliance with Olaf of Sweden 
and Eric the Earl against Tryggvison, 3591^1 

SIGRID, daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunnhild d. of K. Sigurd 
Syr (Sow), (ii. 35.27), wife of Eindrid, the son of Einar T^un- 
barskelfir, iii. icon 

SIGRID, daughter of Peter Burden-Swain, iii. 104^ 

SIGRID SÆTA, entertained at drink in her house K. Sigurd, 
son of Harald Gilli, when he was attacked and slain, iiL 

SIGRID, daughter of Saxi of Wick, <a noble man in Thrand- 


Index I 177 

heim,' concubine of K. Magnus Barefoot, mother of K. Olaf 
Magnusson, iii. 23311.1^ 33^21^ and of Kari King's-brother, 

SIGRID SKI ALGS daughter, see Sigrid d. of Thorolf Skialg. 

SIGRID, daughter of Earl Svein, the son of Hakon, married to 
Aslak, son of Erling Skialgson, ii. 331445 (Gunnhild is a mis- 
take) 25S28 "i- 10624.2^ 

SIGRID, daughter of Thorir, and sister to Thorir Hound, first 
married to Olvir of Eggia, whom K. Olaf had slain, as well 
as their sons Thorir and Griotgarth, ii. 19825.20 3415^ 344s-6 
— secondly wedded to Kalf Arnison, 19829-1998 — bewailing 
the troubles she had had to endure at K. Olaf s hands, she 
prevails upon her husband to join K. Olafs enemies. Earl 
Hakon Ericson and K. Knut, under certain conditions, and 
informs Hakon of her endeavours, 3748-81 

SIGRID (Sigri^r), daughter of Thorolf Skialg and sister to 
Erling Skialgson of Soli, married to Sigurd Thorison, brother 
of Thorir Hound, their son Asbiom Seal's-Bane, ii. 21 4^.22 
2 1 718-19 — her vain endeavours to bring her son to saving habits 
in seasons of distress, 21519.20 27-28 — ^^^ egging on of Thorir 
Hound, her brother-in-law, to avenge the slaying of her son, 
Asbiom, 23918-2404 

SIGTRYGG (Sigtryggr), a noble of Nerick in Sweden, befriends 
K. Olaf Haraldson in his flight from Norway, ii. 36929.28 

SIGTRYGG, son of King Eystein the Terrible of the Uplands, 
King of Heathmark and Raumrealm, i. 7722-24 — ^^ hearing of 
Halfdan the Black having conquered Raumrealm, he goes out 
to fight him, and is defeated and slain, 7721-784 

SIGTRYGG, son of Harald Hairfair and, apparently, Gyda, 
daughter of Eric King of Hordland, i. 11410 — proclaimed 
king by his father, 13118 

SIGTRYGG, Kingof Vendil, father of Agnar, the father of Eric 
King of Westfold, i. 6821 

SIGURD (SiguriSr), Olaf Tryggvison's court bishop (who had 
come with him from England), with the king at Ogvalds- 
ness, i. 31521-28 — accompanies Olaf on his missionary expedi- 
tion to Halogaland, 3283-3349 — his way of defeating Raud 
the Strong's witchcraft, 33i2ft-332i8 

SIGURD, court bishop of K. Olai Haraldson, accompanies the 
king on his missionary journey through Gudbrandsdale, ii. 

VI. N 

1 78 Index I [siG 

2024.3 20522-2063 2083^-2091 — commands King Olaf to make 
peace with Erling Skialgson in the affidr of Aibioni Seal^ 
bane, and dictates the terms, 229^0^ 

SIGURD, a bishop appointed to Earl Hakon Ericson's court 
by his uncle K. Knut, a great enemy of K. Olaf the Holy, 
ii. 41710.24 — his inflammatory speech against K. Olaf, 4il^ 
41924 — ^Thorgils of Sticklestead delivers to him the ocffin 
containing the body of Olaf the Holy — which body, however, 
was but a collection of stones — and by the bishop^s orden 
the coffin is sunk into deep water in Thrandheim firlh, 4481«^ 
— as the belief in Olaf s holiness takes hold of the people, 
the bishop's unpopularity increases so that he must leave 
Norway, 453i9-4S44 

SIGURD, a priest, afterwards bishop in Biorgvin, present witfi 
Bishop Magni when he forbade King Sigurd Jenisalem-fiwer 
to contract marriage with the lady Cecilia^ his queen being 
yet alive, iii. 30711-12 so-s^ So^m 

SIGURD, one of * five ' kings who fell with Eric Bloodaze^ L 


SIGURD BAITHAT (S. agnhöttr), the fosterer of Olaf Un- 
lucky, gathers with his foster-son a band in the Uplands 
against K. Magnus Erlingson, iii. 47417.37 — Erling Askew goes 
in search of them, 47427-4754 — Sigurd falls in the battle at 
Stangs, 477i7 

SIGURD, son of Bergthor, a priest from Iceland, foils in the 
battle at Holm-the-Grey, iii. 36229 

SIGURD BILL (S. bildr), stationed in the forehold on board 
the Long-Worm, i. 35318-19 

SIGURD, base-bom son of Bui the Thick, i. 28i„-282^ 

SIGURD A-BUSH (S. hrísi), son of Harald Hairfair and Snow^ 
fair, Swasi's daughter, i. 1202 — repudiated by his father after 
Snowfair's death, 1213^ — restored to favour through Thiodolf 
of Hvin and assigned residence in Ringrealm, 121,^-1224 — 
proclaimed King of Ringrealm by his father, 122, 131^011 — 
his son Halfdan father to Sigurd Syr, 311^.7 

SIGURD CAPE (S. kápa), a follower of Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
iii. 44 1 18— slain, 4475 

SIGURD, son of Eric Biodaskalli, and brother to Astrid, the 
mother of Olaf Tryggvison, long in King Valdimar's service 
in Garthrealm, i. 22820.31 — ^nds, on a taxgathering expedition 


Index I 1 79 

in Estland, Olaf Tryggvison in a slave market, and buys him 
and his companion Thorgils from their master Reas and brings 
them with lum to Holmgarth, 22925-230^ — saves Olaf Trygg- 
vison from the penalty of his first manslaughter, 230^2-23121 
— a noble man and a wealthy, 301^^12 — ^^^ by-name in the 
text, 'Carlshead ' (Karlshöfu^), is a mistake; it was a name 
borne by one of Sigurd's brothers. Cf. Olaf's saga by Odd, 
Fms. and Flat. 

SIGURD CAUL (S. hjúpa), a follower of Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, iii. 44 1 18 — slain, 4475 

SIGURD of Eastort, son of Kari King's-brother and Borghild 
daughter of Day Eilifson; Sigurd's sons: Jon of Eastort, 
Thorstein and Andres, iii. 336^.27 

SIGURD, base-bom son of Erhng Askew by Asa the Light, 

"i. 4747.8 

SIGURD, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 
of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 243^ — goes in a craft of twenty 
benches to aid his brother-in-law Thorberg against Olaf 
Haraldson, in the affair of Stein Skaptison, 28323-2843 ^^^ 

SIGURD, son of Eystein Glumra, and brother to Rognvald 
Mere-Earl, receives Orkney and Shetland as gift from his 
brother, and is confirmed in the Earldom of Orkney by Harald 
Hairfair, i. 11614.18 cf. ii. 168^.8 — harries Scotland in company 
with Thorstein the Red, n 615.22 — his death and burial-place, 

SIGURD, son of Eystein Travail, one of the slayers of Sigurd 
Gaud-axe of King Ingi's bodyguard, iii. 3873© 

SIGURD GAUD-AXE (S. skrú«hyrna), one of K. Ingi Harald- 
son's bodyguard, slain by two of K. Sigurd his brother's 
bodyguards, iii. 387^, 

SIGURD, son of Gudrun of Saltness, joins the band raised by 
K. Eystein Maiden the son of Eystein, iii. 4832^ 

SIGURD Gyrdson, a landed man, goes to Skurbaga with six 
hundred men to fight the Wends besieging Kings' Rock, but 
returns without venturing a battle, iii. 32938-3304 

SIGURD, son of Earl Hakon Griotgardson, after his father 
Earl of Ladir, i. 1 371^.19 — was from his father's death the 
fosterer of Hsilfdan the Black, and of Sigfrod, sons of K. 
Har. Hairfair, 13719.28 — married Bergliot, the daughter of 

i8o Index I [siG 

Earl Thorir the Silent, and of Alof Year's-heal, d. iA Hir. 
Hairfair, and was the wisest of men, 137^7 '49u*ii — ^ ^ 
is bringing on board his ship to King Haumir Tnoia Most- 
staff, she gives birth to a son, Hairfair's youngest child, whom 
Sigurd baptizes to the name of his own father, Hakon, 138]^! 
— he adopts K. Hakon's cause, when he comes back from 
England to claim the throne of Norway, 14914-150^ — appointed 
by K. Hakon earl over all Thrandheim, 156^^ — assists K. 
Hakon in framing the Frosta-Thing's Law, i6o|g^ — ^was Kim 
Hakon's dearest friend, loi^g.^, — a nvan much given to bkMxt 
offerings, 165^^ — entertained at his own cost sdl worshifqien 
at a sacrificial feast at Ladir, 1664.^7 — mediates peace between 
K. Hakon the Good and the assembled men of Frosta-Thmgi 
who refused to be converted to Christianity, loSj^.^). j^^^ — 
acts in a like manner between the king and his heathen sub- 
jects in the matter of blood-offerings, 1691-171^^ — fights with 
K. Hakon the Good against Eric's sons at ugvaldsness, 172^1 
— terms of peace arranged between him and Eric's sons aftS 
the fall of Hakon the Good, 19915^ — his rule over Thrand- 
heim the cause of deadly hatred on the ptfut of Gunnhild and 
her sons, 20218-2031J — receives friendly gifts from, and a kind 
invitation to come on a visit to, Harald Greycloak, but declines 
the invitation, 20323-2044 — his life plotted against by K. Hanld 
Greycloak and Griotgarth, Sigurd's own brother, 204^^ — 
burnt in his house at Oglo by Harald and Erling, in company 
with Griotgarth, two winters after the fall of Hakon the Good, 
2058-20 2067^— date of his death, 239,5-, 
SIGURD, Earl, son of Hallward Freeholder of Reyr, a follower 
of Hakon Shoulder-Broad, iii. 399^0 400^^ 40 7^ — speech to 
Hakon's host before the battle in the Elf, 408^0-40921 — ^Hakon, 
being defeated, Gregory Dayson obtains King Ingi's pardon 
for Sigurd, 4152029 — escapes with Hakon from Gr^or/s 
attack on them at Saur-Byes, 4193^ — he and Hakon burn 
Vettland, slaying Haldor Brynioifson and mishandling the 
household, 41927-4205 — created Earl by Hakon, ^^l^wa — 
sent to Kings' Rock by Hakon to defend it against E^ns, 
43826-4394 — envied by Hakon's followers, 439Hr440t— saib 
by the deep sea course to meet King Hakon at Thrandheim, 
44024-26 — g°^^ south with him to fight Erling Askew, 44I10 — 
sent by King Hakon into Raumsdale to gatíier up men and 


Index I i8i 

ships, 4423^^^ — keeps the band of Hakon together after his 
death; leaves his ships in Raumsdale and fares to the Up- 
lands, 447i5.i8 — ^*s means run short, 44829-4492~condemned 
• to the devil ' at a formal Thing, 44919-4505 — goes with the 
flower of his host about the Wick; some of his men seek 
truce privily from Erling, 450^^.15 — his men slay Philippus 
the son of Gyrd who had made peace with Erling, 4505^3^ — 
goes with his host to Re, where he is set upon and slam by 
ErHng, 4Sii2-4S5i2 

SIGURD, a Halogalander, imprisoned together with his brother 
Hawk by Olaf Tryggvison, for refusing to be christened; 
they vanish from prison, and turn up at Harek's in Thiotta, 
whom, by a ruse, they kidnap and bring into Olaf 's power, L 
324jj-326i() — thereupon Sigurd is christened and becomes the 
king's servant, 327^^ 

SIGURD HART (S. hjörtr), King of Ringrealm, son of Helgi 
the Keen and Aslaug, daughter of Sigurd Worm-in-Eye — slew 
Hildibrand with other twelve bareserks, when twelve years of 
age, i. 8 1 4.14 — had two children, Ragnhild and Guthorm, 
8 1 14,18 — his fight with the bareserk Haki, and death, 8113.2^ 

SIGURD MOUTH (S. munnr), King of Norway, 11 36-1 155, 
basebom son of Harald Gilli by Thora, daughter of Guthorm 
Greybeard, iii. 31422-23 — fostered north in Thrandheim with 
Seed-Gyrd, son of Bard, 347i8 — proclaimed king at the re- 
quest of Queen Ingirid, 347tf.ii 3481.11 — he and Seed-Gyrd 
fail to catch Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 358^.13 — receives formal 
request from hisi brother Ingi to bear his share of the cost of 
defending the realm, 35922-36018 — he accedes to the request 
and they join company, 361 11.21 — both brothers defeat Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon at Holm-the-Gray, where Magnus the Blind 
is slain, 36128-36315 — after ruling jointly for six years, he and 
Ingi share the kingdom with their brother Eystein, 3688.17 — 
hates Ottar Brightling for his kindness towards K. Ingi; is 
suspected of having caused Ottar's death, of which charge 
he promises to clear himself by ordeal, which he never per- 
forms, 36910.12 3707.15 — has a son, Hakon (Shoulderbroad), 
by Thora, a workwoman of Simon Thorbergson, 3733.24 — he 
and Ingi set up separate court each for himself, 3770.1« — 
Sigurd's character and appearance, 3772r37^i6 — Sigurd's 
violence gets him into trouble with Eystein, his brother, but 

1 82 Index I [siG 

they make up their quarrel by agreeing to depose their cripfded 
brother Ingi, 38519-3864 — failure of the plan, K. Sigurd's frU, 
3865-3907 — his burial place, 3907« 

SIGURD HOUND (hundr), son of Joan the son of Ami and 
Ranveig the daughter of Sigurd son of Thorir Hound, iiL 
^7io-i4 — outlawed by Magnus Barefoot, 2429.^0 

SIGURD HRANISON, married to Skialdvor, the daughter of 
Bryniolf Camel and Thora the mother of K. Magnus Bare- 
foot, their son Nicolas, iii. 48 1^^, — a follower of Elii^ Magnus 
Barefoot in his warfare in Ireland, 2383^— one of the hut to 
flee after the fall of the king, 242,, — his contest at kw with 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer (brother of his wife^ or 'the Tale 
of the Things,' 271 15-2 7 6 

SIGURD JERUSALEM-FARER (Crusader) (S. jórsahÆmX 
King of Norway, 11 03-1 130, natural s. of K. Ma^us Bare- 
foot and Thora, iii. 2339.^1 — marries: i. Biadmynia, d. of K. 
Myrkiartan of Connaught, 22520^^: 2. Malmfrid, d. of K. 
Harald Valdemarson of Holmgarth and Kristin, d. of Ingi, 
K. of Sweden, 27028.80 27124; their daughter Kristin, wife of 
Erling Askew, 37118^ 3* Cecilia, 307-3099 — has by Borg^iild, 
d. of Olaf 0*Dale, a son, Magnus (the Blind), ^'fi^^^ 

Is appointed lord of the Orkneys by his father, 22119.29 — 
hearing of his father's death, he leaves the Orknejrs for nis 
kingdom in Norway, 242,9^ — he succeeds, at the age of 
thirteen or fourteen, to one third of the realm against his 
brothers Eystein and Olaf, 2479.1^ — ^^ leaves Biadmynia be- 
hind in the west, 247^4.^9 — ^P^^ himself at the head of a 
company of Norwegian adventurers bound for Jerusalem, 
24722-248^1 — the expedition, consisting of sixty ships, starts 
four years after the fall of K. Magnus Barefoot, 248^-249^ — 
the story of the crusade, 2497-26128 — the return journey, 261^* 
26227 — K. Sigurd's person and character, 267,^» — with his 
brothers he removes many of the burdens which K« Svein, 
'son of Alfiva,' had imposed upon the people, 268^7 — his 
dream foretelling the duration of the reign of each erf* die 
three brothers interpreted to him by K. Eystein, 268^0-27011 
— his contest at law with Sigurd Hranison, ' the Tale of the 
Things,* 27115-27625 — coolness between him and his brother 
Eystein in consequence of the latter's advocacy of Sigurd 
Hranison's cause, 27620^3 — on the death of K. Olaf, Ks. Siguid 

sig] Index I 183 

and Eystein share the kingdom by halves, 2778-12 — ^^1 ^^' 
side alternately in the north or in the south, 277^5^ — K. 
Sigurd takes great interest in making Kings' Rock a strong 
and wealthy place, 2781.13 30910-3 lOj — his dealings with Borg- 
hild, d. of Olaf o'Dale, 2781^.29 — * Man-matching ' between 
him and Eystein, 2793-2833 — having a bath at a feast in the 
Uplands, he shows symptoms of mental derangement, 283^1, 
— after the death of K. Eystein, Sigurd sole king in the 
land, 28414.1^ — his negotiations with K. Nicolas of Denmark 
in respect of conversion to Christianity of the Smallands 
in Sweden, the *Kalmar Hosting,* 28419-285 — K. Sigurd 
and Thorarin Curtfell, 286-28814 — K. Sigurd's fit of madness 
one Whitsunday, 28817-28912 — how the King rewarded the 
candle page Ottar Brightling for bringing him to his senses, 
28913-291^ — his dream foreboding the arrival of the pretender, 
Harald Gilli, and the founding of his dynasty, 2919-2921^ — 
K. Sigurd in a fit of mental derangement corrected by Aslak 
Cock, 29213-29413 — another fit on Yule Eve, 29451-29513 — 
K. Sigurd idlows Harald Gilli to prove by ordeal that he was 
the son of Magnus Barefoot, 2951^-29619 — the ordeal being 
a success, K. Sigurd acknowledges Harald as his brother, 
29620.21 — causes his son, Magnus, to be sworn king in succes- 
sion to himself, 29623.27 — rebukes Magnus for his animosity 
against Harald, 29830-2993 — K. Sigurd's swimming contest 
with an Icelander, 29911-30O14 — his dealings with his landed 
man Sigurd Sigurdson, 29930-30O14 30112-302^ — saves Har. 
Gilli from the gallows, and outlaws his would-be executioner, 
Svein Rimhildson, 301^9-3022 — in defiance of the Church he 
marries the lady Cecilia without his marriage with queen 
Malmfirid being dissolved, 307-3095 — he takes much interest 
in strengthening and enriching the town of King's Rock, 
30910-3 1 03 — his death, burial place, length of reign, etc., 

SIGURD KOLBEINSON, brother to Bentein who was slam 

by Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, iii. 3564 — tortures Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon to death, 3663.23 
SIGURD, son of Red in the Eastern Dales, ii. 339io — is ac- 
cused by Biorn the Steward of theft, 33824-33925 — summoned 
to King Olaf and declared free of the charges brought against 
him by Biorn, 33925^ — declares his accomplishments to the 

1 84 Index I [siG 

King, who tests them and finds Sigurd's dedaxadm to be 
correct, 34010.14 — informs the king that Biom himself is Ae 
person guilty of the crime he charges txa othen, whidi turns 
out to be true, z^o^^ 

SIGURD RING (S. hnngr), father to Ragnar Lodbrok, King 
of Raumrealm and Westfold, Vingulmark 'and th en c cawmy 
south,' i. 10534^ 

SIGURD SCRIP (S. hit), a whilom banner-bearer of K. RcetiA 
the son of Day, rescues him from imprisonment at King (HaTs 
court, ii. 1283^ but being overtaken by OlaTs men, leaves Ae 
blind Rœrek to his fate and saves himself with his followers 
by flight, 130^ 

SIGURD SIGURDSON, a landed man of K. Sigurd Jerusakm- 
farer, rescues from the king a swimmer and forfeits the Idng^ 
favour, iii. 2993^-300^4 — r^ains the king's favour by giving 
him a timely warning that Harald Gilli was in imminent peril 
of being hanged, 301 11-3025— advises King Magnus the Blúid 
in vain to keep his war host in the Wick after the battle of 
Fyrileif, 3183.^3 — King Magnus refusing to listen to all his 
proposals as to how to deal with Harald Gilli, he leaves him 
to his own devices, 320^-32132 

SIGURD, son of King Sigurd the son of Harald Gilli, and 
brother to K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, fostered by liCarkns 
O'Shaw, taken to king by the Uplanders, iii. 448^x4 — v^ sup- 
ported by a large following led by Markus and £«url Sigurd 
of Reyr, 44^1419 2^-4493 — be and Markus are attacked by 
Erling Askew at Kmgs' Rock and Hisingisle and driven off 
into the upland forests, 45519-4561^ — from there they mardi 
overland to Thrandheim, where Sigurd is taken for knag at 
the Eres' Thing, 45718-19 — they gather a fleet, go south to 
Mere, where they lay hold of all the king's dues, then pro- 
ceed south unto List], where they turn northward again on 
hearing that Erling had a strong naval force in the Wick| 
45720-24 29"45^i5""™^^^"g ^^"^ Biorgvin they are attacked by 
Erling's lieutenants and slain, 4581^4593 

SIGURD SLAVER (S. slefa), son ofEric Bloodaxe and Gumi- 
hild, i. 1457 — together with his brother Gudrod he was left 
by Harald Greyfell in occupation of Thrandheim, when Eari 
Hakon was ousted therefrom, 214^^ — but in autumn they 
had to clear out of Thrandheim before Hakon; spent the 

sig] Index I 185 

winter in the Mere, 21414.23 — dishonours the wife of Klypp 
the Hersir, wherefore the hersir slays him at Akekstead, 

SIGURD SLEMBI-DEACON (S. slembidjákn), 'called the 
son of Priest Adalbrikt/ but declared by his mother, Thora 
the d. of Saxi of Wick, to be the son of K. Magnus Barefoot, 
iii. 336,7.21 3377.8 — he and his followers averred that he had 
proved by ordeal in Denmark that he was the son of K. Mag- 
nus Barefoot, a discredited story, 33720-88 33^i-2 — ^'^ person 
and character, 33627-3376— ^^s foreign travels, 3370-20— *^s 
stay and doings in Iceland, 3384-339 — escapes treason laid 
against his life by Harald Gilli, 340-341 23 — organizes a con- 
spiracy against K. Harald and slays him in his bed, 3412$- 
343i4 — his demand to be proclaimed king angrily refused, he 
and his followers declared outlaws, 34314-3444 — he is pro- 
claimed king by the bonders of North-Hordland and those 
of Sogn and the Firths, 3445.21 — he is repudiated by North- 
mere and Thrandheim, takes the maimed and blinded King 
Magnus out of his monastery and goes with his following 
south to Northmere and Raumsdale and there parts from 
Magnus and goes west over sea, 34814-3491^ — returns from 
the west to Norway, whence speedily he makes for Denmark, 
where he has some successful fighting with Wendish vikings, 
35327-3547 — his adventures in the Elf, at Kings' Rock and 
about öie Wick, 3547.88 — goes to Denmark, 3555.11 — raids 
the district of Listi in company with Magnus the Blind, and 
is chased away by K. Ingi Haraldson and flees to Halogaland, 
where he winters, 355ii-357i7 — marauding in Halogaland and 
Northmere, 357i8-358i8 — rolDS in Hordland and drifts south 
along the land into the Wick, working havoc on K. Ingi's 
folk, and sets thence once more out for Denmark, 35819-3 591Q 
— returns to Norway next spring in company with K. Magnus 
and, with a fleet of thirty sail, fights with Kings Ingi and 
Sigurd at Holm-the-Gray, where he is defeated, laid hands on 
and tormented to death, 361 24-367 — his body fetched by 
Danish friends of his and buried at Mary Church in Alaburg 
in Jutland, 3672020 

SIGURD STORK (S. storkr), son of Eindrid of Gautdale, a 
partisan of Si^rd Slembi-deacon, iii. 35612 — has a son, Jon 
Kutiza, 43721^ 

1 86 Index I [siG 

SIGURD SYR, or Sow (S. sýr), King of Ringrealm, son of Half- 
dan the son of Sigurd a-Bush the son of Haiald HairfiUTy L 
63 — married Asta the widow of Harald the Grenknder iÍmI 
mother to Olaf the Holy, i. 3 1 1,^ — ^lets himsdf with wife and 
Olaf his stepson be christened oy Olaf Tryggvison, ^Himv 
— he brings up Olaf the Thick, his stepson, IL ^ — is bSa 
of little account by Olaf, 319-411 — his household ways^ 3|^ 
— his ordinary arrayal and business relating to husbaniuy^ 
358-25 — ^^^ children, 352«^ ^4^15 — ^^ reception of Olaf 
Haraldson on his return to Norway from his viking raids 
abroad, 344-37i8-T-his state arrayal, 36«^ — partakes in a 
family council together with his wife at which Olaf dedaies 
his intention to fight for the kingdom of Norway, Zltcf^'^ia — 
his speech on the occasion, 39s4-40n — ^his manner of entop- 
taining Olaf and his company, 4I14.17 — ^his pleading on behalf 
of Olaf to the folk-kings of the Uplands, 41^-42^0— joins 
Olaf with a large following against Earl Svem and Einar 
Thambarskelfir, 541^.13— paitakes in the battle off Nesiar and 
unavailingly advises King Olaf, on the flight of Earl Svein, to 
follow up his victory and undo the Earl utterly, óa^.ójg — 
receives good gifts from Olaf at their parting, 6^^ — ^his death 

(1OI8), I0927 

SIGURD THE THICK (S. digri), son of Hlodver, eaii of 
Orkney, restored to the people of Orkney the 'odal' rights 
they had given up to Turf-Einar, i. 12721-1281 of. iL ^^y^^ — 
made prisoner by Olaf Tryggvison in Rognvaldsey ; set firee on 
allowing himself to be christened; becomes Olafs man and 
gives his son Hound or Whelp as hostage to Olaf, i. aQOta- 
291^ ii. 169^5^3 — did no homage to Olaf after his son's dam, 
ii. 1 6924.27 — married the daughter of Malcolm (II.), king of the 
Scotch, and had with her a son, Thorfin, his older sons beiiig 
Summerlid, Brusi, Einar Wrongmouth, 16917^ — ^went on a 
war-raid to Ireland, leaving his elder sons in rule over Oilcneyy 
but placing Thorfin with the Scottish king, and fell in Ae 
Brian battle (battle of Clontarf, 1014), 16931-1701 

SIGURD, son of Thorir (*and brother to Thorir Hound oiT 
Birchisle '), married to Sigrid, daughter of Thorolf Skialg and 
sister to Erling Skialgson, ii. 2141^19 — abode at Thrandneaa 
in Omt on Hinnisle in Halogaland, not doing homage (aa 
his brother had done) to K. Olaf Haraldson, ^^i^^^ — his 

sig] Index I 187 

character and lordly household ways, 21422.34 ^-^ — ^" ^^ 
coming Christian he held the custom Christianwise to have 
three great feasts a year at the same time at which he had 
observed the heathen feasts, 21 423-2 15^ — died *of sickness,' 


SIGURD, son of Thorir Hound, father to Rauveig the wife of 
Jon, son of Arni, iii. 1710-12 

SIGURD, son of Thorlak who was brother to Thrand O'Gate 
in Eastisle in the Faroes, ii. 26925.29 — is sent by Thrand after 
Thoralf of Dimon, who sails for Norway at the summons of 
K. Olaf Haraldson, in order to see that .Thoralf should not 
inform the king too clearly of the fate of the two disastrous 
political missions he had sent already to Faroe, 2701.12 — 
Sigurd keeps Thoralf sailing company across the sea and 
makes land at the island of Herna, a short distance from 
where Thoralf came to anchor, 27018.25 — here Thoralf is slain, 
and Sigurd, suspected of the deed, denies it on oath, offering 
to clear himself by ordeal, to which K. Olaf agrees admitting 
him to bail; but under cover of night he sails forthwith back 
to Faroe, 27027-27330 — Thrand feigns displeasure with the 
journey, 27381-2742 — heavy suspicion now fell on Sigurd and 
his mates, who, however, escaped unpunished, 2742.12 — 
made an outlaw for wounding a liege-man of Gilli the speaker- 
at-law of Faroe, 3091.^ 28-20 

SIGURD, son of Veseti and brother to Bui, a lord among the 
Jomsvikings, i. 27023.39 27123 — his vow at the funeral feast 
after his father and Harald Gormson, 27231.33 — commands, 
with his brother Bui the Thick, one wing of the Jomsburg 
fleet in the Battle of Hiorung-wick, 27712.13 

SIGURD, son of Viking-Kari and father to Eric Biodaskalli, 
i. 33430 (but ii. 89^ Eric Biodaskalli is, in accordance with 
other records, stated to be the son of Viking-Kari, see Eric 

SIGURD WOOL-STRING, son of Lodin Viggskull, a landed 
man of K. Magnus Barefoot, foiled in his attempt to quell 
the rebellion against K. Magnus which was led by Svein, 
son of Harald Fletcher and Steig-Thorir, iii. 210^.17 — his 
mission to Sveinki son of Steinar, 2141^-21722 — his defence of 
the castle on Kvaldin's-isle, 2277-2281^ 

SIGURD WORM-IN-EYE (S. ormr-i-auga), son of Ragnar 

1 88 Index I [siG 

Lodbrok and father to Aslaug, the mother of Sigurd Hiu% L 
Sig^— King in Denmark, 233^ 

SIGVALDI, son of Strut-Harald, brother to Heming md 
Thorkel the High, married to Astrid, d. of EL Buruiif in 
Wendland, i. 270,^2^ (cf. ii. ii„) 27 1^^ cf. 3^1} 375iC' 
captain over Jomsburg in Wendland, 270,,^— jMnapsK. 
Svein Twibeard of Denmark, and forces him to make petcc 
with K. Burislaf, whose daughter he should many, and to 
whom Svein in return should give in marriage his nter 
Thyri, 27081-27114 — he and K. Svein hold ^ntly ft Amend 
feast after their fathers, at which the Jomsvikmgs bound Aem 
by vows to drive Earl Hakon the Mighty out of Notwi^, 
27126'^ 7 ^4 20-24 — ^^ ^^^ ^^ famous raid of the Jomsvikiiigi 
on Norway, and is utterly defeated by Earl Hakon in Hiorang- 
wick, 274^3-279 — fetches from Denmark Princess Thyn 
against her will to be married to K. Burislaf, 349949 — maket 
a compact with Svein to betray Olaf Tryg;vison into the 
power of him and his allies, 36og.|4 — ^his guiles towards and 
betrayal of Olaf, 36oi4"362ai 3659.19 37Simi lenfT-W" «»«* 
poet Thord, *Sigvaldi*s skald,' ii. 5X9^ 

SIGVAT (Sigvatr), King of Eighth-land, burned in a banquet- 
ting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evilheart, i. 589.J0 «9-597 

SIGVAT, son of Thord, by-named 'Sigvaldi's sEud,' like his 
father an Icelandic poet; fostered at Apewater in sontbcm 
Iceland, he went young abroad and joined his father at die 
court of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 51 14.94 — ^his songs on Okfs 
various exploits before he became King of Norway^ n. 

^27"74 928-31 '°27"^'4 18-26 '^716 '527-36 '^M6 '7lM4.»"''*.>t** 

1 96 14 16 20 80-208 ^i.vis— <>" Olaf TryggvisoH, Erling Skiii%- 
son and Earl Rognvald Wolfson, 2333.,!— on Erlingp %Awm 
— on Knut, 272^34 — ^" ^'"^ Hakon's disaster in Saudnng- 
sound, 322034 — his first acquaintance with and song to K. Ohf 
Haraldson, 51 04-5 2^ — his song-reward and appointment as 
body-guard, 52l.^g — prays the K. to remit half the sailing fees 
due from the craft he came in to Norway, 52^5^ — ^his song 
on the battle of Nesiar, 5724.82 %\^ ,8-21 S6-84 S9io.ip n-fs si-^ 
17-25 6318-644— on K. Olafs l^islation, 68,4^ — ^iiuorms K. 
Olaf of the state of Christianity in Iceland, o^^.j, — ^his journey 
to Sweden with Biom the Marshal commemorated, 9S|g-94u 
— his device how to break important news to the king m die 

sig] Index I 189 

middle of the night contrary to express prohibition, 128^0- 
12992 — his mission to Earl Rognvald, and report thereof to 
K. Olaf, 14415-15 1 21 — the result of the mission, 15126-1521Q — 
his comparative estimate of Gudbrand a-Dales and Erlmg 
Skialgson, 200^^32 — baptizes K. Olafs son Magnus, 23520- 
237i — with Kjiut in England, from whom he receives good 
gifts, 254^-25512 — his song on the figureheads of the great 
war-galleys, 01. Tryggvison's Longworm and 01. Haraldson's 
Bison, 31024.J2 — commemorates in Kjiut's Drapa the warfare 
in Denmark of Kings Olaf and Onund, 31 232-3 iSig — his west- 
faring and second meeting with Knut, 3 1329-3 1428 — ^^^ ^^"S 
about Knut's expedition against K. Olaf of Norway, 31424- 
3163 31927-3204 27-85 — on the point of falling into disfavour 
with K. Olaf on account of having been well received by 
Knut, Sigvat puts matters right with a song, 33324-3353 — his 
songs on the growing disloyalty of K Olafs subjects, 336^.34 
— song on K. Olafs yule-gift to Sigvat of a gold-hilted sword, 
3377-28 — sings of K. Olafs waning forces, 34612-20 3471-8—^*5 
song on Erling Skialgson's fight and fall, 35614.27 8r3576 18-21 
81-358« 11-20 35928-36014— sings of K. Olafs unswerving stem 
maintenance of justice, 37x3-28 — ^*is absence from the battle 
of Sticklestead provokes adverse remarks from Thormod 
Coalbrowskald, 40421-405^ 40815.19 — incidents of the battle of 
Sticklestead recorded in Sigvat's songs: the king's standard- 
bearer, 4 1 223-4 1 34; K. Olafs dauntlessness, 41315.24; K. 
Olafs inferiority in numbers, 4263.11; fierceness of the landed 
men's attack, 4281^.24; K. Olafs rushing out of the shield- 
burg to head the attack, 42910-430^; total eclipse of the sun, 
4313.31; the fall of K. Olaf, 4323.54; the fall of Biorn the 
Marshal, 43327.86? I^^y's brunt, 4431.17 — commemorates the 
growth of the dead king's hair, 45726"4582 — sings of the dura- 
tion of Olafs reign, and of his battles and Christian zeal, 
46021-46111 — praises Queen Astrid's kindness towards Mag- 
nus the Good, iii. 511.35 — his return from Rome: memorial 
verses on Olaf, 124-1414 — goes to Sweden and joins company 
with Magnus, and becomes his man, 1415-1524 — commemor- 
ates miracles at the shrine of Olaf and the feast-day in his 
memory, 1615-174 — his pleading with K. Magnus for milder 
treatment of his subjects, boldly censuring the king in his 
' Staves of naked Says,' 224-2423 

I90 Index I [siM — ske 

SIMON (Simon), the son of iCari, married to HbKc^axXt tbe 
daughter of Queen Ingirid d. of Rognvald, and Anu of Stod- 
reim, iii. 37O22-27 

SIMON, son of Thorberg, a mighty man, the owner of a ttead 
in Wick, married to Gunnhild, their sons Onund and An- 
dreas, Hhe sons of Simon,' iiL 407^^ — brings up Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, 3735.^4 

SIMON SHEATH (S. skálpr), son of Hallkd Hmich, married 
to Maria, daughter of King Harald Gilli, their son NioohSi 
i"- 3799-12 — goes over to the side of Kin^; Ingi, 39a|g — Uts 
upon King Eystein Haraldson in his hidmg place^ and has 
him cruelly slain, 3948o-39Sao — becomes most unpopular for 
the deed, 3963.13— joins Gregory Dayson going in pursuit of 
Hakon Shoulderbroad east unto Kings'-Rock, 400^^ — Sigurd 
of Reyr's opinion of his title to kingship in Norway, 40{ 
fights on the side of K. Ingi in the battle of Oslo, and fiulsi 

424l8-15 24-25 42615.23 

SKADI (Ska^i), giantess of kin, i. 2I4 — ^married to Nioids 
whom she left for Odin, with whom she had many sons^ 

2O26 2l8 

SKAGI, the son of Skopti, Earl Hakon the Mighty's fittheFJn- 
law, i. 2474 

SKANINGS (Skánungar), inhabitants of the province of Skaney, 
i. 362^7 ii. 32323 iii. 3ii6 3328 3^8 43í2 4Sm 47u 4«« 

SKAPTI, son of Thorod, Speaker-at-law in Iceland, 1004-1030^ 
ii. 69j^.j2 — receives, together with those who bore most rule 
in Iceland, a message from King Olaf Haraldson, enjoining 
amendment of the Christian law of the land (cf. 691^ 73%^» 
— designated by King Olaf Haraldson as keeper of tte 
troublesome Upland king Rœrek in case of need, I35msS — 
invited, together with other chiefs of Iceland, by Thoruin 
Nefiolfson, to go to Norway to meet King Olaí^ an invitation 
on which S. did not act, 245-2463 249,1 — mal^ & drapa on 
King Olaf Haraldson which he teaches to hb son Stein, 
charging him to recite it to the king, but the latter refused to 
hear, 2789.12 20-^2 

SKARDI (SkariSi), a Jomsviking, i. 2821^1« 

SKAUN-FOLK (Skeynir), inhabitants of the district of Skaun 
in Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 196^2 

SKEGGI, see Jarnskeggi, son of Asbiom. 

SKE — SKo] Index I 191 

SKEGGI of Uphowe, see Jarnskeggi. 

SKEGGI (son of Thorgeir), father of Hialti, i. 335^ 

SKIALDVOR (Skjaldvör), daughter of Bryniolf Camel and 
Thora (d. of Joan), the mother of Magnus Barefoot, had for 
husband Sigurd son of Hrani (Rani), their son Nicolas, iii. 
272j5.2« 4819.18 

SKIALDVOR, daughter of Nicolas, the son of Sigurd Hranison, 
wife of Eric Amison, iii. 48119.21 

SKIALF (Skjálf ), daughter of Frosti, lord of Finland, taken in 
war by Agni, K. of the Swedes, and wedded by him, whom, 
however, she hanged by the fatal necklace of Visbur, i. 333^- 


SKIALG (Skjálgr), see Thorolf Skialg. 

SKI ALG, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 
of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 243^ — enters (apparently as a sort 
of hostage), King Olaf Haraldson's household, ii. 2143.9 — his 
efforts to save his cousin Asbiorn Seals'-bane's life after the 
murder of Thorir Seal, 2237-224 22719-2283 — goes to England 
into the service of King Knut, where he is handsomely ad- 
vanced, 255^«2 

SKIALG, a mignty and wealthy man who joined the revolt of 
Steigthorir and Svein, son of Harald Fletcher, against K. 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 20923-2 lOg 

SKIOLD (Skjöldr), son of Odin, King of Selund, married 
to Gefion, and had his seat in Hleithra, i. 161.2 

SKIOLD, King of Varna, a mighty wizard; his dealings with 
Eystein, King of Westfold, i. 682^-692« 

SKIOLDUNGS, descendants of K. Skiold,saga of them (Skjöld- 
unga saga), i. 5013 

SKOGUL, or Geir-Skogul (Skögul), a * Valkyrja,' i. 10223 ^^96 
19029 19I27 1921 e ii. 440«, 

SKOGUL-TOSTI, or simply Tosti (Sköglar-Tosti), a mighty 
yet untitled lord in Sweden, a great warrior, receives into his 
fellowship Harald the Grenlander, i. 212^-2133 — his daughter 
Sigrid the Haughty, 2133.5 35622^ — his son Wolf, Earl of 
West Gautland, 35620.2$ 

SKOPTI, the father of Skagi, i. 247^ 

SKOPTI of Gizki, son of Ogmund, married Gudrun, d. of 
Thord Folison; their children : Ogmund, Finn, Thord, Thora, 
wife of Asolf Skulison of Rein, and Ragnhild, wife of Eilif, 

192 Index I [sKO— SNO 

iii. 18411 ^^928 ^^Ssr'^^^s 377iM8 — ^^ '^^ ^ ^^'^ dispute 
with K. Magnus Barefoot about a heritage, 2351-336 — he and 
his sons all die on a pilgrimage to Rome, 237^1^ — said to be 
the first Norwegian to sail through Norvisound, 

SKOPTI OF-THE-TIDINGS (Ti«inda-Skopti), son of Skagi 
Skoptison, married to Ragnhild, the daughter of Hakon» 
Earl of Ladir, i. 2471^1^— held ^^ W^^^ favour by Hakoni 
who gave him great fiefs in Mere, and ordered his ship always 
to be berthed next to his own, 24719.19 — ^he was ever to be 
the bearer of the latest news to Hakon, whence his byname, 
^4^14-17 — ^^^ quarrel with Eric, Hakon's son, about the berth 
privilege, 2472^-24818— slain by Eric, 24818-24911 

SKULI (Skúli), Duke, the son of Bard, the son of Guthimn 
the son of Asolf of Rein and Thora d. of Skopti Ogmundson^ 
iii. 18418 33627 

SKULI, the King's fosterer (S. konungsfóstri) [son of Eail 
Tosti Godwinson, Fms. vi. 42817.19] accompanies EL Olaf the 
Quiet from England to Norway, great favourite of the king, 
marries his first cousin, Gudrun, d. of Nefstein, their son 
Asolf of Rein, iii. 1 83^-1 841Q 

SKULI, Earl of Orkney, son of Thorfinn Skull-deaver and of 
Grelad, daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, L 241^ u. 

SKULI, son of Thorstein the son of Egil Skallagrimson, an 
Icelandic poet, author of a poem on the great fight with the 
Jomsburg vikings, i. 3673^,-3684 

SKYLFINGS, better SKILFINGS (Skilfingar), name of a royal 
line in * Eastern ways ' from K. Skelfir (cf. Snoira Edda, L 
52217-19), hence princely race, i. 46^^ 

SLAYING GLUM (Viga Glúmr), L 280^ 

SLEMBI, or Slembi-Deacon ( = bad Deacon), nickname of 
Sigurd, reputed son of King Magnus Barefoot, iiL 3374 339m 99 

SMALLAND FOLK (Smálendingar), inhabitants of the 
Swedish province of Smalland, iii. 28535 

SNORRI THE PRIEST, son of Thorgrim (Snorri JXMrgrimsson 
go^i), near thirty-five when Christ's faith came to Iceland 
(1000), and died one winter after the fall of King Olaf the 
Holy (1031) (cf. Eredwellers' Sa^), i. 7^^ — receives bj 
Thorarin Nefíolfson a pressing invitation from K. Olaf 
Haraldson to go to Norway to meet the King, an invitation 

SNO — sol] Index I 193 

viewed with suspicion and not acted upon by Snorri, ii. 245- 

2463 24922 

SNOW THE OLD (Snjár hinn jamli), mythic K. of Finland, 
i. 26^ 

SNOWFAIR (SnæfrííSr), daughter of Swasi, a Finnish wizard, 
brews to Harald Hairifair a love-potion, * a cup full of honey- 
mead,' and he makes her his wedded wife, loving her so much 
that he neglects all his kingly duties, i. \\^^^-\2o^ — her 
children, and disenchanting removal for burial, 120. 

SOGNERS, Sognfolk, folk of, men of Sogn (Sygnir), inhabi- 
tants of the folkland of Sogn, Norway, i. 30821 ii. 14725 423i8 
iii. 22242731 2i3e344ie 

SOKMIMIR (Sökmímir),a giant ( = Sökkmímir, Grm.49), i. 263, 

SOLVA (Sölva), see Solveig. 

SOLVAR (Sölvarr), son of Solvi the Old, i. 6534 

SOI-VEIG (Solveig), wife of Andres Brunison,a Priest of Christ's 
Church at Kings' Rock, iii. 3254^ — flees away from Kings' 
Rock up country unto the stead of Sunberg with tidings of 
the Wendish sack of Kings' Rock, 32831 

SOLVEIG or Solva, d. of Halfdan Gold-tooth, married to K. 
Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 6533.38 — ^'^^ sons Ingiald and Halfdan, 
i. 6s3^3j^ 

SOLVI (Solvi), son of Halfdan Gold-tooth, Kmg of Sol-isles, 
slain by Swedish invaders, i. 65^ 67^.^ 

SOLVI, son of Hogni of Niord's-isle, a sea-king, and also pos- 
sessed of a realm in Jutland; burnt King Eystein of Sweden 
in his house; became King of the Swedes, who ultimately 
betrayed him, i. 523-534 

SOLVI KLOFI, son of King Hunthiof of Northmere, fights 
together with his father against Harald Hairfair in his first 
battle at Solskel, and saves himself by flight, i. 9930-10015 
— keeps up viking-raids during the next winter throughout 
Northmere, and stays at times with his kinsman King Amvid 
in Southmere, 101^.13 — brings about an alliance between K. 
Amvid of Southmere and K. Audbiom of Firthfolk against 
Harald, with whom they fight at Solskel, where they fell, and 
Solvi saved himself by flight, 1011^-10230— thereafter Solvi 
was a viking for a long time, and did much harm to Harald's 
realm, 10233-1033 — slays in battle, at the mouth of the Elf, 
Guthorm, son of K. Har. Hairfair, 128^11 iz'^\t-xi 
VI. o 

194 Index I [sol — ^ste 

SOLVI THE OLD (S. hinn gamli), who first deued the dis- 
trict of Sol-isles, i. 6525 
SOLVI, the son of Solvar, father to Halfdan Gold-tooth, i. 6] 
SORKVIR (Sörkvir, Swed. Sverker) IL, King of Sweden, ' 
1 2 10, son of Karl (the son of Sorkvir L), iii. 27 ij^ — muned 
to Ingigerd daughter of Earl Birgir Biosa and Brjgids, 
daughter of King Harald Gilli, 3797 
SORLI (Sörli), son of Jonakr, a mýtluc hero, L 259u ^7^ 
SOTI (Sóti), captain of a viking-band with whom Olair the Holj 
had his first battle amidst the islands afterwards called Soli- 
sker, ii. 6,0-74 
SOTI, an earl, brother to Sulki King of Rogaland, fbiqiht 
against Harald Hairfair, and fell in the battle of Hafimfiitl^ 

i. 1118-28 

SOUTHMERE (the folk oQ (Sunnmærír), inhabitants of 'the 

folkland of S. M., i. 30831 
SPAREBIÐERS (Sparbyggjar), inhabitanU of Spaieby, one of 

the folklands of Thrandheim, ii. 196^ 
SPORSNIALLR (Sporsnjallr), King of Nerick, burned in a 

banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evilheairt, L 58^10 ^ 

STARKAD THE OLD (Starka«r hinn gamli), one of die 
champions of K. Haki, i. 3813.15 — slew Ali the Bold at Upssl^ 


STEIG-THORIR, see Thorir of Steig. 

STEIN (Steinn), son of Herdis, an Icel. poet, author of a 
* flock,' or a short drapa on Wolf, K. Harald Hardiedy's mar- 
shal, iii. io4ig — l^"^s on the meeting of Harald's and Svein's 
hosts in Lofa-firth, when Harald's men wished to flee, i3>imi 
— on board Wolf the Marshal's ship in the battle of Ni^ 
1 3320-28 — song on the host of King Svein in that battle, I34imi 
— on the battle of Niz, 1355.25 — his drapa on K. Olaf me 
Quiet quoted, 168^^20 18729-188^ iQ^ims ^^^t^ 

STEIN, son of Skapti Thoroddson, goes in obedience to 
King Olaf Haraldson*s message by Thorarin NefioUson, 
to Norway, and stays with the king, ii. 24919^ — ^ refused 
return to Iceland next season by King Olaf, until the result 
of Gellir Thorkelson's mission to the island should be known, 
and is detained in a manner that * savoured of unfreedom,* 
274i6-2 752-~^is discontent at this treatment given vent to in 

STE — STu] Index I 195 

speech and song, 2783.5 12-19 — personal description, 278^^ — 
K. Olaf refuses to listen to a laudatory poem by Stein's father, 
on account of the son's refractory conduct, 2789.12 ^^ — he 
runs away from the court of the king, slays a steward of his 
in Orkdale, and seizes a horse and sleigh and makes for the 
south, 2791.88 — arrives at Giski, where Ragnhild, daughter of 
Erling Skialgson, in the absence of her husband Thorberg 
Amison, gives him the best of cheers out of gratitude for 
former kind service, 2801-28113 — by the aid of Thorberg and 
the family of Erling, Stein is delivered from the king's wrath 
and leaves Norway for England, where he remains for a long 
time in King Knut's service, 2815^4-28625 

STEINAR, the father of Sveinki, iii. 21410 

STEINKEL [son of Rognvald], King of Sweden, ob. c. 1066; 
receives Earl Hakon Ivarson flying away from K. Harald 
Hardredy's persecution, and appoints him ruler of Vermland, 
iii. 14521-24 146710 — gives support to him in his contest with 
Harald (Vener campaign), 1502^^27 1524.7 — dies near the time 
of the fallof the two Haralds (Godwinson and Hardredy), 226^ 

STEPHANUS, legate from Romeburg, at Biorgvin with Abp 
Eystein and other bishops, iii. 46118 

STEPHEN (Stefnir), King of England, iii. 376,2 

STIG WHITELEATHER (S. hvitale«r), marned to Margret, 
daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg the d. of K. Harald 
Valdemarson of Holmgarth; his and Margret's daughter 
Kristin, wife of the Swedish K. Karl, s. of Sorkvir, iii. 27028- 

2*7 1 

STONEGARTH, i. 10432 = Griotgard, Q-v. 
STOUR-WHILES MAGNUS (Styrjaldar Magnus), one of the 

nick-names of King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 23322 
STRADBIARNI, follower of K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 

44 1 16 
STRUT-HARALD (Strút-Haraldr), King of Skaney, father to 

Elarl Sigvaldi, Heming and Thorkel the High, i. 27024 — 
grave-ale feast after him, 27120-273^ 
STUF THE SKALD, son of Thord, sings of Harald Hardredy's 
doings in Palestine, iii. 71 17.27 724.12 — of Harald's warring, 
summer after summer, to Denmark, 971.4— on Harald's war- 
raid on Vendil-Skagi and Thioda, 9820-24 — on the kind recep- 
tion given to himself by Harald at Howe, 19320-28 

1 96 Index I [sty — svh 

STYRBIORN (Styrbjöm), son of Olaf the son of the Swednh 
king Biom (son of Eric), i. 1 24g 2 139 — subdued Hanld Gorm- 
son of Denmark so that he bacame Styrbiorn's XDasx^ u. 97^ 
982 — overcome and slain by his fathcar's brother. King Bnc 
the Victorious, 983.5 (cf. Flatey book, IL 7211-73,)— his oon- 
quests in the East-lands (the southern and eastern litoial of 
the Baltic) referred to, 9910^1 

STYRKAR (Styrkárr), mars!^ of King Harald Siguidsoo, lib 
adventure after the battle of Stamfordbridgei iii* I79r^ 

STYRKAR OF GIMSAR, son of Hreidar and grandfiittier of 
Einar Thambarskelfir, i. 21520 — commands in the centre of 
Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hioninffwick, 277^— 
threatened by Olaf Tryggvison to be sacrificed to the hfimwin 
gods, 3194^ 

STYRKAR GLOSSY-TAIL (S. glæsirófa), slain bj Sigmd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 35728"3S^i 

SULKI (Súlki), King of Rogaland, joins the kinp of Hoid- 
land, i^dir and Thelmark, against Harald Hairfair, and fnf^tSm 
against him in the battle of Hafursfirth, where he fidla, L 1 1 1^^ 

SUMMERLID (Sumarli^i), son of Sigurd the Thidc, Earl of 
Orkney, ii. 16930 — rules over the Orkneys after his fiithei^ 
death as co-Earl with his two brothers, X6913-Z701 s^— 4iii 
death, lyog^-iyii 

SVEIDI (SveÆi), a sea-king of fame, L 273,« 

SVEIN (Sveinn), an attendant on the blinded Upland King 
Rœrek, at whose instigation he attempts the life of King Ola^ 
but failing, was caught and allowed by Olaf to leave tt^ land 
in peace, ii. 1 2338-1 25^^ 

SVEIN, son of Bergthor Buck, iii. 424^« 

SVEIN BRIDGEFOOT (S. bryggjufóbr), a landed man of the 
Wick, assists Sigurd Woolstring in his mission to obtain the 
allegiance to K. Magnus Barefoot of Sveinki Stdnarson, iiL 
21421 ^'7i2 — ^^s ^^^ Bergthor a witness in the law-case of 
Sigurd Hranison, 27521.24 

SVEIN, son of Eric Everminded, King in Denmark 1x53-1157, 

iii. 27lg 

SVEIN, son of Earl Eric Hakonson, rules Norway after the death 
of his father conjointly with Hakon his brother, iL aip^t — 
Snorn's, or probably rather a scribe's, mistake; Earl Enchad 
no such son. 


Index I 197 

SVEIN, son of Erlend of Garth and father of Svein the father 
of Kyrping-Worm, iii. 37 1^ 

SVEIN, Earl, son of Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, ii. ^2^^^^^ 
iii. i55ig^ — with King Harald his brother at the battle of 
Helsingport, iSijg 

SVEIN OF J ADAR, son of Aslak the son of Erling Skialgson 
of Soli, iii. 299^7 

SVEIN, Olaf the Swede king's Earl in Norway, 1000-1015; 
son of Earl Hakon of Ladir and Thora, the daughter of 
Skagi Skoptison, i. 2473^ — commands a division of his father's 
fleet in the battle of Hiorungwick, 27713.22 2795.3 — ^^^s> ^^^ 
his brother Eric, to Sweden, when Olaf Tryggvison becomes 
king of Norway, 2^^YtrVi 345»^ — married to Holmfrid, daughter 
of King Olaf the Swede, 37721-22 — receives, on tributary terms, 
at the partition of Norway, after the fall of Olaf Tryggvison, 
his father-in-law's share, and holds that dominion as an Earl 
of Sweden, 37725-81 37^28-24 — proves a liberal, enlightened and 
a popular ruler, 37825.81 — rules Norway conjointly with his 
brother, Eric, ii. 211^21 25^22-24 — gives his sister Bergljot in 
marriage to Einar Thambarskelfir, 2224-20 — weds his daughter 
Sigrid to Aslak, son of Erling Skialgson, and confers on him 
the same grants as Olaf Tryggvison had conferred^ on Erling, 
33i2i8^^- 25528-29 "i- 'o^28-26 — ^^^ kindred opposed King Olaf 
Handdson on coming to Norway, 332K.27 — Olaf's estimate of 
him as antagonist, 3919.28 — flies from his residence at Steinker 
on hearing of Olaf s approach, and escapes detection by hid- 
ing his ship under the branches of trees that grew by the 
water's edge, 4825-4924 — council of war with Einar Thambar- 
skelfir in Frosta; the Earl goes to Stiordale, 4927-5 ©is 5 '1-2 — 
Earl Svein and the Icelanders' sailing-fees, 521^^ — having 
gathered a large host, the Earl and Einar Thambarskelfir 
march on Nidoyce, whence Olaf had to flee while they bum 
the place to the ground, 532-27 — ^after Yule he calls out a muster 
of men and ships from Thrandheim, and has a l^irge host, 
which he still recruits, going south along the land, joined by 
Einar Thambarskelfir and Erling Skialgson, and towards the 
end of Lent arrives with his fleet off" Nesiar, 5421-5 5i9 — the 
battle of Nesiar and Svein's defeat, 578-6081 cf. 1055.7 15018-ie 
— he resolves, against Erling Skialgson's advice, to flee the 
land and resort to the avail of his father-in-law. King Olaf of 

198 Index I [svE 

Sweden, 62^^^^ cf. 418^^^ — having collected the remiiant of 
his fleet outside the firth where he fought, King S^gnid Sov 
advises King Olaf, his stepson, to make a fresh attack on tiie 
Earl, which counsel Olaf did not follow, and so Eail Svein 
escaped, 6227-633 ^^^ — he goes to King Olaf of Sweden, who 
promises to supply him with men and means to reconqMr 
Norway from Olaf, 65^^^ — he plans an invasion of Thiudr 
heim next year and goes in the meantime warring about the 
Baltic, 6524.30 — returning in autumn to Sweden, he diet of 
sickness, and his company of Norwegians make their wqr 
over Jamtland to Thrandheim and bring the news of hii 
death, 663.,^;^ '^^^\^\*i — chronology of his and EL Olaf HanJd- 
son's reigns, 3673 j^js 46013^ 

SVEIN, son of Harald Fletcher, a Dane, raises, together with 
Steig-Thorir, after the death of K. Hakon Maj^nusson, the 
standard of revolt against K. Magnus Barefoot, liL aogu-aiqi 
— ^they defeat K. Magnus' commander, Sigurd Woolstnng^ at 
Vigg, 210^^20 — pursued by K. Magnus, they go north to 
Halogaland, plundering and burning, aiOs^-aiii^ — ^turning 
south in the same manner, they encounter K. Magnus in the 
firth called Harm, where Svein escapes by flight, 21 1^^^-^ 
Svein flees to Denmark, and ultimately gets into peace and 
favour with King Eystein, son of Magnus, 2i32«^2Z4j| 

SVEIN, King of Norway, 1030-1035; son of K, Kjiut the 
Mighty by his concubine Alflva, designated ruler over Nor- 
way by Knut while K. Olaf Haraldson was yet alive, ÍL 3899^ 
— receives, as ruler over Wendland, an order from his fitther 
to be king over Norway, 44910.13 — repairs to Norway in com- 
pany with his mother and Earl Harald, son of Thorkd the 
High, 449x8-88 — proclaimed king in Norway at ewy Law- 
Thing, 450^.3 — his unpopular laws, 45011-451JI, cf. iii- 268^^ 
— he, and in particular his mother, genially (usliked, 45I1M 
— the sons of Arni make terms of peace with K. Svein, ara 
go into private life, 45 38-18 — ^* Svein gives leave to bpGrimkel 
to take the body of K. Olaf out of the grave, and is present 
at the translation, 4554-456,9 — K. Svein's deeds sung by 
Thorarin Praisetongue, 4588-45980 — Svein's growing unpopu- 
larity, 46121-462 — his successful expedition against TVyggvi, 
463-465^ — reigns thereafter in peace, 465,0^— his officials, 
on heanng of the arrival in Norway of Magnus the Good, 


Index I 199 

take to flight everywhere, iii. 629-711 — Svein flies away from 
Norway, and accepts from his brother Hordaknut dominion 
in Denmark, 8-91^ lo^.j^ 15.1^ — he dies in Denmark, 98i-iOi — 
his relations to Sigvat the Skald, 131216 
SVEIN, son of Knut Sveinson of Jadar by Rimhild, commands 
a galley in K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's fleet, iii. 29915.1^ — ^^ 
quarrel with Harald Gilli, 30017-3022 
SVEIN, a Priest, slain together with his two sons by Sigurd 

Slembi-Deacon and King Magnus the Blind, iii. 35721 
SVEIN, son of Rimhild, see Svein son of Knut Sveinson of 

SVEIN, the son of Svein the son of Erlend of Garth, iii. 37 1^ 
SVEIN, *King of Denmark,* son of K. Svein Wolfson, iii. 4271^ 
SVEIN TWI BEARD (S. tjúguskegg). King of Denmark, 986- 
10 14, son of K. Harald Gormson, said to have been baptized 
to the name of Otto Svein, given him by his gossip, the Em- 
peror Otto II., i. 2605.8 cf. ii. 25012.15 — married, i, Gunnhild, d. 
of K. Burislaf of Wendland, i. 271,0.11 ^^.^^\ their sons Harald 
and K. Knut the Mighty, 2711^.17 ii. 25012.14; 2, Sigrid the 
Haughty, 34823.31; their daughter Astrid, wife of Earl Wolf, 
s. of Thorgils Sprakalegg, ii. 26723.25 iii- 293.10 — fa-ther to Gyda 
(by what mother not stated), the wife of Earl Eric Hakonson, 

Svem demands of his father a share m the kingdom, and 
on refusal rises in rebellion, giving his father battle in Iceflrth 
in Sealand, where K. Harald is mortally wounded, i. 2703.19 
— Svein becomes K. of Denmark, 2702^21 — kidnapped by Earl 
Sigvaldi he is forced to marry Gunnhild d. of K. Burislaf of 
Wendland, and to betroth to him his sister Thyri, 27031-27I14 
34^24-2« — vows, at the famous grave-ale after his father, to con- 
quer England, 2 7 123-2 7 212— marriage alliances, 34812-88 35 Vs^ 
— ^forced by Earl Sigvaldi to hand over to him his sister Thyn 
to be married to K. Burislaf, 3493-21 cf. 3503.10 — settles on Thyri 
the domains in Wendland that had belonged to his deceased 
(in reality repudiated) queen, Gunnhild, 34921^5 — ^' ^^ 'm!&ú' 
gation of his queen, Sigrid the Haughty, he summons his allies, 
King Olaf the Swede and Earl Eric, to join battle with Olaf 
Tryggvison when going to Wendland, 3591.21 ii. 987.0 — they join 
their forces with him when Olaf had already sailed by to Wend- 
1^"*^ 359«"3^^6 — ^^ employs Earl Sigvaldi to lead Olaf Trygg- 


Index I 

vi$on inio a trap, where he and his allies should be ready to 

attack him, 360^^^ — awaits King Olaf at the - island * of Svoldr, 
where the latter is defeated and drowned, Z^^^ullMi ^^* ^*- 
98^8 — Svein treats with his allies for the spoils of eventual 
victory^ 3*54ia-a9 — ^^^ P^^^ share in the battle as Olaf Trygg- 
vison had guessed, ^^l^.^ 1921 368^ g^,,— receivers for his shaie 
of Norway after the fall of Olaf Tryggvison : the Wick, Raum- 
realm and Heath mark, but bestows the latter two folk lands 
on Earl Erie, 37Sjj)(j.j2 ii. 2^0^^^,^^ cf iii. 438^^3— his presence 
in England; K, Æthelred flies to Normandy, iL iij^j^jj^^his 
sudden, legendariiy accounted for, death, 1 z 2^.3^— praised by 
King Rcerek of Heathmark for his mild and liberal rule in 
Norway, 431723 
SVEIN WOLP^SON, King of Denmark, 1047-1076, son of Earl 
Wolf the son of Thorgils Sprakalegg by Astrid, d, of Svein 
Twibeard and Sigrid the Haughty (Svein's mother being thus 
half-sister of Knut the Mighty and aunt of K. Onund of 
Sweden), ii* 26733.20 3^ 9«-s» i**- 2 9 ^.n,— married Gunnhild, d 
of Earl Svein HaJconson, iii. 1063,^^ — his childienj 19421^ 

His father having offended K. Knut, Svein intercedes and 
offers himself a hostage for him, ii. 3 1 9- ,^, — K. Knut hav- 
ing murdered his father^ Svein betook himself to his cousiti 
Onund, K. of Sweden, and dwelt with him for a long time, 
iii. 29jy.|^— personal description, 2917.23— becomes ^- Magnus 
the Good's man and is appointed by him Earl of Denmark, 
2925-3 1 2j^ — breaks his allegiance to K, M. and sets yp as King 
of Denmark, 3353^^— hearing that K. Magnus was coming with 
a host from Norway he flees to Sweden, collects an army and 
goes to Denmark to oppose Magnus, 53^4-343- — severely de- 
feated by K. Magnus of the islaiid of Re (Rugen) he flees 
to Skaney, gathers a fresh host and takes it to Riveroyce 
in Jutland, where he suffers an overwhelming defeat, being 
chased by Magnus through Denmark, 38-442^— Svein flees 
to Sweden, gathers an army once more and goes to Denmark, 
where he is defeated once again by Magnus at Holiness and 
driven to Sweden, ^^^-^^^ 80-49^»^ — ThiodolPs commemora- 
tion of the three battles Svein fought with Magnus, 5t|(jiB — 
Svein makes acquaintance with Harald Sigurdson (Hardredy) 
and enters art alliance with him for reconquering Denmark 

SVE — swa] Index I 201 

and ousting K. Magnus the Good out of Norway, 7717-8012 
— sudden end of the alliance with Harald, 81 7-832 883^ — puts 
himself in possession of Denmark once more, 88^5.^4 — flees 
away from Denmark once again before the combined forces 
of Kings Magnus and Harald, 9O21.28 — receives by Thorir the 
last will of K. Magnus, whereby he confers on Svein the 
kingdom of Denmark, 91 10.17 9317-940 — S vein's relations to K. 
Harald Hardredy, 94io.i6976~^o24 1 20ig-i 2 17 1 27-1 28 — receives 
into his service Hakon Ivarson, 1161^.00 47316-19 — likewise 
Finn Arnison, whom he creates Earl, 1228.11 4731619 — tmttle 
with Harald off the Niz (river) in Lofafirth, Svein signally 
defeated, 12914.19 ^Z^z'^Zl — escapes under the name of Vand- 
rad by the aid of Hakon Ivarson, 138-1405 n.ig 20.25 I44i6" 
i45i2 — Svein and Karl the goodman who aided him in escap- 
ing, 1395.10 88" ^4^4 ^42i8~i43ii — peace made between Svein 
and Harald, 14627- 14910 — ^- Svein and his cousin, earl Tosti, 
i59i4-i6oig — after the death of Harald, Svein breaks the peace 
with Norway, but comes to terms with the sons of Harald, 
18711-1888 — his death, offspring and family connections, 19419- 

1954 46328-25 
SVEIN KI, son of Steinar, father to Ragnhild the mother of 

Erling Askew, iii. 3719.5 — fosterer of Hakon the son of Mag- 
nus the son of Harald Hardredy, before Thorir of Steig took 
over his fostering, 2141^.1^ — his contest and peace with K. 
Magnus Barefoot, 2i4iQ-22ig 

SVERRIR, King of Norway (reputed son of K. Sigurd Mouth 
s. of Harald Gilli), quoted as an authority for one account of 
the death of King Eystein, s. of Harald Gilli, iii. 3963 — takes 
the body of King Hakon Shoulderbroad, his 'brother,' to 
Cheaping, Le. Nidoyce, and laid it in the stone-wall in Christ's 
church, 4470-12 

SVERTING (Svertingr), son of Runolf the priest, an Icelander 
converted to Christianity by Olaf Tryggvison in Nidoyce, i. 
33422-23 — ^^P^ ^ hostage with other nobles of Iceland by Olaf 
Tryggvison, to insure the conversion to Christianity of Ice- 

l^d. 354i7^ 

SWANHILD (Svanhildr), daughter of King Eystein of Heath- 
mark, one of Harald Hairfair's wives, i. 11415-18 

SWASI (Svasi), a Finnish wizard, father of Snowfair, inveigles 
Harald Haiifair into his daughter's power, i. 1197.29 


Index I [swE^ — tha 

SWEDES (Svfar), properly the name of the race that ruled in 
the middle part of modern Sweden e^specially round the MaL 
lake, and were distinguished from the Gauls their souther 
and western neighbours, With the extension of the sway ' 
the Upsalakiiigs the term S%^kr underwent a similarly extended 
application, i, 4^ m^^^f^m ^H 10 13 v» n ^:^& i§ ^^ ip ^lu ^S 
11 IT 3726 3^22 ^^ 4O3 ^i^ 43n, 45i7 47g 48^ j^ 51^ 53^ ^^ ^ 5^ 
2» SSn Ht\ iH 6^11 6 7a 163. 367^ ^ 369^ j^ ,g— il 59, 1^^ Sj^ ^ j 
4^5 7624 Sö^ 9iití 9^^ 9928 ÍÍ22 Hi 33 3*317 32154 3^310 3^4^ 
326^7 3283 391 ,^ 394^ 41 3^0— UL 418 01 S21 616 1* 49!ö 77s5 ít 7^i 

SWEGDIR, son of Fiolnir, and his successor in the rule of the 
Swedes, i. 3522.33— spent ^^^ y^^"^ ^^ ^ journey to Godhome, 
came to Turkland and Sweden the Great {Magna Scythia), 
found there friends and kindred, and married Vana of Van- 
home, 2524.91^ — went again to visit Godhome, and in that 
journey was inveigled by a dwarf to enter his hollow rock in 
which he was shut up and he never came back a^ain, 2^^- 
2634 — cf. 159, and :^9^u^—^^^ also K. Gislason's Udvalg af 
oldnordiske Skjaidekvad, 64^^33 

SWlNE-GRlM (Svina-Grfmr/, maimed by Siprd Slembi^ 
Deacon, iii. ZS^t-^ 

SWIPDAG (Svipdagr), the greatest of champions, i. 1%^^^ i^ ^ 

SWIPDAG THE BLIND (S. blindi), a kinglet who rule' 
over Tenthland, fosterer of Ingjald Evilhearti i* 550-5 Ol- 
sons, S 830^5 9^ ^— his death, 61^^ 

SWOLNIR (Svolnir), one of Odin's names, Odin, i* aiS^^ 

TEIT, son of Isleif (Teitr 'Isleifsson), fostered by Hall of Hawk- 
dale, where he lived after his fosterer's death, was the teacher 
of Ari the Historian^ and told him manifold lore, i* ^^^ 

TEIT (Teiir), an Icelandic noble, son of Ketilbiorn, father to 
Gi^ur the White^ i. 334.27.33 

TEMPLEGARTH-RE1\ foster-son of Gizur Goldbrow, an Ice^ 
Ian die poet, stationed, together with the other poets at his 
court, by the side of K. Oiaf Haraldson within his shield burgh 
in the battle of Stick lestead, so that they might be eye-wit- 
nesses of the events they would sing of afterwards, li. 404^4^31 
— sings of the fall of his foster-father in the battle of StickU 
stead, 43<'iii ss 

THANGBRAND (þangbrandr) • Dankbrand/ a Saxon (Germa 
priest in Olaf Tryggvison's service, sent by the kii 

THE — THo] Index I 203 

convert Iceland to Christianity, i. 6^5 3235.12 — stayed three 
winters in Iceland, converted many chieftains and slew three 
men, 32312-20 — comes back to Norway and assures Olaf Trygg- 
vison that the country will never be converted to Christianity, 
339i7-2s — ^^' ^^ Icelanders in the king's confidence convince 
him that Thangbrand's failure was owing to the violence of 
his missionary method, 3407.1Q 

THELMARK (They of) (þilir), inhabitants of the folkland of 
Norway now called Telemarken, i. 11I5 

THIAZI (þjazi), a giant, i. loo^i 

THICK MAN (Hinn digri maiSr), mocking name by which 
only King Olaf Haraldson might be named at the court of 
King Olaf of Sweden, ii. 8437 97^ 98^5 

THIODOLF, son of Amor, called * Earls' skald ' (jarla-skald), 
an Icelandic poet at the court of K. Magnus the Good and K. 
Harald Sigurdson — his songs on events of K. Magnus's reign : 

^' "110 17-25 7211 ^^2-10 2^15-24 ^ 72-10 16-25 27-85 3^0-18 3210-19 24-88 
3^14-22 80"376 3^20-24 4^7-15 22"4l4 14-18 28*428 10-18 20-24 26-88 43518 22" 
446 11-27 454-20 4611.19 22-31 472-15 17-26 81"40e 8-16 18"497 11-19 5 ^ 10-18 

— his songs on events of Harald's reign: 57io-i8 ^37-16 7 ^2-10 

74ll-19 7729-780 8O4-12 831-10 I<^7lO-18 I2927-I3O6 10-84 I3I4-I2 14-28 
26-84 '332-« 816 ^3528"^ 3^4 I37l8-17 24-81 ^479-24 28-85 ^408-28 ^49l-8 
^S^s-ll ^54i.8 18-22 27-81 ^55l-8 ^7528-86 ^77l6-24 ^^426-80 ^855.14 18.2a 

THOR (JJórr), one of Odin's *Diar,' dwelt, on coming to Sweden, 
at Thundermead, i. 1628-29 — his name given to children, 1925.26 
— making the sign of his hammer (hamars-mark) over a cup 
before drinking it, done only by such as trust in their own 
might and main, i. 16920.22 — regarded as the chief god of the 
Norwegian people by the poet Einar Jingle-scale, a court poet 
to Earl Hakon, when he says that Earl Hakon left all temple- 
lands ofEinridi ( = Thor)and the other gods, once harried, free 
for the people's religious exercises, 242g.11 cf. 2oiiY.ig — in the 
temple of Mere he sat * the most honoured of all the gods, 
adorned with gold and silver,' which image Olaf Tryggvison 
smote down, his men doing the same to the images of other 
gods, 32O28-30 — a temple consecrated to him at Hof in northern 
Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2011^.23 32 — his image there and daily cult 
described, 205-.15 — destruction of image and worship together, 

2O780-2O86 12-5K 

THORA (JJóra), has by K. Magnus Barefoot a son, Sigurd 

204 Index I [tho 

Jerusalem-farer, iii. ^zZv^w — ^^ cruelty to die aening lid 

Kolbein, 302g.2g 
THORA, a workwoman of Simon, son of Thoxbeig^ bccomei, 

by K. Sigurd s. of Harald Gilli, mother to K. Hakon ShouUer 

broad, iii. 3730.1^, 
THORA, daughter of Guthorm Greybeard, becomes bj IL 

Harald Gilli mother to K. Sigurd Mouth, iiL 3i4«Mt 
THORA (þóra), daughter of K. Hakon the Good, t. i88u 
THORA, daughter of Joan, had by K. Olaf the Quiet a aoiw 

Magnus Barefoot, iii. 195^.5 — married (?) Bryniolf Camdt and 

with him had issue, Skialdvor and Haldor, 48x20.^ 
THORA MOST-STAFF (þ. mostrstöng), of the fti of Hoidft- 

kari, a native of the island of Most, and a serving mmid at 

K. Har. Hairfair's court, mother of Hakon, afterwards KL H. 

the Good of Norway, i. 1381.2Q 
THORA OF RIMUL, 'a wealthy dame,' one of Earl Hakxm^ 

greatest favourites, i. 292^^1 — ^hides Earl Hakon' from his 

enemies at her manor of Rimul in a hole dug out under a 

pigsty, 2947.29 
THORA, daughter of Saxi in Wick, the moth^, on her own 

evidence, by K. Magnus Barefoot of Sigurd Slembi-Deaoon, 

iii- 336i».2o 3377-8 . . . , •, . 

THORA, a daughter of Skagi Skoptison, mamed to Hakon, 

the Earl of Ladir, i. 2473.^ 
THORA, daughter of Skopti Ogmundson, wife of Aiolf of 

Rein, iii. 18410-11 22531 
THORA, daughter of Thorberg the son of Ami and of Ragnhild 

daughter of Erling Skialgson, baptized by Bard, and ImM at 

the font by Stein Skaptison, who gave her a finger-ring^ iL 

280^.31 — married to Harald Sigurdson, their sons, iiL 961^^1 

— remains in Norway on Harald's going on the expedition to 

England, 16500 
THORA, daughter of Thorstein Gallows, married to Ami, aon 

of Arnmod, ii. 19815.17 
THORALD (þóraldi), a king's steward at the manor of Howe^ 

his report to K. Olaf Haraldson, as to the heathen life of tbe 

men of Upper-Thrandheim, ii. i9S«o"'974 
THORALD CHAPS (þ. keptr), slain by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon. 

iii- 35727 
THORALF (þórálfr), [son of Sigmund Brestison], of Dimon 


Index I 205 

goes, summoned by Olaf Haraldson, with many representatives 
of the Faroe people to Norway and becomes one of the king's 
household and bodyguard, and with the rest agrees to the 
subjection of Faroe to Norwegian rule, ii. 246^^-24724 — goes 
again at the summons of the king to Norway, followed by the 
foster-sons of Thrand o' Gate in another ship; both ships 
landing, at a short distance from each other, at the island of 
Hema in Norway, Thoralf is slain there, after nightfall, the 
suspicion falling on Thrand ©'Gate's foster-son Sigurd Thorlak- 
son, 2693-2722 
Skolmsson), (his father's full name was þorbjörn Skolmr), 
fought beside K. Hakon the Good in the battle of Fitjar, i. 

THORAR (þórarr), a * lawman ' in Jamtland, ii. 2951.2 — ^^^ 
dealings with Thorod Snorrison and his following, 2952-2983 

THORARIN (þórarinn), the origin of the name, i. 1906-20 

THORARIN CURTFELL (þ. stuttfeldr), an Icelandic poet, 
sings of K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's departure for Palestine, 
iii. 24820-249^ — of the king's successful stratagem before a 
cave in the island of Forminterra occupied by Africans, 2541^.22 
— the origin of his nickname, 2867.^4 — his adventures at the 
court of K. Sigurd, 2867-2885 — gets into K. Sigurd's favour 
for a * drapa ' on him, 288^.14 

THORARIN, son of Nefiolf, one of the captains of Icelandic 
ships whom Olaf Tryggvison christened together with Kiartan 
Olafson, i. 335i8.2o 337i&-i8 — personal description and char- 
acter, ii. i33j.i2 — his stay at Tunsberg with King Olaf Harald- 
son, a wager laid by the king and taken by Thorarin, on the 
ugliness of the latter's foot, 1 3313-1 3429 — losing his wager he 
has to bring the blind King Rœrek to Greenland or Iceland 
as chance might decide, and hands him over to Thorgils 
Anson of Reek-knolls in Iceland, 13480-13616 — appointed 
one of King Olaf's bodyguard, 1357.14 — abets the family of 
Erling Skialgson in saving Asbiom Seal's-bane from King 
Olaf's wrath, 2248-22712— sent by King Olaf on a political 
mission to Iceland, with the object of incorporating the island 
in the realm of Norway, a plan which, though favoured by 
Gudmund the Mighty, was foiled by the opposition of Einar 
Eyolfson, Gudmund's brother, 2427-244 — again Th. brings 

T-rought on Knut's S 
the song called Togdrap 

A fiva's son the son! c3 
celebrates the miracles 

itPcSt^^^;:^ promise of 

and himself and sweo« f 
9«^ «o^ ***'" 2> wears an oi 

ff%c-^oxxnátá in the batt 
Jjrns home and malg^^J,^ 
4S38.,8--jo,ns his brother in 

;^ght, the builder ^,Z\ 


Index I 2Qri 

THORBIORN HORNKLOFI, one of King Harald Fairhair's 

court poets, author of Glymdrapa, i. 99^.2^ looe-w ^^^vvíí 21» 

I 1 1 2^-1 1 36 1 1424.30 1 162-10 
THORBIORN RENTMASTER (gjaldkeri), in command of 

K. Magnus Erlingson's forces at Biorgvin, iii. 45728 
THORBIORN SKALD-ASKEW (þ. Skakka skald), or rather 

Askew's skald, author of a drapa on Erling Askew, iii. 3723.17 

44014-22 46030-4618 
THORD (þór«r), on board a ship in Harald Hardredy's fleet 

lying bound for England, his dream, iii. 16411.33 
THORD BIGBELLY (þ. ístrumagi), a captain of the folk of 

Gudbrandsdale in their strife against King Olaf Haraldson's 

missionary activity, ii. 20324.27 20527-2063 
THORD, son of Bork (son of Thorstein Codbiter, see Ere- 

dwellers' saga, Saga Library, 2 Genealogies, i.), for some time 

a member of King Olaf Haraldson's household, ii. 241 22.26 
THORD, son of Fóli (þ. Fólason), King Olaf Haraldson's 

banner-bearer, ii. 1 2823-1 301 4 1 223-41 34 4294.3 — his fall, 43013.21 

— father of Gudrun, who was married to Skopti, son of Og- 

mund, iii. 22529 
THORD FREY'S priest (þ. Freysgo^i), father of Kolbein and 

Buming-Rosi, i. 33421-22 
THORD, son of Guthorm, of Steig in northern Gudbrandsdale, 

the mightiest man of those parts, woos and obtains in marriage 

Isrid, d. of Gudbrand, K. Olaf's aunt, and becomes K. Olafs 

dearest friend, ii. 24829-249^ [same as Th. Bigbelly?] 
THORD, son of Horda-Kari, father of Klypp the Hersir, 

i- 21520-21 30328 
THORD HOUSEWIFE, courtman of King Sigurd son of 

Harald Gilli, slain at Biorgvin in an affray between Kings 

Sigurd and Ingi, iii. 38937.31 
THORD, son of Kolbein, an Icel. poet, author of Eric's drapa, 

i- 27328-8Q 2744.12 275l4-22 27728-31 2992p-3004 345l4-30 3736-12 

3783.19 — li. 267.15 2d84 — spends some time in the household 
(bodyguard) of K. Olaf Haraldson, 24122.2« 
THORD THE LOW (þ. hinn lági), son of Thorlak the brother 
of Thrand o* Gate, personal description, ii. 26935.32 — goes with 
his brother Sigurd, at Thrand's egging-on, to Norway in pur- 
suit of Thoralf of Dimon, who on landing in Norway is mys- 
teriously murdered, 2701-27412 — aids Gaut the Red in taking 



the life of Karl o' Mere, jog^^i^^s outlawed for the mis- 
deed, 309j^a^ 

THORD of Niordlow, stationed in the fore-hold of the Long^ 
Worm, i. 353,^ 

THORD SIAREKSON (þ. Sjáreksson), Icet poet, author of 
a drapa on Thoralf Skolmson, i. 18423^ '^Tiv^a^ ^^^ ^^ ^ 
death'Song on King Olaf Haraldson, ii, 3331-^ 

THORD SIGVALDI-S SKALD (þ Sigvaldaskáld), an Ice- 
landic poet, father to Sigvat the poet and trusted counsellor 
of K. Olaf Haraldson, spent a long time with Earl Stgvaldi 
of Jomsburg and later with his brother Thorkel* fell in with 
K. Olaf Haraldson in his western warfare and remained with 
him ever afterwards^ ii* 51^4 iii i^ie 

THORD, son of Skopti Ogmundson and Gudrun d. of Thord 
the son of Foli, iii. 2 25«-.jj^accompanies his father on 
pilgrimage to Rome anci dies in Sicihv 2377.1^, 

THORD SKOTAKOLL{skotakollr), a sister's son of Sigvat tJ 
Skald, sent on a secret mission to Earl Rognvald to advise hii 
of King Olaf Haraldson's acceptance of the Earl's proposal to 
take Astrid, d. of K, Olaf of Sweden, for wife, ii. 151^-1525 

THORD THE YELLER (þ. gellir, son of Olaf Fetlan), a chief 
of Broadfirth in Iceland, i. 269^^ 

THORDIS SKECKiJA (|>ÓTdfs skeggja), a sorceress, got by 
Gun n hi Id, K, Hakon Shoulderbroad*s fostermother, to 'sit 
out * in order to find out, how Hakon might come oflT victori- 
ous in his contest with K. Ingi, iii* 424^43 

THORFIN EISLI {þorfinnr eisii) of Inner Thrandheim, a fore^ 
GMtle man on board the l^ng-Worm, L 353 1,> 

THORFIN MOUTH {]). munnr), an Icelandic poet with K. 
Olaf Haraldson at the battle of Sticklestead, ii. 40421 — sings a 
stave, 405jQ^— slain in the battle, 43022 

THORFIN, Earl of Caithness^ Sutherland and Orkney, tio64, 
son of Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney, by his second wife, a 
daughter of Malcolm 11., King of Scotland, ii* 169^72^ — 
[married Ingibiorg, d. of Finn Ami son, called 'Earls* mother,' 
niece of Kalf Amison, their sons] Paul and £rlend,iii. i66j^cf. 
t í9ie^i — ^placed, five years old, with his grandfather^ when Earl 
Sigurd went on his ill-starred expedition to Ireland, ii. 1 70|^ — 
made by his grandfather Earl of Caithness and Sunderland, 
*7°i'is — personal description, 17023.21 — on the death of his 


Index I 209 

brother, Summerlid, Thorfin lays claim to his share, one third, 
of Orkney, but Einar, his brother, possesses himself thereof 
with a high hand, lyii-n — bestirs himself with an armed force 
to follow up his claim to his share in Orkney, which by Brusi's 
intervention, is peaceably covenanted to him, i73ir'74i8 — 
feud renewed between Thorfin and Einar on the latter^s driv- 
ing away from the islands Thorfin's tax-gatherer, 1758-29 — 
Thorfin brings the matter to the cognisance of, and goes him- 
self to see, the King of Norway, 17520-^7^19 — returning to 
Orkney he comes, by Brusi's intervention, again to peaceful 
terms with Einar, 176^9^ — Thorfin's and Bnisi's dispute over 
the sharing of Orkney after the death of Earl Einar, settled 
by Olaf of Norway, so that both held their respective shares 
in fief of Norway's king, 1 7823-1852 I99ii.i8 — Thorfin forgives 
Thorkel Amundson the murder of his brother. Earl Einar, 
and appoints him commander of his forces, 1858-1863 — Thor- 
fin undertakes the defence of Orkney against vikings by 
Brusi ceding to him one half of his dominion, 1 8720-1 88iq — 
his character, length of his reign, his death, i88ji^4 — Kalf 
Amison with him in the Orkneys, iii. 1191821 

THORFIN SKULL-CLEAVER (þ. hausakljúfr), earl of Ork- 
ney, son of Turf-Einar, dispossessed by the sons of Eric Blood- 
axe, i. 15429-1555 ii» 1694.7 — resumes the earldom of Orkney 
on Gunnhild, with her sons, leaving the isles for Denmark, 
^59ifri8 ^^- "• ^6^27 31 — ^^^^ ^^ sickness, his sons ruling over 
the land after him, i. 241 24.26 ii* 1698-9 

THORFIN THE SWART (þ. svarti), of Snos, a partisan of 
Eystein the son of K. Eystein the son of Harald Gilli, iii. 
48322— falls at Re, 

THORGAUT HARELIP (þorgautr skar«i), a joint leader with 
his brother, Asgaut Bailiff, of a mission of four-and-twenty 
men sent by K. Olaf the Swede to gather the taxes he laid 
claim to in Norway, ii. 6924.58 — failure of their negotiations 
with the Thrandheimers, 6928-7015 — unavailing interview 
with King Olaf, 70^3-724 — refused further interviews by King 
Olaf, 72^.^2 — Thorgaut returns with some of his following back 
to Sweden, 7213.^^ — hears, before he quits Thrandheim how 
his brother with his following was hanged by K. Olafs Guests 
and brings the news east to King Olaf the Swede, 7227.31 — 
attacks Gudleik the Garthrealmer and slays him and robs his 

VI. p 


Ifidex I 


and King Olaf Hajraldson's goods^ ^^»« — ^^^ ^ attacked in 
turn by Eyiind Urochshom and skin, and the robbed pro- 
perty is restored to Olaf Hamklsoa, S 2^,-83,5 
THORGEIR AFRADSKOLLíttoígdrTafra^skollr), lived at 
Nidness, 99 5 ^ Odd Kolson*s source for the history of the 
Kings of Norway, Odd being, in turn, the source of An tbc 
Leamed's ' Lives * of Norw. Kings^ i. 6^ 
THORGEIR, a lord of the Wick, mamed Ingirid ibe d* of 
Lodin and Astrid K, Olaf Trjggyison's mother, i. joi^^^g^ — 
aids Olaf Tryggvison in christening the \A'ick, 3021^-30^^ — 
joins Olaf Trygg^-i son's esqiedidon to Wendland, 35^^0.1« 
THORGEIR. chaplain of John's Church, Nidoyce, iii. 48 
THORGEIR^ a steward of a roj^ manor in Orkdale, witn« 
• how King Olaf Haraldsoo rebtiked Stein Skaptison for 
disloyalty, ii. 27850-279^ — slain by Stein for refusing him 
means of travelling on running away froui the King's coyit, 

THORGEIR FLECK (JD, flekkr), a goodman of Sula in Vera- 
dale^ devoted to the cause of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 397s'39&i^ 
— exposes the traitors at K. Magnus 01afson*s court, and re^ 


— exposes the traitors at K. Magnus Ulatson s court, and re^i 
ceives the King^s friendship m return, iii, 18^^-1$^ ^^k 

HORGEIR, son of Havar, for a while a member of kin^^ 


Olaf Haraldson's household, ii. 24139^ 

THORGEIR of Kvistsiead, a landed-man, his altercation with 
K. Olaf Haraldson at Sticklestead, iL 42631-427^— slain by K, 
Olaf in the battle, 4301^1^^ his lands confiscated by K. Mag- 
nus the Good, iii. 2i^-,jg 

THORGEIR LEECH,' the son of Stone, iii. 3651^ 

THORGILS (þorgiis), son of Ari» a renowned lord [of Reel 
knolls] on the northern side of Broad firth in Iceland, keeps 
the bhnded king Rœrek for one winter, as King Olaf Hamld* 
son*s prisoner, ii, 136^^^ 

THORGILS, son of Gellir {>, Gellisson), father to Ari the 
Learned, i* 51711 

THORGILS, son of Hal ma, the goodman of Sticklestead, offers 
to fight on the side of Olaf Haraldson, but is requested by 
blm to help the wounded ralher and, in case of his falling, 
to do the needful service to his dead body, Íi. 410^*4111, — 
he and his son remove the body from the battlefield to a 
little out'house, wash it, swathe it in linen, and cover 


THo] Index I 211 

with wood (faggots), 4443.14 — ^8^^"» i^ consequence of an 
accident which they feared might lead to the discovery of it 
by the king's enemies, they remove it into the meadow and 
hide it there, 44524.31 — they make a coffin to the body, and a 
dummy coffin as well, filled with stones and straw, the weight 
of a man, 44722^ — they take both coffins down to Nidoyce 
on board a boat, and deliver the dummy chest to bishop 
Sigurd's men, but under cover of the darkness of night, 
they rowed up the river Nid to Saurlithe, and bore the chest 
into a waste shed there, and waked over the body through the 
night, 44730-44828 — next they took the body still further up 
the river and buried it in a sand-hill near the bank, and 
went back to Sticklestead, 44839-4497 — at bishop GrimkeFs 
request, they give evidence as to what happened to the body 
while in their charge, 45427-4554 

THORGILS, son of Harald Hairfair and, apparently, Gyda, 
daughter of Eric, King of Hordland, i. ii4io — proclaimed 
king by his father, 13I18 — furnished with warships by his 
father, he warred in Scotland, Wales and Ireland, and won 
Dublin, and became king thereover, and was betrayed by the 
Irish, 13221.28 

THORGILS ODDISON of Saurby in Western Iceland, his re- 
lations to Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3384-33923 

THORGILS, son of Snorri, *said that he saw the altar-cloth 
which was made ' of a cloak that Harald Hardredy gave to 
Steig-Thorir, iii. 863^-878 

THORGILS SPRAKALEGG, father of Earl Wolf, the brother- 
in-law of King Knut the Mighty, ii. 26722-25 

THORGILS, son of Thorolf Lousebeard, six winters old when 
Olaf Tryggvison was bom, i. 224^1.^2 — seized by vikings, and 
sold into slavery in Esthonia, together with Olaf Tryggvison, 
2295-16 — bought, together with Olaf, by the latter's uncle, 
Sigurd Ericson, and brought to Holmgarth, 23O5.7 

THORGNYR (þorgnýr), a lawman of Tenthland, grandfather of 
Thorgnyr the famous lawman, ii. 11319 

THORGNYR, son of Thorgnyr, lawman of Tenthland, father 
to the following, ii. 11 319 

THORGNYR, son of Thorgnyr, a mighty lawman of Tenth- 
land in Sweden, an old man, surrounded by a court, the 
wisest man in Sweden, akin to and foster-father of Earl 




TBOfGEIM SKINH0OD(þai9^il»MiiX€Q^of 
Hyw Banlboc's baded mm, ivbs naj &ob tl>e lá , 
fefelMl mtá tesl acbon wftli die Imiiv m. ^%^^t4s^ 

THORGRIM, ton €Í Tfaiodoir of Hvm, sttfiooed in ^fiwc^ 
bold on boftrd tbe LcM^Woniu L js j^ 

THORGUNXA rThorguxmr, din|^t£r of Vesed of Bofgood- 
bolfliX at^nied to Aid Paliatotft lOfw tbór son V^n, i 


THOIUR Íþént), or^ of tte mme, L igke^ 

7'HORIR, mo outlaw in JansUand, anxned to tlie ikta^ of 

Amljot C^rllini, befriends TlMirod Sooti^n vtiea lyii^ for 

bii Life from Thoniri bimiaii of JamtJandj ii 2^^^^^/^ 
l^ORIR, (half')brother of King Magnus the Good, sent bf 

Magnui with his last wiU to Svein Wolfson oonferting oo \öm 

the kingdom of Denmark, iiL 9ti<ný 9414 
THORIR BARNACLE (% helsingr), captaÍQ of tlie Vimi^ 

in Conitantmopie, \iu 45o^shk 
THORIR BEARD (>. skegg), one of eight lords of Tliniod> 

heim combined to force K- HaJton tbe Good to join in 

hcftihen fcntivals, i. 1703^ 
'I'HÖKIR^ !íon of Erling SkiaJgson of Soli and Astrid* daughter 

of King Tryggvi Olafson^ ii* 24,^— goes in a cmft of twenty 

benchet to aid his brother-inlaWp Thorberg, against Ow 

ffaruldson in the aifair of Stein Skaptison, 283^ 2843 ^Sd^i^ 
rHORlR FAXI {þ. faxi), a thrall of King Eystein the Mighty, 

or the Evil, L 16 1„^ 
THORI R, sion of Gudbrand, sent by King Olaf Haraldson with 


Index I 213 

a message of peace to the franklins assembled from Orkdale 
and Gauldale to oppose his advance into Thrandheim, ii. 477.15 

THORIR HART (Jj. hjörtr), of Vogar, of Halogaland, com- 
mands in the centre of the fleet in the battle of Hiorung- 
wick, i. 277io — leads a revolt in Halogaland against Olaf 
Tryggvison's project to christen the people, 309^g.28 — fights 
Olaf on coming into Halogaland, is arrested in his flight by 
the dog Vigi, and slain by the king, 32916-33028 

THORIR HELSING (Jj. helsingr), a son's son of Ketil Jamti, 
fled to the east from Jamtland on account of manslaughters, 
and was the first to colonize the countrysides afterwards 
called Helsingland, i. 16225.30 ii. 27612.14 

THORIR HOUND (þ. hundr), son of Thorir (cf. * Sigurd, son 
of Thorir and brother to Thorir Hound,* ii. 21415.17), a landed 
man of Birchisle in Halogaland, ii. 19215.17 21417,18 — father 
of Sigurd, the father of Ranveig, wife of Joan Arnison ; their 
children Vidkum, Sigurd Hound, Erling, Jartrud, iii. 1710-14 
— Thorir's sister Sigrid married to Olvir of Eggia, ii. 3415.7 
— more accounted of than his brother (Sigurd) because he 
was the king's landed man, 21425.2« — ^jeers his nephew Asbiorn 
for the outrageous treatment he received at the hands of Seal- 
Thorir, 22O13.88 — persuades Asbiorn to break covenant with 
King Olaf Haraldson, 2305^1-23114 — has to give up, by order 
of the king, one half of his bailiwick over Halogaland into 
the hands of Asmund Grankelson, 237^25 — egged on by Si- 
grid, his sister-in-law, to avenge the slaying of her son Asbiorn, 
239J3-2404 — learns in time that Asbiorn's slayer was the king's 
bailiff, Asmund Grankelson, 24O14.27 — awaiting his chance of 
revenge, when he hears of Karli's trading voyage to Biarm- 
land in partnership with the king, Thorir joins him unbidden 
with a longship manned with some eighty men, 25822-2595 — 
incidents of the journey until he slays the king's partner, 2597- 
26523 — his dealings with Gunnstein, Karli's brother, after the 
slaying of the latter, 26524-26623 — his dealings with Finn Ar- 
nison when brought to justice by him in the king's name, 
28729-29 13 — he leaves Norway with all the proceeds of his 
journey to Biarmland, and joins King Knut in England, 
291^^ — wi^^ Knut in England in much favour, 33S9.J0 
iMo — accompanies K. Knut in his expedition to Norway, is 
present when he is proclaimed king in Thrandheim, and be- 

Index I 

comes Knut's landed man, 348*5493 — reported by BÍorn tbi 
Marshal to King Olaf as a leader of the general revolt in 
Norway, 381^— gathers measureless wealth by his ' Finn- 
journey,' 387^^24 — his reindeer coats wrought mth t^izardryj^ 
3^7553« — brings a great muster of men out of Halogj 


against fC Olaf, 3873(^3884 ^^ — ^refuses to take the chief 
mand in the battle of Sticklestead, 42024-42 i^^^^ranges hira 
self and liis men under the standard of K^f Arnison, his 
brother-in-law, a^^^vja ^^%\% — Thorir and Thorstein Ship- 
wright, 4241,12 — marches in the rear to the battle in order to 
prevent desertions, 4252.2-20 — marches to the front and leads 
the attack at Sticklestead, 4271^.14 — Thorir*s fight with King 
Olaf and his guards, deals the king his death wound, 43 1^^- 
433i5 — takes part in the fight with Day Ring's son, 43412^14'" 
deals reverently with the dead body of K. Olaf, whose blood 
heals a wound Thorir had received, 435a-i& — die first of K. 
Olafs foes to uphold his holiness, 43SH1.20 — his pursuit, at the 
request of the Verdalers, of the Swedish fugitives from the 
battle, 436^4^437*27— *i^ returns to his ships, 43737-2^ 44^81,««— 
inquires in vain for K. Olafs body, 44 6 — goes on a pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem^ from which he never returned, iii. ^*i^j^ — his 
descendants, iTi^vn 

THORIR HVINANTORÐI, defeated by Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon, iii. 554; n 

THORIR, son of Ingirid, counsels K, Magnus the Blind in 
vain to keep his force in the Wick to observe the movetnents 
of Harald Gilli after the battle of Fynleif, iii. 3183.1^ 

THORIR KLAKKA, sent by Earl Hakon to the West to 
ascertain who Oil the Garth real me r might be, and to be tray 1 
him in case he was Olaf Tryggvtson, i. ^89,^.^^ — finds OM^ 
out, persuades him to go to Norway, and joins his company, 
but finds, on his return, Hakon gone into hiding, and aíj 
Thrandheim in revolt against the Earl, 289jij-29i53 

THORIR THE LONG <þ, langi), the captain of King Olaf 
Haraldson's constabular>\ the Guests, assassinates, at the 
King's bidding, Eilifthe Ga ut lander, ii* 7725-7S(j — ^is despatched 
in pursuit of the escaped blind king Rœrek, whom he cap- 
tures, losing his life at the same time, 130^^0» 

THORIR LONGCHIN {% haklangr), fought against Haiald 
Hairfair in the battle of Hafursfirth, and fell there, i. tiI|,^ 



Index I 215 

THORIR, son of Olvir of Eggia and of Sigrid, d. of Thorir, 
and sister to Thorir Hound, a man of great promise and 
popularity, ii. 341 5.12 — entertains King Olaf at a great feast, 
34^12-22 — ^^^ King inquires of Day, son of Red, concerning 
Thorir, who declares him to be a traitor to the King, which 
is proved by a massive ring of gold on his arm, given him, as 
he confesses, by Knut, and a prompt execution follows, 3423- 

THORIR, son of Roald, a 'hersir' in the Firthfolk, fosters 

Eric Blood-axe from three years old, i. 1 191.4 ^^S^g.go 
THORIR SEAL (þ. selr), or Seal-Thorir (Sel-þórir), a steward 
of King Olaf Haraldson over his manor of Ogvaldsness, de- 
scription of his personal characteristics, ii. 21304.06 21615.22 — 
his masterful dealings with Asbiorn Seal's-bane, 2 169.13 23"220ii 
— slain by Asbiorn before the face of the king, 221-2234 
THORIR, father to Sigurd, Thorir Hound and Sigrid of Eggja, 

"• 2I4ig.i7 3745 8 

THORIR THE SILENT (þ. þegjandi), son of Rognvald Mere- 
Earl and his lawful wife, Hild, daughter of Rolf Nefia, i. 1 1 72^ 
— married Alof Year*s-heal, d. of Har. Hairfair, 125^ 13720-26 
appointed Earl of Mere after the death of his father, 125^^ 

THORIR of Steig (son of Thord Guthormson), father of Guth- 
orm, the father of Gudrid, iii. 873.4 — gives the King's name to 
Harald the Hardredy at a Thing summoned by King Magnus, 
iii. 8425.26 — receives many presents from Harald, 8627.33 — 
brings up Hakon Magnusson, K. Harald's grandson, 187^.10 
— after the death of Olaf the Quiet, the Uplanders proclaim 
Hakon king, and Thorir goes with him to Thrandheim, where 
he is proclaimed king at Ere-Thing, 2053.17 206^ — K. Magnus 
Barefoot, disliking the liberal laws of his cousin, throws the 
blame on Thorir, 20631-2075 — Thorir, after the death of 
Hakon, raises the standard of revolt against K. Magnus, is 
defeated and hanged, 209-21217 

THORIR WOODBEARD ()5. tréskegg), a viking defeated and 
slain by Turf-Einar Earl of Orkney, i. 123^11 

THORKEL (þorkell), a goodman of Apewater, in Iceland, gave 
fostering to Sigvat, the poet, till he was well-nigh a full grown 
man, ii. 51 1^.17 

THORKEL DYDRIL (þ. dy«rill), son of Eric Biodaskalli, i. 
30 1 iQ— commands the Crane in Olaf Tryggvison's expedition 


Index I 


to WcadluMl nd the fatfile of Svoldr, 354^ %^lmm Jf^i 

THORKEI. POSTER-FATHER (^ fðœiK too of AmmiA 
,of aflmentted om Jit kgt ipOttney, ti, 171 
i the csase of tlir opfnχ ss^ijeds of Eii^r Wronf- 
.EariofOtkney, 17x^*1734— flksfituB Orfaiey 10 E*i! 
TbocÉQ of Ca^tiess to escape Enr^s peneciitkKD, 173^^ 
— gci^ so fond of Eirl Tborfia thttt t bercfrcMn be was bj« 
named Foðier^latha^ iijg^w—sou bf Thoifio to colle:! 
rcrai w of the i!iM piit he duaed 0Í CMmqr, Tborkd li» 
Id flf for saliety 6001 Eari Eiiai^ «iath» i7St^ts~8^^^ ^^ 
Norwaf and lays the state of diiiqgs io Oricoey befote K. CM 
^axi^^í^BKxt, 1751^17^ ^^9it'ii — W^ \mA to Orkney, and 
\Mf Eail Bnifá's tnterveatjoa iaa£es peace with Eari Einar^ 
I7^^s^ «^— gms a feast lo Earl Eimr at wiiicfa he mmdeis 
Mm, t76|p-t7St^— goes forthwitfi to Nonnif, ajid King daf 
was *«dl pleased' with what he h^d done, 17^1,4^ <9^8-m^ 
i^ids word pdrilj to East Thcv^ who had come to Norway lo 
settle his di^^ate with 1bi brodier Bnsá, not to atteinpt lemi^ 
Nofway withoot coam^ to tanas vitb Ola^ '^^^-'^Sr' 
King Obi, having rece i w B d hcmiage &om Thor6ii and Bntst, 
drnanda of them lo desist 6oni aTenging on Thorkel the 
skjing of th»r tivotho^, Eait EIiik^ iS^^^— Tborkei pkccs 
hxs head in Earl Thorfin^s lap and reoeb e $ his pudon, 185^- 

THORKEL FOSTERLING (þ. fóstn^, son of SmBmetlid, daiii 
in the pr^eoce of Haiald Hakonsoo, EaH of Odcnef » Slgmd 
Sletnbi'Deacon beitig accused of the deed, tii, 337i-.|f 54^iiit 

THORKEL, son of Eyolf (the Giaf, son of Oki Feilazi, 
of Thorstem the Red, son of Olaf Ulute, Ksog of Dublai 
sm Laxd^a SagaX ^ a while one of King Olaf Haraldson' 
house haEd» ii 141.^1^ — inTtted, together with other chiefs 
Iceland, by llKHatiÐ Nefioifsooi to go to Nonray to meet 
King Olaff an mvttalioci 00 whkh Th, did not act| 745-246^ 

THORKEL, son of Gein of Lings, an Icelaiidcr, at the battle 
on Lyrshaw-heaib, apparently lelecced by K. Magtius to és^ 
a surgeon's duty, his progeny ulented leeches^ ÍiL 37**^ 

THORKEL GUSHER (þ. g^saj, a Danish chief, whose boiw 
K. Haiald Haidredy bums down and whose da^gbti 



Index I 217 

takes captive on board, setting them free for enormous ran- 
som, iii. 9518-9611 

THuKKEL HAMMERSKALD (þ. hamarskald), an Icelandic 
poet, author of a drapa on K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 20925- 

THORKEL THE HIGH (þ. hinn háfi), son of Strut-Harald, 
i. 27028.25 — his vow at his father's and Harald Gormson's grave- 
ale, 27225.2Y — his war-raid in Denmark in company with King 
Olaf the Holy, ii. i i^.^g — his son Harald receives an earldom 
from Knut, 375i6-i9 

THORKEL LEIRA (þ. leira), a lord of the Wick, i. 2731^— 
one of the captains in Eric's division of the fleet in the 
battle of Hiorung-wick, 277^^.17 281 ^q — slain by Vagn Akison 
while engaged in executing the prisoners after the battíe, 

THORKEL NEFIA, or Nosy (þ. nefja), son of Lodin and 
Astrid, the mother of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 3015.7 — was captain 
of the Short-Worm in Olaf Tryggvison's expedition to Wend- 
land and the battle of Svoldr, 354^^ 36330-88 3641617 S^Snis 
3665^ 36818-26 — jumps last of all overboard from the Long- 
Worm, 3752.8 14 


THORKEL SKALLISON (þ. Skallason), an Icelandic poet, 
author of * Walthiof 's-flock,' iii. 18125.38 182^2.20 

THORKETIL, i. 37514 — the unsyncopated form of the name 
Thorkel : see Thorkel Nefja. 

THORLEIF (þorleifr), son of (Asgeir) Redfell, Icel. poet, 
author of a laudatory poem on Earl Hakon the Mighty, i. 


THORLEIF, son of Bryniolf, a follower of Eystein son of 
Harald Gilli, iii. 368^ 

THORLEIF THE SAGE (þ. hinn spaki), son of Hordakari, 
i. 30320 — cures King Halfdan the Black of dream lessness, 
^4ð-ip — aredes a dream of his, 8420.25— cures Harald Hairfair 
of his infatuated mourning for Snowfair, 12O10.88"" assists K. 
Hakon the Good in framing the Laws of Gula-Thing, 16027^ 

THORLEIF THE SAGE, fosters, at his house of Middledale, 
Eric the son of Earl Hakon of Ladir, 20920^ — ^^^ dealings 
with Skopti-of-the-Tidings, 24721-24813 — fits out his foster-son, 
Eric, son of Earl Hakon, against Skopti, 248^8.21 


Index I 


THORLEIF SKEP {% skjappa), a follower oi Sigurd Slembi 

Deacon, iiL 356^^^.,^ 

THO R LEI K {þorleíkr), son of BoUi (cf, i. 337^.30) ^^ Gm 
Osvifrsdaughler {see Laxdæla^ ed. 1 89 1 \ for a time a mem 
of King 01 af Haraldson's household, ii. 24125 

THORLEIK, son of Brand [the son of Thorgrim the priest], 

i* 335is 
THORLEIK THE FAIR {% hmn fagri), author of a * flock' 

on K. Svein Wolfson of Denmark, tii, 9730.13 9^i^ 99i 11 ss-j 

THORLIOT BRUSHSKULL (þorljótr skaufuskalli), at tb 
head of King Hakon Shoulder- Broad's host aboard the mer- 
chant ships oíT Kings'- Rock, lii* 4003^.^-. — Gregory Daysoo's 
ships drifting down upon him he springs overboard* 401^ 

THORMOD (þormólSr), a priest sent by Olai Tryggvison witl 
GIzur the White and Hialti Skeggison to christen the lo 
landers, Í. 354i&.u 

THORMOD COALBROWSKALD (þ. KolbrtSnarskald), 
son of Bersij an Icelandic poet, in the body*guard of 
Olaf Haraidson, ii. 241 20.37 — backs Finn Arnison's advice 
at K, OlaPs council of war in Veradale to visit the rebellious 
Thrandheimers with fire, sword, and plunder, A^^nm — S*^^® 
vent to his envy of Sigvat, the king*s favourite, 4041^-405^ 
4^^i!S-2!i — í^ííis the king's other poets in encouraging the army 
with a song of his own, 4053^^-406^ — early in the morning of 
the day of the battle of Stick lestead, in answer to the king's 
request, * Tell us some song,* he sings * out right high * * Biark^ 
lay the Ancient,* receiving thanks from the army and gifts 
from the king, which he acknowledges with much devotion^j 
4^7is"4ö^3i i^ís — í^is fighting in the battle, wounds^ deati 

THORMOD, son of Eindridi and of Jomn the d. of Valgerd 
the sister of Gudmund the Mighty, slays Hall son of Utrygg, 
whOp when Thormod was one year old, had killed his mother's 
first cousin Kodran, the son of Gudmund, iii. 1 53^.^ 

THORNY, daughter of Klack-Harald and sister to Thyri Den- 
mark V Weal, wife of King Sigurd Hart and mother to Ragn- 
hi Id the mother of Harald Hairfair, Í. 837.^ 

THOROD (i^Sroddr) [son of Eyvindi a chief of Olfus in 
southern Iceland, i. 269.24^^ 

rts I 


Index I 219 

THOROD, son of Snorri the Priest, goes, in obedience to 
King Olaf Haraldson's message by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to 
Norway, and stays with the king, ii. 249^^.29 — ^^ refused return 
to Iceland the next season by King Okf, and detained in a 
manner that * savoured of unfreedom,' until the result of 
GeUir Thorkelson's mission to the island should be known, 
27415-2752 — his chafing under this treatment, 2783. ^^^^ 
^94ii-i7 — ^ order to obtain release from his constraint at 
court, he undertakes to go, with a following of twelve men, 
to Jamtland to collect the taxes claimed by King Olaf, 2942^3^ 
— ^his adventurous journey, miraculous escapes, and safe re- 
turn to King Olaf, 29431-30212 — return to Iceland, 30213.1^ 

THOROLF (þórólfr), stationed in the main hold on board the 
Long-Worm, i. 35324 

THOROLF DRYLLR, captain of a company of soldiers 
garrisoned by Erling Askew in Biorgvin, iii. 45727 

THOROLF LOUSE-BEARD ()5. lúsarskegg), the foster-father 
and faithful servant of Astrid, the mother of Olaf Tryggvison, 
i. 223ii-224i3 — caught by vikings and sold into slavery, and 
killed off as a useless mouth, 2295.^3 

THOROLF SKIALG [SQUINTER] (þ. skjalgr), son of Og- 
mund, the son of Hordia-Kari, father to Erling of Soli, i, 

30327 ii. 2I2i3 2I4i8.ig 

THORSTEIN (þorsteinn), goodman of Attwood, harbours and 
entertains Astrid and her child, Olaf Tryggvison, and saves 
them from being caught by Gunnhild's emissaries, i. 22533- 


THORSTEIN OF AUDSHOLT, in Iceland, a daughter of 

his married to Ambiom Ambi, iii. 363^7 
THORSTEIN GALLOWS (þ. galgi), father to Thora, the wife 

of Ami Arnmodson, ii. 198,5.17 
THORSTEIN, son of Hall of the Side, invited, together with 

other chiefs of Iceland, by Thorarin Nefiolfson to go to 

Norway to meet King Olaf Haraldson, an invitation on which 

Th. did not act, ii. 245-2463 24924 
THORSTEIN HLIFARSON (þ. Hlífarsson), stationed in the 

main hold on board the Long- Worm, i. 35324 
THORSTEIN THE LEARNED (þ. fró«i), cited as authority 

for a tale of miraculous dice-play between K. Olaf Haraldson 

and K. Olaf of Sweden, ii. 16628-1673 

K. Olaf Haraldson, join 
of Sticklestead, ii. 42300- 
an axe, and is himself ía 

THORSTEIN, son of Sigi 

in the forehold of the Lc 

THORVITH (þorvi^r), la 
harangue to Earl Hakon 
the engagement with K. 
water, and speedily runs 4 

of King Olaf the Swede; 
terpretation of lawman Ed 
ii. i6i|^j8 — remains at the 
a revolt against him, 163^. 

THRANDERS, Thrands, Th 
heim-folk, Thrandheim m< 
Thrandheim, (frændir, fra 

1329 I37l6 1421 19 I5O11 16 

17115 24^ 17210.11 i99u 20, 
11.20143365^671 1938127' 
46180 4624 7 iQ—m. 4081 44» 
20824 21322 223i8 2874 34 

46711 16 S4-26 4692 


THR — ^thy] Index I 221 

but falls (conveniently) ill, and goes nowhere, ii. 246^^.3^ — 
his egging-on of his foster-sons to undo Thoralf of Dimon's 
mission to Norway (conveyed to them in Thrand's own 
mysterious way), 26921-2 70^2 — his treacherous dealings with 
Karl o' Mere, 30427-30919 — escapes due penalty at the hands 
of King Olaf by reason of the revolt against him in Norway, 


THRAND RENT-MASTER (þ. gjaldkeri), commanding a 
ship in K. Ingi Haraldson's fleet at the battle of Holm-the- 
Gray, receives the captured Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, and hands 
him over to his tormentors, iii. 3643.3^ 

THRAND SQUINT-EYE (þ. skjalgi), of Halogaland, a fore- 
castle man on board the Long- Worm, i. 3530.7 

THRAND THE STOUT (þ. rammi), of Thelmark, a forecastle 
man on board the Long- Worm, i. 3535.6 

THRAND THE WHITE (þ. hvíti), King Olaf Haraldson's 
taxgatherer in Jamtland, slain, together with his company of 
twelve, by the men of King Olaf the Swede, ii. ^0^^.^^ 29421.04 

THRIDI (J)ri«i = Third-one), one of Odm's names, Odin, 1. 

THROTT (þróttr), one of Odin's names, Odin, i. 2571 ii. 3I17 
43221 iii. 25410 

THUND (þundr), one of Odin's names, Odin, ii. 40527 

THURID, daughter of Snorri the Priest (þurííSr Snorradóttir 
go&), a wise woman, who told Ari much saga lore, i. yj.j 

THYRI (þyri), daughter of King Harald Gormson, promised 
by her brother Svein Twibeard in marriage to King Burislaf 
in Wendland, i'. 27112.13 — fulfilment of the promise deferred 
through her refusal to consent, 3493.14 — on Burislaf 's claiming 
her through Earl Sigvaldi, she is delivered against her will to 
the Earl, who takes her to Wendland, where she is married 
to Burislaf, but from whom she runs away after a few days, 
first to Denmark, and then to Norway, where she marries 
Olaf Tryggvison, 34915-35031 — the dominions which Gunnhild 
Svein Twibeard's first wife owned in Wendland, Svein had 
settled on Thyri, and these same she urged Olaf Tryggvison 
to claim, for which purpose he, yielding unwillingly, fitted 
out a great expedition to Wendland, 35032-3547 35^828—^?'' 
only child with Olaf Tryggvison, called Haxald, died within 
a year of his birth, 3552230 

::r""' •■' ""e. to the 

army whereupon he , 
Hara d, and faih-ng i 
Harald Hardredy K 

has forces with HaraJd 
and fights mail his bat 


iKYGGVI, sonofOlafth 
-flíes together with hi- 
B'om the Chapman) to , 
?ga>nst Eric Bloocfie a 
joins Hakon the Good 
ceives from Hakon Te 



marJc, and for the puroose 
lands conquered hvÆt 

TUN — UNi] Index I 223 

Biomson, 2 lOj.^!— coming at the invitation of Gudrod Gunn- 
hild's son to a tryst with him at Walls, east of Sotanes, he is 
treacherously slain by Gudrod, 211^1.20 22415.1^ — ^^^ ^ ^® 
place *now called' Tryggvi's Cairn, 21I20.21 

TUNNI, treasurer of K. Aun the Old, relegated to other thralls 
by K. Egil; his theft of K. Aun's treasure, fights with K. Egil 
and falls, i. 44i2-4527 

TURF-EINAR (Torf-Einarr), son of Rognvald Mere-Earl by a 
concubine, i. ii722cf. ii. 1681^12 — becomes Earl of Orkney, 
defeats vikings and teaches the islanders how to use turf for 
fuel, 12220-123^7 — his personal appearance, 1231^^^ — his feud 
with, defeat and torture of Halfdan Highleg in Rinan's isle, 
i2Si2-i26nCf. ii. 16812.16— his songs, 12529-126518-2028-86 i^Tp-w 
— his flight from Orkney before K. Harald Hairfair's punitive 
expedition, 1273..- ii. 1681^.17 — pays for the people of Orkney 
the fine of sixty marks of gold imposed by K. Harald as 
atonement for the slaughter of Halfdan, 12717.25 c^- ii- ^^^\<^u 
— takes, as security for the refunding to him of the fine, all 
*odar lands in Orkney, 12723.20 ^^^ ^^' "• 16818.19— the fate 
of his sons, Arnkel and Erland, I53i8-i54i8 — and of his third 
son, Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, 15429-1555 cf. ii. 16825-1693 

TUSK-MELBRIGDA = Gael. Maelbrighde (Melbrig«i tonn), 
a Scottish earl slain by Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, i. 11622.24 

TYR (Týr), one of the Æsir, counted as ancestor of K. Egil of 
Sweden, i. 4620 — and of the Earls of Ladir, 20635 — "^ed in 
kennings to signify a man, a warrior, 1851^ (19O14) 25913 ^^^7 
3787 — Burden-Tyr (Farma-Týr), a periphrastic name for 
Odin, 20612 

ULFHILD ('Ulfhildr), daughter of King Olaf Haraldson and 
Queen Astrid, with the King and Queen at Eidwood, ii. 3691 
— left with the Queen in Sweden when the King fares to 
Holmgarth, 36923 39I26-27 — married to Duke Otta (Ordulf) of 
Saxland, iii. 3410.13 

ULLER (Ullr), one of the gods, a son of Sif and stepson of 
Thor, used only in kennings, i. 19928 ^oo^ 24520 

ULLI, a pet name for Erland (Erlendr, />., Erli, EUi, Ulli), 

i. 29381 

UNIBUR, a commander of Wendish forces at the siege of 
Kings'-Rock, iii. 32631-3277 — his speech to his men on attack- 
ing the castle, 33110-20 

224 Index I [upl — vak 

UPLANDERS, Upland-men (UpplendingarX L X3iu i%%xi — 
ii. 6382 I072 132«) 21018 36^64104 460n--iii. 112» 144« 146» 
10 I55s205s 448124745« . ' 

UP-SWEDES (Uppsviar), the Swedes, as it appean, inhabiting! 
the old realm of Upsala, or TenthlaJid, iL zoo^^y 164^ (• it) « 

UP-THRANDHEIMERS, Up-Thrandfolk, dwdlera of Upp» 
Thrandheim, they from Inner-Thrandheim, men of Upper- 
Thrandheim (Inn-þrændir), the inhabitants of the folkkndi 
round the head of Thrandheim- Bay, i. 17017.^ 3539 — ^iL 65» 

711 1945-6 14 40229 4306 45114— "»• 97m 

URGUTHRIOT (Urguþijótr), an Earlsent as Christian mis- 
sionary to Norway by Harald Gormson, L SOIm-so 

USPAK ('Uspakr), son of Usvif the Wise, the f&her of Wdf 
King Harald Hardred/s marshal, iii, 67,5 

USVIF THE WISE (Usvifr spaki) [son of Hel^], grandfadier 
of Wolf Harald Hardredy's trusted marshal, iiL 6715 

UTHYRMIR ('Ufyrmir), brother to Thrand the Stout, a face- 
castleman on board the Long-Worm, i, 353^ 

VÆRINGS, foreign, chiefly northern mercenaries, in the ser- 
vice of Byzantine emperors, iii. 602 5 u 19 tr ^'u ^^1 fr ^34 ^5« 
81 6621 6723 681 6928-7021 90 73i 74i 82 7616 423|3 n 4>9is43<> 
33 43 Is 15 18 22 25— 'nicknamed by the Greeks the Emperors 
* Wineskins ' (vinbelgir), iii. 4302^^ 

VAFAD (Váfa^r), the waverer, the shifty god, Odin, L 185^ 


VAGN, the son of Aki (Palnatoki's son) and Thoigunnai the 
sister of Bui the Thick, a Jomsviking, i. 2702^3^ — ^his vow at 
the grave-ale after Harald Gormson, Strut Harald and Vesetii 
273i-4 — commands one wing of the Jomsbuig fleet in tfie 
battle of Hiorung-wick, ^11 ^^y^ — his fight in the battle^ >79fe.ii| 
21 25 — ^ken prisoner by Earl Eric and fettered with thirty of 
his men, 2818.^5 — escapes being executed by Thorkel Loia, 
whom he slays; is pardoned by Earl Eric, aSa^Q^ — goes to 
the Uplands with Earl Eric, who gives him in marriage 
Ingibiorg, the daughter of Thorkel Leira, whereupon he goes 
to his estates in JJenmark, well found in all things by the 
Earl, 28330-2844 

VAKR OF THE ELF (Vakr elfski), son of Raumi, a forecastle 
man on the Long-Worm, i. 3533^ 


Index I 225 

VALDIMAR (Valdamarr, Vladimir), Prince of Holmgarth, 
1036-1052, son of King Jarisleif and Ingigerd, daughter of 
Olaf the Swede-king, ii. 15437 iii. 4378o-8i — possibly the same 
(bom 1020) to whom Sigvat refers as having been healed by 
Olaf the Holy, ii. 4581.2 

VALDIMAR, Vladimir the Great, Prince of Novgorod, 970- 
977, of Kief, 980-1015 — resides at Holmgarth, i. 22837.29 
22924— contrary ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ land, he allows weregild to 
be paid for Olaf Tryggvison's manslaughter of Klerkon, and 
takes him up and treats him as a royal prince (Nestor ex- 
pressly states that Vladimir abolished the * vira ' or weregild), 
2302^-23124 289^.2 — appointed Olaf to the command of his 
land forces, and bestowed much favour upon him, 2504.17 — 
withdrew his favour through slander, and Olaf departed the 
realm, 25023-251 22 — his land invaded and harried by Earl 
Eric Hakonson, 347^.22 

VALDIMAR THE GREAT, King of Denmark, 1157-1182, 
son of Knut Lord and Ingibiorg, d. of Harald Valdimarson 
of Holmgarth (Novgorod), iii. 2 7023-2 7 15 brother-in-law of 
K. Magnus the BUnd, 3143527 and Stig Whiteleather, 2717.1^ 
first cousin to Kristin, the mother of K. Magnus Erlingson, 
27028.80 2714 7-9 3711M4 43731-43^2 47128-29— ^eaty of alliance 
between him and K. Magnus Erlingson, 43714-43815 — the 
treaty broken by Erling wilfully failing to persuade the men 
of the Wick to become Danish subjects, 465-4672 — Erling 
forges letters in the name of K. Valdimar in order to try the 
loyalty of the Thrandheimers to his son, 4675-46925 — K. Val- 
dimar's abortive expedition to Norway, 46923-470 — suffers 
defeat at the hands of Erling at Deersriver in Jutland, 4713^ 
— peace made with Erling on condition that he hold the 
Wick in Norway as an earldom of K. Valdimar, 47126- 

VALGARD OF THE MEAD (Valgar^r af Velli), Icelandic 

poet, commemorates the journey of Harald the Hardredy 

from Holmgarth to Sweden, iii. 775.^4 — tells of the journey of 

Harald and Svein from Sweden to Denmark, 7814-791^ 
VALGAUT (Valgautr), the father of Tovi, intercedes with King 

Olaf on behalf of his son, is christened by the king, and dies 

immediately afterwards, ii. 32823.31 
VALGERD (Valger«r), daughter of Eyolf, sister of Gudmund 

VI. Q 

220 Index I [val — vem 

the Mighty of Maddermead, and motfaor of Joniiii 1 
of Thonnod, iii. 1534^ 

VALI ( Váli), a sea-king, or, according to otherBi a soil of Odin 
and Rind, i. 34613 

VALKYR (Valkyrja, from val, stem of valr, a ocdlectife tern 
for those fallen in battle, but meaning tíie ' dectii' m., OdWi 
collective choice, and kyrja, from stem kur- in kmmm L pL 
pret. of kjósa, to choose, a she-chooser, she wiio chocnw^ 
' elect-choosers,' Odin's maidens, who out x& the bllen faoik 
in battle, the ' Elect,' chose the worthyi Lt^ the braotfyJiiBm^ 
for the joys of Valhall, i. 155^ 172^ X890.XO — ^***Fy "*^ <** 
horseback in helmet, wield a spear, and cany shidd befioK 
them, 19I14 20^ 

VAN A, a woman out of Vanhome, married to Sveg^p K. of 
the Swedes, i. 2$^^^ 

VANDRAD (Vandrá^r, /.^., he who is in trouble for oonaieli 
embarrassed), name assumed by K. Svein WoIfiKin, and nndler 
which he managed to save his life by the aid d[ Bail Habon 
Ivarson after the battle of Niz, iiL 138-140« 

VANIR, the people of Vanland, their dealings widi Odio» L 
I3i8-i4ig — authors of the art of wizardry, 14^4« 

VANLAND (Vanlandi), son of Sv^dir and Vana, i. aSa— look 
rule over the Swedes after his &ther, warred fitf and fride^ 
abode in Finland with Snow the Old, and wedded his 
daughter Drift, whom he deserted, and who, in torn, CM»ed 
him to be trodden to death by a night-mare at Upidai a6^ 


VARIN (Varinn), a legendary king, i. 3151^^ 

VATT (Vöttr), an earl of Denmark, i. 47ir4^n 

V£ (Vé), brother of Odin; he and his brother iHli mairy E^E^gg^ 
Odin's wife, during the latter's absence from home 80 piD> 
longed that all hope of his rettun had been given up^L xji^g^ 
left in rule over Asgarth when Odin and lus migmted to die 
north, i5ir 

VEMUND (Vémundr), brother to Aodbiom, king of Fixdiftalk, 
succeeded to his brother's kingdom after the kttei^ fiJl at 
the second battle of Solskel, L 103^7 — ^bumt in his faome 
whilst feasting at Naustdale, by Earl Rognvald of Mei^ 
103^0^ — ^s s^ips ^^d chattels confiscated, lo^^^jm 


VEN — vis] Index I 2.2:] 

of the band collected by Klypp the Hersir to slay King 
Sigurd Slaver, i. 2167.11 

VENDS. 5i?^ Wends. 

VERDALERS, folk of, they of, Verdale (Verdaelir), dwellers 
in Verdale, Upper-Thrandheim, ii. 19631 40533 437i8 

VESETI, a lord in Borgundholm, i. 27137.28 

VIDKUNN OF BIRCHISLE(Vi«kunnriBjarkey),sonof Joan 
Amison and Ranveig, d. of Sigurd, s. of Thorir Hound, iii. 
^7io-i8 — attacked and robbed by Steig-Thorir, father and son 
flee to K. Magnus Barefoot for protection, 21I1.2Q — joins K. 
Magnus Barefoot's expedition to Ireland, 23838 — one of the 
last to flee from the fallen king, whose sword ' Legbiter ' and 
banner he saves on board ship, 24219.31 — slays in the battle 
the man who killed K. Magnus, for which he got into great 
favour with his sons, 24314.13 — Magnus, s. of K. Sigurd Jeru- 
salem-farer fostered by him in Birchisle, 27835.37 — he shelters 
for one winter Magnus (already deposed, maimed and blinded) 
from the sons of Harald Gilli, 35617.13 

VIDUR (ViiSr), one of Odin's names, Odin, i. 2073^ 2563^, 27835 

VIGFUS (Vigfúss), son of Slaying Glum, fights on board Earl 
Hakon's ship in the battle of Hiorung-wick, i. 2805.12 

VIGLEIK (Vigleikr), son of Ami, slays Aslak Skull o' Fitiar, 
ii- 3627.18 363510 

VIKAR (Vikarr), of Tenthland, a champion on board the 
Long-Worm, i. 353, 

VIKING-KARI (Víkingakári), father of Sigurd, the father of 
Eric Biodaskalli, i. 33439.31 (but see Sigurd, son of Viking- 
kari)— a landed man of Vors, in Norway, ii. 895.^ 

VILBORG, daughter of Gizur the White, second cousin of Olaf 
Tryggvison, married to Hialti, the son of Skeggi, i. 335i.s 
ii. 894 9 

VILI, brother to Odin, i. 139.15 1515 — see Ve. 

VIRVIL (Virvill), a sea-king, 1. 34614 

VISBUR (Visburr), son of Vanland and Drift his Finnish wife, 
i. 273 — wedded an unnamed daughter of Aude the Wealthy, 
and deserted her, having had two sons with her, Gisl and 
Ondur, and took to him another, also unnamed, with whom 
he had a son, Domald; was burned in his house by his sons 
of first marriage, 283-295 

VISSIVALD (Vissivaldr), Le,, Vsevolod, Grand Prince of Kief, 

228 Index I [vis — WEN 

1 078-1093, son of Jarisleif, King of Holmgartfa and Ingigeid 
daughter of Olaf the Swede-king, ii. 154^7 

VISSAVALD (Vissavaldr), Vsevolod, a 'kii^ ' lEram Garthnahn, 
comes to Sweden to woo Sigrid the Hau^tj, who bomi Inn 
alive together with Harald the Grenlander, 995, i. 286^ (7 
son of Vladimir the Great, who died 995). 

VITGEIR (Vitgeirr), a wizard of Hordland, L ^Hvm 

VOLSUNGS (Völsungar), the family of Volsu^ttie gnnd- 
father of Sigurd the Slayer of Fafnir, represented in 
images at the Hippodrome in Constantinople, iiL af 

VORS-FOLK (Vörsar), inhabitants of the district of 
Hordland called Vors, iii. 2o8gQ 

WALDEMAR, see Valdimar. 

WALTHEOW, also WALTHIOF (Valpjófr), 1066, Earl, aoo of 
Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, ii. Z}^\vi% "^ 'S^n — ^^^ ^*" 
car on the Ouse in opposition to King Haiald Siguidson, 167^ 
— flees into York, 1683Q — with his brother K. Hanld Godwin- 
son at the battle of Helsingport, I8I^.l2 — gets away by ta^JBÚL^ 
but coming upon a company of a hunored Normans» hie buns 
them to death in an oak forest, 18x19.33 — William, now King 
of England, sends word to him to come to terms of peaoe^ 
and gives him a safe conduct to the meeting, 1824.^ — ^he goes 
to the meeting with a small following, is met on his way by two 
king's bailiffs and a company of men, who put him in fekten 
and slay him, i82w.jj — held for holy by Englishmen, z8aj| m 
( Waltheow was not, as Snorri has it, a son of Godwin and 
brother to Harald, but the son, in first marriage of Bill 
Siward of Deira, who died 1055. By order of the Conqueror, 
Waltheow was executed 31 May, 1076, at Winchester. Steen- 
strup, Normannerne, iii. 437-440, makes it clear that Siwanj^ 
father of Waltheow, and Wolf, father to K. Svein of Den- 
mark, were first cousins.) 

WATERWORM (Vatnormr), son of Day Eilifson by Ragnhildi 
d. of Skopti Ogmundson, commands in Tunsbeig under X. 
Ingi, and repels a Danish attack on the town, iiL 352^^ — Us 
misadventure at Portyria, 3S424-3SS2 

WENDS, Wend-folk, Wendland-folk (Vindr), inhabitants of 
Wendland, i. 157.^ 1583 2553 2562, 27i6 8 347stf— "• i7ir-«- 

3O16 322 19 34716 21 27 3521417 3^6 25 378 9 V^A 596 '^^ 3^6» 

32722 2« 3283-33388 3547 38028 

WES — ^wil] Index I 229 

WEST-GAUTLANDERS (Vestrgautar), ii. 1 1 7^ 1 1 91^30 14211-12 
15522 16412 iii. 229i 

WEST-GAUTS, see West-Gautlanders. 

WHELP (Hvelpr), son of Earl Sigurd son of Hlodver of Ork- 
ney, given for hostage to Olaf Tryggvison, i. 29i,j.g ii. 16922-28 
— tarried with K. Olaf for some winters and died in Norway, 

WHITE-CHRIST, see Christ. 

WICK-DWELLERS, -folk, -men, -wights, folk, men of the 

Wick (Vikverjar), inhabitants of the Wick in Norway i. 13 2^0 

13520 1429 15I29 i99n-i2 ii- S02827 S4io iii- 359is 3748 39582 
40220 41718 81 449io 18 46618 

WILLIAM (Viljálmr), the V. Earl of Poitiers and III. Duke of 
Aquitaine, 994-1030, ii. 1911.14 

WILLIAM, * son of Richard,' earl of Normandy during the 
thirteen winters that had worn from the fall of Olaf Tryggvi- 
son, i,e, A.D. 1 000-10 1 3, has no existence, ii. 2115.24 

WILLIAM THE BASTARD (V. bastartSr), son of Robert 

* Long-sword ' ( !) Duke of Normandy, afterwards K. of England, 
1066-87, i. 1 1829 — receives as chance visitor, Harald Godwin- 
son, to whom he promises his daughter in marriage, iii. 156- 
i57ii — incensed at Harald's breaking off the betrothal, and 
claiming that his title to the crown of England was superior to 
Harald's, he invades and conquers England, 180-18228 — his 
dealings with Earl Walthiof, i8iig 18220 

WILLIAM, Bishop of the Orkneys, accompanies Erling Askew 

on his Jerusalem journey, iii. 37I18.21 
WILLIAM, son of Gudrun of Saltness, iii. 48300 
WILLIAM LONGSPEAR, see the following. 
WILLIAM LONGSWORD (V. langaspjót, mistranslation of 

* longa spatha '), son of Rolf Wend-a-foot, Duke of Normandy, 
927-942, i. 11824ÍÍ. 2 1 81 

WILLIAM, King of Sicily, son of K. Roger the Rich, had war 
with Micklegarth's Kaiser, iii. 2561.8— had three daughters and 
no son, the daughters married to Kaiser Henry, to a Duke of 
Cyprus, and to Margrit, lord of Corsairs, 2568.9 

(The William here referred to is made up of three persons. 
His daughter, who married Kaiser Henry, /.^. the sixth of 
Germany, was Constance, daughter of K. Roger I. The two 
daughters who married the Duke of Cyprus and the Admiral 

230 Index I [wiL — WOL 

Margarito were daughters of William I., 1x54-1166. Tlie 

William who waged war with Greece was his son, WUkm IL, 

WILLIAM THE SKINNER (V. skinnariX slain bj Sqaid 

Slembi-Deacon, iii. 35725 
WINTERLID THE SKALD (VetrliK skaldX slain bj Thai«- 

brand the missionary for an insulting lampoon, L 393bjc 
WOLF FLY ('Ulfr fly), son of Peter Burden^waint uL lofe 
WOLF HRANISON, accompanies King Mbgnus BaxefooC on 

his warfare in Ireland, iii. 23827-239} — faUswith theUng^ *1*»m 
WOLF THE RED ('U. hinn rauSi), the bearer of K. (Sf 

Tryggvison's banner on board the Long-Worm, L 353«r-tf-* 

altercation between him and Olaf Tryggvison bdoie the 

battle of Svoldr, 36612-22 
WOLF, son of Rognvald Earl of West-Gaudand and Ingibicxg 

the daughter of Tryggvi, ii. 23« 154» 
WOLF, son of Skogul-Tosti and brother to Si^d the Haugjhirp 

father to Rognvald Earl of West-Gautland, 1. 356,9^ iL aji^f 

WOLF, an earl in Denmark, son of Thoigils Sprakalqgt 
married to Astrid, sister of King Knut the Mighty, who let 
him, together with his son, Honkknut, to rule over Denmaik 
in his absence in England, ii. 26721^ 3'^Mi ^^ VHiim 3'^""* 
by virtue of letters forged by Queen Emma under royal seal, 
of the spuriousness of which Earl Wolf was aware, he causes 
Hordaknut to be elected King of Denmark at a public Things 
ii. 3 1 621-3 1 720 — levies forces by land and sea to meet invaakm 
by Sweden and Norway combined, 31721.88 — ^fearing Kmifi 
anger he sends messengers to Queen Emma to ascertain the 
king's mind, 31 8^.5 — deserted by the influential people of 
Denmark, 31824-319] — he leaves his case in the king's band% 
sending his son, Svein, to intercede for him, and to ofler 
himself an hostage to the king on his father's behalf, Y2a% 
Knut answering that Wolf should go on levying forceSi after- 
wards they could talk about peace, 3197.1« — commands in the 
battle of the Holy River, where he fights valiantly, Z'^^tM — 
his endeavour to appease the king, 32519-3269 — his fiUal dbeM- 
play with King Knut, 3261^^ ^i^si — ^'^ murder of him in tte 
church of Roiswell, 3271.15 iii. 2914.15 — ^^ atonement far the 
murder and sacrilege, 327,5.28 

WOL — ^wor] Index I 231 

WOLF, son of Uspak, the son of Usvif the Wise, K. Harald 
Hardredy's marshal, married Jonin d. of Thorberg Arnison 
(and sister to K. Harald Hardredy*s Queen Thora), their 
children and descendants, iii. 104^.15 — ^with K. Harald while 
in Greek service, oy^^.i^- 7322-81 — ^^^ character and favour with 
Harald, oyj^.^^ 1043^ ^^.^g — commands a ship in the battle off 
Niz, i33i7^ — in favour of Harald's expedition to England, 
i62ig^ — ^is death and Harald*s parting words at his grave, 

WOLFHEDIN, son of Saxolf, an Icelander, falls at Kings'- 

Rock, iii. 354i8 
WOLFKEL SNILLING ('Ulfkell snillingr), eari in East Anglia, 

ob. 10 1 6, defeated in battle by Ethelred and Olaf Haraldson, 

ii. 164^ — slain by Earl Eric of Norway in battle to the west 

of London, 2624.34 
WOLFNOTH, misprinted Wolfroth ('UlfnaSr), father to Eari 

Godwin, ii. 32610.11 
WORM (Ormr), stationed in the forehold of the Long- Worm, 

i. 3S3i4 

WORM (mispr. Orm, iii. 35 14), Earl of the Uplands, son of 
Eilif and Ragnhild, d. of Hakon the Mighty, married to 
Sigrid, d. of Earl Finn Arnison, their children: Ogmund and 
Ragna; created Earl by Harald Sigurdson, iii. 1062^.28 '' 321-28 
"63.8 1195.^ 1218 35^85 3717-11 

WORM LYGRA (O. lygra), of Middlehouse, on the river Gaul 
in lower Gauldal, threatened by Olaf Tryggvison with being 
sacrificed to the heathen gods, i. 3194^ 

WORM LYRGIA (O. lyrgja), a wealthy goodman of Buness, 
married to Gudrun, daughter of Bergthor of Lund, raises the 
standard of revolt against Earl Hakon on account of his in- 
sult to the honour of his wife, i. 2925-29310 

WORM, of Lioxa, one of eight lords of Thrandheim bound 
together to force Hakon the Good to join in the customs 
of heathen festivals, i. 1 7017 — threatened by Olaf Tryggvison 
with being sacrificed to the gods, 3194.3 

WORM (mispr. Orm, iii. 4752 47626) KING'S-BROTHER (O. 
konungsbró^ir), son of Ivar Skewer and Queen Ingirid, d. of 
Rognvald and mother of K. Ingi Harald Gilli's son (whence 
the by-name), iii. 37013.22 — his valiant fight at the battle of 
Oslo, 1 161, in wluch his half-brother, K. Ingi Haraldson 

232 Index I [woR — VRS 

fell, 42610.15 28^ — ^betrothed the winter before to Ragna, d. of 
Nicolas Mew, the widow of K. Eystein HaialdflOD, 4ai 
flees from Oslo to his brother K. Magnus of Sweden, i 

11 — with Erling Askew in Bioigvin, 443u.i^ — with Eifiig 
^in in search of the band of Olaf Unluacy, 474|p47S|— 
merely wounded in the fight at Rydiokul with Olaf UnfasKyy 


again m 

severely wounded in the fight at Rydiokul with Olaf \ 
47^26-27 — fíg^ts with K. Magnus Erlingson in the battle of Re 
against Eystein Eysteinson, 484-486, 

WORM SHAWNEB (O. skógameQ, stationed in the main- 
hold on board the Long-Worm, i. Z%Zuiv& 

YGG (Yggr, the Terrifier), Odin, il is^ ^ 60^ iii 74 i8»ii 

YLFING (Ylfingr), see Hiorvard the sea-king. 

YLFINGS (Ylfingar), the followers of Hiorvud, who was called 
Ylfing, i. 6og cf. 59i5 

YNGLINGS (Ynglingar), the earliest race of theldngs of Sweden, 
descendants of Frey, who was also called Yngvi, L 4^ ^^ 
238-12 3128 408 (cf. ii. i6oi4.ij> a^^jj)— Huld, the Knnish witdC 
lays the spell on the race, that parricide should be for ei^er 
a besetting curse of their blood, 2819^— after Ingiald^ SvQ- 
heart, the dominion of Upsala fell from the direct line of 
descent in the Yncling race, 64«^^ 

YNGVAR (Yngvarr), King of Fiadrundaland, L t^^^^^ « g^— 
burned in a banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald EviHeait, 

5^3-10 29-5 9r 
YNGVAR, son of K. Eystein, Kmg of the Swedes, had war 

with Denmark and Esthonia, and fell in bi^ttle with tbe 

Esthonians, i. 537-544 

YNGUNI = Yngvi, i. 3121 

YNGVI, another name by which Frey was called, L «3*^^ 
Yngvi's people, the Swedes, 3110; Yngvi's kindred** Yn^mgi 
= the Norwegian branch from Olaf Treeshaver, logg^ 
synonymous for king, 23g.„ 3O18 31,1^ iil 7814 

YNGVI, son of K. Alrek, King of the Swedes, together with 
his brother Alf, i. 361-3738 

YNGVI-FREY (Yngvi-Freyr), see Frey. 

YRSA, d. of Helgi, King of Denmark, by Alof the Migþty, 
apparently before her marriage with K. Gerthiof of Saxland; 
left in her mother's charge, she grows up with shepherds (in 
Saxland), and in a war raid on that dominion by K. Adils of 
Sweden, is carried off captive, and in the end is married 

ZOE — dig] Index I 233 

to K. Adils. K. Helgi makes war on Adils, carries off his 
queen, not knowing she was his daughter, and marries her; 
their son : Rolf Kraki. Yrsa's mother, coming to Denmark, 
discloses her paternity, whereupon she joins her former hus- 
band, i. 49-5011 
ZOE THE RICH, Eastern Empress, 1028-1052, 'rules over 
Greekland ' with Michael Katalaktus, iii. 5925 — engages for 
war-service Harald the Hardredy, 5926-27 — enraged at the idea 
of Harald leaving the service of the King of the Greeks, she 
brings false accusations against him, as she had wished to have 
him for her husband, 7221-744 — Harald sends her a derisive 
message by Maria, the maid whom he had wooed and taken 
by force from the palace, 7229-731 75i7-2i 

The Vernacular By-names in Alphabetical Order. 

Afrá«skolh (Thorgeir) 
Agnhöttr (Sigurd) 
Ambi (Ambiom) 
'Arbót (Alof ) 
'Arma^r (Asgaut) 



'Arsæli (Eric) 
Askma«r (Alf ) 
'A Skógi (Marcus) 
Au^ (Au^i) 


Bakrauf (GUli) 
Balli (Ottar) 
Bastar^r (William) 
Berfættr (Magnus) 
Bestill (Bergthor) 
Bfldr (Sigurd) 
Birtingr (Ottar) 
Bjó^Saskalli (Eric) 

Blindi (Arnvid) 




Bló«öx (Eric) 
Brig^arskalli (Ami) 
Brosa (Birgir) 
Bryggjufótr (Svein) 
BryndœlaskaJd (lUugi) 
Bukkr (Biorn) 
ByriSarsveinn (Peter) 
Da«askald (Eyolf) 
Danmarkarbót (Thyri) 
Daufi (Andres) 


Dengir (Ogmund) 
Digri (Biom) 





Index I 

[dig — ^HAR 

Digri (Sigurd) 

Gamli (SolvO 

DjúpauSga (Aud) 


Drengr (Olaf) 


Dryllr (Thorolf) 


Dynta (Ivar) 

GdistaVailfr (Olaf a. a Qri- 

Dy«rill (Thorkel) 


Dœlski (Atti) 


Eimuni (Eric) 

GeUini (Amliot) 

Eisli (Thorfinn) 


Eitrkveisa (Biom) 

Geizki (Giidleik) 

Elfski (Vakr) 

Geysa (Thorkel) 

Fagri (Thorleik) 

GiUi (Haiald) 

Faukr (Hakon) 

Gjaldkeri (Thorhiom) 

Faxi (Thorir) 

G umra (Eystein) 

Fiss (Gunni) 

Glæsiró£a (Styxfcar) 

Fitjaskalli (Aslak) 

Gó«i (Edward) 

Fjöruskeifr (Ami) 


Flekkr (Thorgeir) 


Flettir (Harald) 




Flipr (Paul) 

Giábar^i (Gnthorm) 

Fly (WolQ 

Giáfeldr (Harald) 
GranrauSi (Harald) 

Frey's priest (Thord) 

Fri^koUa (Margret) 

Grenski (Harald) 

Fri«sami (Fró«i) 

Gullbrá (Gizur) 

FróSi (Ari) 

GuUbrár^kald (Biand) 


Gullskegg (Harald) 

Frcekni (Ali) 

GuUtönn (Halfdan) 


Hábrók (Hawk) 


Haka (Thrand) 

Fægir (Hallward) 

Haklangr (Thorir) 
Háleggr (Halfdan) 

Galgi (Thorstein) 

Gamla (Gyda) 

Haiti (Henry) 

Gamli (Bragi) 

Hamarskald (Thorkd) 


Hani (Aftlak) 
Har«greipi (High) 



Har^i (Haddr) 

(Knut the Mighty) 

Har^magi (Hedin) 
Har^ráVi (Eystein) 




HAR — ^KOD] 

Index J 


HareksUesi (HaDwaid) 

Hviti (GudlHand) 

Házíagrí (Haiald) 


Hauldr (HaOwaxd) 




Hávi (Krtil) 




HeiSiiiiihærí (Rognvald) 




Hdgi (Edmund) 



HæU (Eric) 


Höggvandi (Howard) 

Helsingr (Tboiir) 

Hör«ski (Einar) 


nii (Biom) 

Her«il»ei& (Hakon) 


Hikri (Hallward) 

DlráíSi (Ingjald) 

Himaldi (Erlend) 

'Istrumagi (Thord) 

Hit (Sigurd) 

Jalda (Asbiom) 

Hjtfpa (Sigurd) 

Jamti (Ketil) 

Hjörtr (Sigurd) 

Jarlaskald (Amor) 


Jórsalafari (Sigurd) 

HolmskaHi (Aslak) 

Kalfr (Ketil) 

Homklc^ (Thorbiom) 

Kali (Rognvald) 

Hringr (Sigurd) 

Kápa (Sigurd) 

Hrisi (Sigurd) 

Karkr (Thormod) 

Hro«i (Alfr) 

Kau«a Oohn) 

HnSga (Kolbeinn) 

Kaupma^r (Biom) 

Hryggr (Roald) 

Kelda (Eyvind) 

HHkr (Hallkd) 

Kelduskitr (Andres) 

Hundr (Sigurd) 

Keptr (Thorald) 


Kesja (Harald) 

Húsfreyja (Sæmund) 

Ketlingr (John) 


Kikina<5kald (Odd) 

Hvasá (Harek) 

Kinnri£Ei (Eyvind) 


Klakka (Thorir) 

Hvinantor^i (Thorir) 

Klakki (Kolbiom) 

Hvinverski (Harald) 

Kliningr (Howard) 

Hvitale«r (Stig) 


Hvitbdnn (Halfdan) 

Klofi (Solvi) 

Hviti (Bar«r) 

Knarrarsini% (Thorstein) 


KoVránsbam (HaO) 



Index I 

[kol — ^RYG 

Kolbrúnar-skald (Thormod) 
KonungamóíSir (Gunnhild) 
Konungsambátt (Alfhild) 
Konungsbró^ir (Kari) 


Konungsfóstri (Skúli) 
Konungsmágr (Arni) 
Kraki (Rolf) 
Krepphendi (Biom) 
Kringluauga (Kalf) 
Krókr (Ketil) 
Kufungr (Nicolas) 
Kúla (Gudbrand) 
Kunta (Rognvald) 
Kutiza (John) 
Kvaran (Olaf ) 
Kyrri (Olaf) 
Kœna (Frirek) 
Lági (Thord) 
Langatala (Roald) 
Langaspjót (William) 
Langi (Hlodver) 


LávaríSr (Knut) 
Leira (Thorkel) 
Litli (Finn) 
Ljómi (Gudrod) 
Ljósa (Asa) 
Lodbrók (Ragnar) 
Loftunga (Thorarin) 
Lúfa (Harald) 
Lundasól (Gudrun) 
Lúsarskegg (Thoralf) 
Lygra (Worm) 
Lyrgja (Worm) 
Magi (Hakon) 
Mási (Nicolas) 
Matarilli (Halfdan) 
Meyla (Eystein) 
Mi^langr (Thorstein) 

MikilUtt (Dan) 



Miklimunnr (Olvir) 
Mildi (Gautiek) 



Mjónefr (Rani) 
Mjóvi (Atli) 
Mostrstöng (Thora) 
Munnr (Sigurd) 


Moersld (Amor) 


Mömefr (John) 
Nefja (Rolf) 


NflSingr (Julian) 
'OVi (Kolbein) 
Qrmr-i-auga (Sigurd) 
Orri (Eystein) 
Prú«i (Hugh) 
Pungelta (Hakon) 
Raimni (Raud) 


Rangi (Kalf) 
Rangmunnr (Einar) 
RauSi (Arnor) 





RauVr (Thorstein) 
Réttilbeini (Rognvald) 
Rika (Ragnhild) 
Riki (Eystein) 

(Hakon, Earl) 


Rusli (Grim) 
Rygski (Ketil) 


RYK^ — ^tra] Index I 237 ^^| 

Rykkil] {Ragnar) 

Skyti (Ann) ^^| 

Röskvi (Griotgarth) 

Slembi-djákn (Sigurd) ^^H 

Sandi (Ogmund) 

Steva (Sigurd) ^^H 

SuupprúlSr (Lodin) 

Smetta (Ivar) ^^H 

Self (Thorir) 

Smjörbalti (John) ^^H 

Selsbani (Asbiorn) 

Smyrill (John) ^^B 

SigTsælJ (Athelstane) 

Snákr (Eyvind) ^H 


Snara (Asbiorn) ^^^H 

Sigvalda-skald (Thord) 

Sneis (Ivar) ^^H 

Sindri (Guthorm) 

Snitlingr (Wolfkel) ^^H 

SípÍU (Iiigibbrn) 

Spaki (Olvir) ^^^H 

Skafhögg (Thorberg) 

(Thorleir) ^^H 

Skakka-skald (Thorbiorn) 

Sprakaleggr (Thorgils) ^^^H 

Skakki (Erling) 

Stami (Thorwid) ^^^H 

Skálaglamm (EÍnar) 

Standali (Bard) ^^^1 

Ökaldaspillir (Eyvind) 

Sterki (Bersi) ^^^^1 

Skaldmær (Jorun) 

— (John) ^^H 

Skaikr (Hallward) 

(Kolbein) ^^^H 

SkaJpr (Simon) 

(Thorolf) ^^^H 

SkartSi (Thorgaut) 

Storkr (Sigurd) ^^^^H 

Skaufuskalli (Thorliot) 

Stóná^a (Sigrid) ^^^H 

Skegg (Nicolas) 

Strjóna (Eadric) ^^^^H 


Sturk (Ami) ^^^^H 

Skeggja (Thordis) 

Stuttfeldr (Thorarín) j^^l 

Skínnari (William) 

Styrjaldarmagnds (Magnus ^^^| 

Skinnbtlfa (Thorgrim) 

Barefoot) ^^H 

Skirja (Gudrod) 

Svartí (Bard) ^^H 

Skjalgi (Hroi) 

(Gkur) ^^H 


( Halfdan s, o. Gudrod) ^^H 


(Halfdan s, o. Haraid) ^^H 

Skjappa (Thorleíf ) 

(Ottar) ^^H 

Skjótandj (Rolf) 

(Thorfin) ^^1 

Skógamef (Worm) 

Sviptir (Ogmund) ^^^| 

Skorpa (Ornolf ) 

Sygnski (Am fin) ^^^H 

Skotakollr (Thord) 

Sýr (Sigurd) ^^H 

Skrauthanki (Ivar) 

Sæta (Sigríd) ^^H 

Skreyja (Eyviod) 

Tapai^r (John) ^^^| 

Skurfa (Kalf) 

Tjdguskegg (Sveinn) ^^^H 


Toti (Ozur) ^^H 

Skygni (Olaf) 

Trafali (Eysteln) ^^H 


Tréskegg (Thorir) 
Trételgja (Olaf) 
TriSfasti (Athelstane) 
Tönn (Melbrigd) 
aJkristni (Haldor) 
'Ulfaldi (Bryniolf ) 
Ullserkr (Egil) 
Ullstrengr (Sigurd) 
Ungi (Aslak) 



Upplenzki (Ali) 
'Urarhom (Eyvind) 
'Uskeyndr (Ali) 

Index I 

[tré— ÖRV 

Uxafötr (Thontdn) 
VandræVaskald (BUDfied) 
Vei^fikonungr (Giidxod) 
VeiU (ThorvaM) 
Vendilkráka (Ottar) 
VflSförU (Hnni) 
Viggjarskalli (Lodin) 
Vftvmkí (Hanld) 
Völubijótr (Vemund) 
Ylfingr (Hionrud) 
þambarskelfir (Einar) 
Ölbogi (Eyvind) 
Örví (Biand) 



ACRE, Acre-burg (Akrsboig), a sea-port of Palestine, iii. 25633 


AÐALSYSLA (A&lsýsla), a district of Esthonia, facing the 
island of Œsel, i. 5333 34725 

ÆGISFIRTH (Ægisfjör«r), now Oksfjord, a bay that, furthest 
to the west, cuts into the southern side of the island of Hin, 
in Halogaland, Norway, iii. 35630 

ÆRWICK (Ærvík), now Errik, a manor on the south side of 
Stad in Firthfolk, Norway, i. 27733 

AFRICA, see Serkland. 

AGDANESS, Agdirness (Ag^Sanes), now Agdenes, the west- 
ernmost promontory on the south side of Thrandheim-firth, 
i. 1365 29132 il 28330 28413 28718 iii. 26311 28210 46727 4681, 

AGDIR (Ag^ir), a coast district of southwestern Norway, 
bounded to the west by Rogaland, to the north by Hordland 
and Thelmark, to the east by Grenland (and Westmarar), 
now 'Nedenes, Lister og Mandals Fogderier,' i. 7117 77712 
"^6 10 "55 17218 173» 17422 2417 27421 30318 31322 3781.210 

^' 589 64w 2II5 2683 32330 3483 36030 3905 46410 !»• 2726 
224l9 43829 

AGNIS-THWAITE (Agnafit), in the eastern part of the distnct 
in Sweden, called Taur (q. v.), i. 341^; p. 3335 the word 
'strand' should read *thwaite' as the original reads 'fit,' 
evidently pointing to the same place as 'Agnafit,' iL 7^5 

ALABURG, Alburg ('Alaborg), now Aalborg, a seaport on the 
inlet to the Limbfirth in North-Jutland, Denmark, iii. 35511 

36722 47720 

hidex II [alc — Pl^Í 


ALCASSE (Alkasse), now Alcazer do Sal, a town on the rivi 
Sadoa that, coming from east, falls into the bay of Setubal m 
southmost Portugal, Íii. 25124.3^ 

ALDEIGIA, Aldeigia-burg (Aldeigjuborg), now Old Lad' _ 
a town on the river Volcho, a short distance inland from the 
south-eastern end of the lake of Ladoga, N. Russia^ i, 3471^ 

»* i53sii 15428 4662« iti* 55 77a 
ALPS {Munt, in Sigvat's verse - mont-, the stem of monti 

tfar' ilp%ky^ the Alps), iii, 1 2^ 
ALREK STEAD { AlreksstalSir), one of K, Har. Hai 

manors, in Hordland, now caUed Aarstadi a short distant 

south -east of Bergen, i. 137^0 ^^\ ^í^íí 
ANCIENT-SIGTOWN (Fomu Sigtúnirl su Sktowj 
ANGELNESS (Engilsnes), Cap S. ÁDgdo or Maks, 

easternmost point of Morea, Gieecei iiL asS^ 
ANGRAR, now Hangran, a mamirkl {dace on Neaii iMMr 

Byneset, q.v., ii. 4813 - 

ANGLE-ISLE (Óngull), now Engdo, in the mouth oi Sagfjor- 

den, an eastward offshoot from the Vestfjoid in Halpgakni 

iii. 48115 
ANGLESEA (Ongulsey}, iii. 224,1^ „ 
ANGLESEA-S0UND(0ngulseyjai8undXMenaiStrait, betw^ 

Anglesea and the main land, iii. 123^ aajjn 
APARDION, Aberdeen, iii 
APEWATER (Apavatn), a homestead within the commune 

of Grimsness in Amessýsla, southern Icehuid, il 511« 
APULIA (PiSU), Italy, iii. 255^ 
AS-GARTH (' Asgar«r), the chief abode in Aa-knd, the origii 

seat of Odin, a great stead of blood-offerings, i i^^^^ — ^' 

in the rule of Vih and Ve when Odin migrated away from i1^ 

1515.17— after Odin's migration to the north called ' Asgaith 

of old days ' ('Asgar^r hiim fomi), hither Odin was suppor^ 

to have gone after his death (cf. Godhome, Valfaall), 21^ 
ASHOME, jtftf Asland. 
ASIA (Asia), i. 1 1 12 129.11 
ASK (Askr), *a large manor in Norderhov district, in 

realm' (Storm), iii. 31732 
AS-LAND ('Asaland) or As-home ('Asaheimr), the land and 

home of the Anses, 'Æsir,' the gods of the N< 

to the east of Tanabranch, L i2|2 

forUnncn, Ivi Dg 

ASM — bia] Index II 241 

ASMUNDBAY, ii. 1 7427 = ASMUNDSWICK ('Asmumiar- 
vágr), * now Osmondwall, on the south end of the island of 
Hoy' (Anderson, Orkneyingasaga, 1873, p. 3, n. i), i. 29022 

ii. 17427 

ATLIS-ISLE (Atíey), now Atleö, on the northern side of the 

mouth of DalsfjöríSr (Dalsfjord) in the Folkland of Fialir, 

Norway, i. 1043^ 

ATTWOOD (Í ViiSum), an unidentified homestead, i. 2263 

AUDSHOLT (Au^sholt), a homestead in Olfus-Commune, on 

the western side of Olfus-river, lower 'Arnessýsla, Iceland, iii. 


AUMORD (AumoriS), a countryside on the eastern side of 
the Raumelf (Glommen) where it enters the sea, in the 
southernmost reaches of Vingulmark, now the district of 
Borge near Frederiksstad, Norway, iii. 2773© 

BALAGARTH-SIDE (Balagar«ssi«a), a coast district of south- 
western Finland, ii. 1024 1I3 

BARWICK (Barvik), a place, uncertain which, on the coast of 
the province of Bleking in southern Sweden, ii. 32332 

BATALD (Bataldr), now Batalden, an island off the coast of 
Firthfolk, belonging to the administrative district of Nordfjord, 
Norway, iii. 3553 

BEAR-ERES (Bjamaurar), now Bjömör, homestead and 
countryside in the north of North-Mere, i. 309^3 

BEAR-ISLE (Bjarney), now Björnö, in the parish of Borgund, 
South- Mere, Norway, ii. 36234 

BEFIA (Befja), now BafverS, a river running through the town 
of Uddevalla in Bohuslan, S. W. Sweden, iii. 42021 

BEIARS (Land of the) (Beiaraland), Bavaria, iii. 262^ 

BENTBERG (Brattsberg), the manor of Gregory Dayson, 
situated in the countryside of Höfu'^d, now Gierpen, where 
the modern town of Skien is situatea, S. Norway, iii. 390^9 

BERDLA (BeriSla), now Berle, an ancient manor-house on 
the south-eastern coast of the large island of Brimangrsland, 
now Bremanger, lying in the mouth of the Nordfjord, Firth- 
folk, Norway, i. 10323.28 

BERGEN, see Biorgvin. 

BIARMLAND (Bjarmaland), the land of the Perms, round the 
basin of the White-Sea, i. 1291 215^ ii. 25812 24^ 2603 2671 
2881.2 29 '15 iii' 2o8jj 

VI. R 

242 Index' I I [big — ^BRO 

BIGHTBOTTOM (Vágsbotn), the head of Oe 'Vai^m' 
Bergen, Norway, iii. 3221^ 

BIORGVIN (Bjöigvin, Bjöigyn), now Beigen, Nommyi founded 
by K. Olaf the Quiet, iii. 192^ — 184^ 225,5 '^3s ^T't *'*» 
30712 31814 31939 32119 S8 3234 32411 3«6,o „ 340| 34«! 35% 
18 38522 80 386e 39014 39^8 10 3947 403i 4 6 4i5fi 416,4 u 9 » 
42 725 43^80 44I3 18 24 44210 22 443s 448» 457» to 45^17 » 40% 
46631 46721 46920 4783 48018 4848 

BIRCHISLE (Bjarkey), now ' Bjerkö i Throndenes i Sei^' 
an island of Halogaland, ii. 192^ 214^ 239,2 '4^ '^ 
2873Q 28921 ^"* '7i8 2112 278^ (where the words 'in ' 
isle * have fallen out) 356,^ 

BIRCHSTRAND (Birkiströnd), now Berkestrand, a nuuior of 
K. Hakon the Good, on the eastern side of the island of 
Prædi, North-Mere, Norway, i. 17S17-18 

BISHOPSHAVEN (Byskupshöfti), Bispehavn, a harbour about 
a mile north of Biorgvin, iii. 4687 

BLACK SEA (Svartahaf), i. 11,, 12«^ iiL 75« 

BLUELAND THE GREAT (BlálMid hit miUa), Africa, L 

'^17 20 

BOKN (Bókn), now Bukkenö, in the mouth of the great B^ 
of Bukkenfjord, in the province of Rogaland, Nonrqrt il 

35527 357i5 36118 46426 
BOLGARS (Land of the), Bulgaria, iii. 262^ 
BORG, see Sarpsborg. 
BORGUND, homestead and country-side, on the south-westBDt 

side of the peninsula now called Oxenö, in South-Men^ a 

short distance east of the mod. town of Aalesund, iL jfiii 

BORGUND-HOLM (Borgundarhóhnr), now Bomholm, m 

island in the Baltic belonging to Denmark, i. 25 1^^^^ as% 

2535 27028 27127-28 
BORRO (Borró), now Borre, on the Christiania-firth, L fig^ 

708 21 
BRENTLITHE (Brattahli^), Eric the Red's abode in Ba^ 

firth in Greenland, i. 35512 ^ 

BRENTRIDGE (Brattsáss), by Kings'-Rock, iiL 327^ ,- 
BRETLAND, Wales, i. 1283^ 132,3 15310 ss 261« iL I74u'ft: 

BROAD (Brei^a), now Breden or Bredebygden, a small i ^HmM y: 

BRO— CRo] Index II 243 

side on the river Low in Upper Gudbrandsdale, ii. 20I29 

2029 |g 

BROADBEAM (Brei^ablik), Balder's Swedish home, i. log^ 

BROADFIRTH (BreiSifjöríSr), the largest bay in western Ice- 
land, i. 269^ 24 "• ^3^9 

BRUNSWICK (Brúnsvík), iii. 3411 

BUNESS (Biines), a homestead in Upper Gauldale on the river 
Gaul, within the Thrandheim district, i. 292^ 

BURG, see Sarpsburg 

BYRDA (ByriSa), an island marking the boundary point be- 
tween North-Mere and Naumdale, now Börö, i. 2457 32^28 

iii- 35780 
CAITHNESS (Katanes), district and earldom of North-eastern 
Scotland, subdued by Sigurd, Earl of Orkney and Thorstein 
the Red, i. 11621 12515 127^ 290^4 ii. 1692 17010 1713 i73io 20 28 

i74i8 i75i2 1^723 377io iii- 37427 

CALFSKIN (Kalfskinn), a Mittle stead' (litill bær), and a still 
existing farmstead in the * rape ' of * Arnames,' in the bailiwick 
(sýsla) of Islefirth (EyjafjöíSr), in northern Iceland, where 
the blinded Upland King Rœrek spent the last days of his 
life, and died, ii. 13626-27 

CANTERBURY (Kantarabyrgi), taken and burnt by Olaf 
Haraldson, ii. 174.24 

CANTIRE (Satiri, Santiri), Scotland, iii. 22135 ^^H^ 2233 

CANTIRE-NECK (Satiris-ei«), the Tarbert of Cantire, iii. 

22 c 
CASTLEBRIDGE (Kastalabryggja), in England, iii. 1823 
CHARLES-WATER (Karlsá), a river, apparently of Spain, 

uncertain which, ii. 2012 14 
CINTRA CASTLE, now Cintra, due north of, and not far 

distant from, Lisbon, Portugal, iii. 25023 
CLEUCHFIRTH (GljúfrafjörSr), apparently the present Kan- 

stadfjord running up from S. W. into the southern Hindö in 

northern Halogaland, iii. 35622 
CLEVELAND, (Kliflönd), in east Riding, Yorkshire, iii. i66g 
CONNAUGHT (Kunnuktir, Kunnoktir), in Ireland, iii. 22522 

239i5 20 
CROOKSHAW (Krókaskógr), in the province of Bohuslan, 

Sweden, iii. 35032 35 17 ig 47922 

*J<W ^S7f o»s ««ii 2f% n^» ^i^ «^ i^ír *7<>r*j 
nte n^ 277^ 3&I9 ^«Ski » M9ii M¥h ^u Í5^ S^h^M 
i- S»« ^ *«r ^a^ 7S» li, 97^ t^mm »5«Hji* ^53»^ 
«S^ »5T» ^Q 31« 5"» J*%a Jrtp n»«f 3<7i 9 319» 
3Mi» ^ 3»B S#Ss s S4^ M^ ISh IS^n ISJtt m* 
J75i*«J*9ki44^ji4Síhi — '*-fkiifirai ***n*^niti|*"lf 
m^ ^9» i^s IHsi 5^1 i i3tii» 1% ^^ '^^ -^4»» 
5^4»» B^mu SMITHS 1*« 7*» 79»» fate 9*^« 9'uit 
9^9Jsis9fi95ittB9^tt»97tttii6«3ii9ii»ii t^^i 

uti «94« ^iJw "»• ^^ö nu 314» 3173. 3*»íi 334^337:. 

3S<>)| Ills 353u 354i 355« 359m 3^i« 3^7ti 4379 43^« 

^'jt ^^ 4663 469» 470^ 47*i,« 473ii 474fi 477« 
DIMOM, tae'GffemtDÍ2EiioDa.*2akliiid tn ifae sooibeni groci]i 

CÍ Úm Faroes^ bctw ia ji Sando to the oortb, and Sudeid to 

the womh, H. 3461^ 26% 270^ 
ÐOFRAH« nov tbe {ansh of Dovrc^ od tbe scnithem mdíiie 

of Mki*DofraÍ6U in oorthem GiidlitiiidMkk, u 155^ iL 19^^ 

iiL U3m> 
DOVRáJFELL (Dc^fmQall), a moiintaiii range mnmog S. W. to 

N. E. dividing, amongst othi:r district^ that of Dotar in 

Gudbransdale, from Updale in the Orkdalefolk of TtmiMl* 

hctm, Norway, i. 95,^ iio^ iii. it^ 206- aoj,^ 
DRAKN (Dr6fn), now Drammensí}ord, S* Norway, U. j$%^ 
DKAGSCJD, iui isthmus 00 the peninsula of Stad. in South- 

Mere, 1,30*1^ 

Index II 


DUBLIN (Dyflinn)i first conquered of Norsemen by Thorgils 
and Frodi, sons of K, Har.^Hairfair, i JJ^^j^ ^^4^ ^^9 11 20 

n. r8S;siiL 122^^ 239^^(55^ 

DUBUNSHIRE, iil 239^3 

DWINA, VINA (Vina), the great river Dvina that runs into the 
bay of Archangel^ i. 215^ ^^ ii. 260^1 

EARL'S-CAVE (Jarlshellir), apparently a cave west of the river 
Gaul^ in Gauldale, in the neighbourhood of Rimui, i. 2933^ 

EARL'S- DALE (Jarisdalr), a spot somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of Middlehouse, in Gauldale, to the east of the river Gaul, 
one of Earl Hakon's hiding-places in his last days, i. 293^ 
(cf. Hakon's movements till he passes the Gaul and gets to 
Rimul on its western side, 293^-294^) 

EARL'S-ISLE (Jarlsey), now Jerso in the Christiania-firth, out- 
side the town of Tonsberg, i, 69^ 

EASTERN DALES (Eystridalir), now Osterdalen, to the east 
ofj and running parallel with, the Gtid brands -dale, ii. jjS^j 

EAST-AGDIR, see Agdir. 

EASTAIRT, see Eastort. 

EAST-COUNTRIES, see Eastway, Eastways. 

EASTFIRTHS (Austfir^ir), a collective term for the indented 
eastern seaboard of Iceland from Langanes in the north to 
Starmyrartangi, on the southern side of Swanfirth, in the 
south, i, 323i4-u 

EASTISLE (Austrey), one of the middle group of the Faroes, 

ÍL 26933 3<>5 2S 

EASTLANDS (Austrlönd), see Eastway. 

EAST* REALM (Austrríki)» a general term for dominions bor* 
dering on the eastern Baltic, i, 64.20 — specially the east of 
EuropCj vaguely comprising what now is understood by Russia 
in Europe, iii. 753^ 

EASTORT (Austrátt), now Österaat, a manor on the eastern 
side of Yrjar (Orlandet) on the northern side of the mouth 
of Thrandheim firth, i. 3253^ iii. 11 r^ ^^ SS^h* as 

EAST-SALT, Eastsalt-sea (Eystrasalt), the Baltic Sea, i, 251,3 
ii. 6^ 

EASTWAY — ways (Austrlönd, Austrvegr, Austrvegar), gener- 
ally lands to the east of the Baltic Sea, exceptionally in* 
eluding even Sweden, 1. 32^^ (Sweden) 47jg 52^ (Sweden) 

246 Index II [edn — ^eld 

53i2 14 "780 "81 1281, ^ i3Si,.iS9n «6og 174^ «o,y aiia 
2143 28 28411 28521 (Sweden)— u. 65„ 79« 8i„ 81, „ 991, 
1202^ 1212, 1SI20 (Sweden) lii. jOj^ 59^^ 77^- 

EDNI (E^ni), now Etne, a country-ude in South-Hotdnidt 
on the boundary of Roland, iiL 3919 

EGGIA (Egg, gen. Eggjar, dat. EggjuX now Egge^ in Spue- 
bidersfolk at the head of Thrandheim-firtli« a short *<í*^«*^ 
north of Steinker, the seat of Tbiand o'Chin, i. 170^ md 
(of his son?) Olver, ii. 19330 ^9856 286„ 34I5 374« 453*4^3» 
4644 iii. 20,1 2» 2 1 18 

1. EID (Ei«), li. io9i7 = Eidshaw. 

2. EID, a manor situated a short distance south of the Lake 
Miors on the western side of its river outlet, the Verma 
(Vormen), near the present Eidsvold, ii. 1071^^ — here naa 
the meeting-place of the ' Heidsaevis-Thing^' first established 
by Halfdan the Black, i. 16030^ — ^under Olaf the Hodj 
the meeting-place was moved to the Eidswalls or Eid»fibiiii^ 
' Eidsvold,' on the east side of the river (cf. sumnumed a 
thronged Thing in the place where, eoer sime^ the Heidaevis 
Thing has been holden), ii. 21015.17 

3. EID, or the Inner-Eid, the upper part of the isthmus 
which connects the peninsula of Stad, q.v., with the main- 
land on the northern side of Nordfjord in FirthfoUc, now 
called Mandseid, i. 10317 i7Si6 ^*IS\% 

4. EID, better than Eydi, a country-side east of Vlngafanaik 
and south of the lake Eyjir (Oieren), now caUed Askim, L Scl. 

5. EID (Ei^Sar), possibly what now is known as 'Stoim Eiv 
below Vanersborg on the Götaelf (Hildebrand), iL 145» ^^ 

EIjpSHAW, EIDWOOD (Ei^Saskógr), i. a wooded heajfilaiid 
rise, forming a part boundary between Vermland to the east 
and Solisles to the west, i. 67^ 1061, ^- 7^ts ^^r ^77m if^ 

36917 39028 
2. A woodland tract east of Eid below Vanersborg^ iL 14511 

'47l4 82 

EIGHTH-LAND ('Attundaland), now the south-eastern part 
of the Swedish province of Upland, i. 58^ öi^g ii. iia^ 

EIKUNDSOUND (Eikundasund), now Egersund, in sondiera 
Rogaland, ii. 26810 34819 35124 354« 

ELD A, now Elden, a manor on the isthmus called EldiieiV^ 
which is formed by the LyngenQord fro(n the north in Nanm- 

ELF — err] Index II 247 

dale and the northernmost inlet from Beitstadijord in Thrand- 
heim, iii. 41523 4161 

ELF, see Gautelf. 

ELFHOME (Alf heimar), the maritime district on the east side 
of the Wick, the northern boundary of which was the Raumelf, 
and the southern the Gautelf, i. 7033 31 Sog^ 

ELLIPALTA, uncertain, perhaps Kerson Bay, from where an 
inland waterway much frequented by the *Pwc or Russian 
Scandinavians led by the Dnieper up to their northern do- 
minions, iii. 7522 — Munch, * Samlede Afhandlinger,' ii. 221, 
shows that Ellipalta is a corruption of Ele palus ("iXiyv palu- 
dem) Jordanes, ch. 23, stating thafEXi^ alone = Palus Mæotis, 
the sea of Azof, which, however, cannot be meant by our text. 

ENEA, another name for Europe, i. ii^^ 

ENGLAND, i. 539 6420 13827 ^3927 si i496 ^528 11 25 i53i4 27 

15429 1567 16423 2OI18 26I15 27 264ie 17 24 2664 20 272io 30^2 
3247 34I29— -ll- I2i8 20 23 27 ^32 ^726 1^9 261 28 27i 5 9 11 19 284 
5 10 21 298 336 4O26 8I1 16727 28 2355 250,2 24 25^2 25221 25328 
25521 2563 11 26721 28 28623 29I24 31^7 11 31321 29 3147 31610 18 

3179 3342 34618 353i8 375i5 i7 21 37617 29 si 377i7 38833 45213 

4548— 111- 924 28 81 259 11 12 3^26 5 ^25 528 4 28 81 539 ^55l2 ^5717 
19 26 1589 15928 27 28 ^6012425 27 16I1 4 22 24 82 ^623 14 1633 * 6415 
1667 1694 7 1745 9 17 19 18O7 9 23 18I9 10 14 1824 18 21 28 18312 
18418 1981 ,2 22929 2497 37588 37611 12 82 46321 22 

ENGLAND'S-MAIN (EnglandshaQ, the North-Sea, ii. 29I11 

1. ERES (Eyrar), the harbour now known as that of Eyrabakki, 
on the east side of * Ölfusá,' in Arnessýsla, southern Iceland, 


2. ERES (Eyrar), the shingly shores on the western side of the 
mouth of the river Nid, by the sea, a short distance below 
the old town of Nidoyce, a Thingstead, part of which was 
used as a ship-building yard, iii. 1295 20713 46831 (where the 
rendering of the text should read, * out to the Eres, for a 

Thing 0,482220 

ERESOUND (Eyrarsund), see Eyre-sound. 

ERNENESS (Arnarnes), an unknown locality, and apparently 
a mistake for Trondness (þrandames), which some other re- 
dactions of the Kings' Stories have, iii. 27313 

ERRI, now Ærö, an island of Denmark, south of the island of 
Fion, and west of that of Langeland, iii. 3542 

248 Index II [est— «IM 

ESTHONIA, Estland (Eistland), L 53^ 54u <*^ 'S^it ^ 
30014ÍÍ. 12037 

ESTLAND, see Esthonia. 

EUROPE (Europa), i. ii„ 12^ 

EYDI, see Eid, 3. 

EYI, the lake Öjer(en) in southern Raumrealm, fonned 
Raumelf, i. Zo^ According to the reading of die belt ] 
of Heimskringla, this is the form of the name (c£ F. J ' 
ed., i. 905 footnote), but Eyjir seems to be the tem iw- 
ranted by Norw. charters, and on that fonn depeodi tte 
modem Öjer. 

EYJAFIRTH (Eyjaíjör^r), in the north of Iceland, L tCshu 

ii. 2432 

EYNA-SKERRIES (i. Zo^y dele skerries^ and for Bynai mlUL 

EYRE-SOUND, Eresound (Eyrarsund), the sound betwaeoflÉÍ 

Danish island of Sealand and the Western coast of Swcdsiy 

now Óresund, or Sundet, i. 47,4 157^ 35819 358,5 iL 315^ 

32730 3304 33114 35*29 "i- H7ii 2855 354, ^ ^ 
FALSTER (Falstr), a Danish island south of Sealand, 

502 97i 

FAROE, Faroes (Færeyjar), according to Snom, 1 

and peopled in consequence of Harald's conquests in NorM|b 

i. 1 1 322 "• 6916 24116 24618 28 247ir S8 n «4911 n^ «^ii 

27210 27382 3031 30422 26 3IO1 S 

FETTLEFIRTH (Fetlafior«r), m France, ii. 19« u 
FIADRUNDALAND (Fja«rundaland), now FJefShuodn^ á 

part of Upland in Sweden, i. 555 58^ 6iigiL hSm 
FIALIR (Fjalir), the south-western part of Krthfolk, NonMf^ 

i- I04l8 29 353l8 37788 "• 3^27 

FIFE (Fifi), * kingdom ' of eastern Scotland, tributary to \ 

the Mighty, ii. (2532^) 25438-255^ 
FINN-ISLE (Finney), an island off the coast of 

some distance north of the town of Stavanger, Norihqri l> 

39011 4348 
FINLAND (Finnland), i. 2630 27^ g 331, ig.„ ii. 10, xso^ 
FINMARK (Finn-mörk), the northernmost part ofNo mayft oa 
Malangiirth, east to the White-sea, boundaries however ^ 
uncertain (the Egilsaga says that the eastern (inland) Fim 
stretched as far south as did Halogaland in the westX i zik 
ii. 7628 25821 277e 

Fio— fræ] Index II 249 

FION (Fjón), now Fyen, Engl. Funen, the next largest island 
of Denmark, i. 1523 i"- 34i 389 39i 44? 92 452 9 4^2 S^r 11 
7^84 «1 "Oi6"i4 1327 

FIRTHS (Fir«afylki, Fir«ir), now Nord-og SöndQord in 
Bergens-Stift, a petty maritime kingdom of old Norway, L 

101^8 1037 I04ð 21328 23727 24O27 24426 275i2 30^21 3S3i« 

3773, ii. 2o6y 4231^ in. 344^2 3948 44^6 44326 4477 
FITIAR (Fitjar), one of K. Har. Hairfair's manors, on the 

north-western side of Stord, off South Hordaland, i. 137,0 

1811 18420 iii. 232 
FLANDERS (Flæmingjaland), i. 26028 ii. 132 Sij iii. 15913 1631 

1698 2379 
FLORU-BIGHTS (Flónivágar), now Florevaagen, an inlet on 

the eastern side of the island anciently called Fenhringr, now 

Asköen, outside the city of Bergen, Norway, iii. 32I29 390^4 
FOLD (Fold, Foldin), now Christiania fjord, with the adjacent 

litoral, Norway, i. 1061 loSgo 21 ii^ ii. 344 ^^vi 758i 3483 ^ 

3539 "Í- 39421 459i4 
FOLD, short for Westfold, q.v. 
FORCE (Fors), now Foss, in the district of Tunge; at the head 

of GuUmarsfjard in Bohuslan, Sweden, iii. 31530 3952i 24 
FORCE (Fors), now Fossum, on the river Befja, near to the 

town of Uddevalla, Bohuslan, S.W. Sweden, iii. 42013 
FORLAND, now Folland, a manor on the island of Averö, off 

the coast of North-Mere, iii. 44I14 
FORMINTERRA, now Formenterra, the most south-westerly 

of the Ballearic islands, iii. 25220 25333 
FOXERN (Foxemi), a homestead on the eastern bank of the 

Gautelf, in the countryside called Flundreharad, Sweden 

(Hildebrand), iii. 229^^ 230^3 23 1^ 
FRANKLAND (Frakkland), Franconia, i. 255^3 
FREK-ISLE SOUND (Frekeyjarsund), a sea-strait between 

Frek-isle (Frekey), now Frökö, and Stim, on the north side 

of Raumsdale mouth, Norway, ii. 362^5 jg 46335 
FRÆDI (Fræ«i), now Frædö or Fredö, an island off North- 
mere, Norway, i. 17517 
FRÆDISBERG (Fræ«arberg), a crag formation in the island 

of Frædi, abutting on Sheppey-Sound on the east of the 

island, i. 17631 1773 ^^Oii 

250 Index II [fri — gau 

FRISLAND, or Friesland (Frisland), L 128^« 255^ 960^ jos^i 

ii. 123 7920 ^^^- ^59i4 
FROST A, a peninsula running from the eist into Thnundhem 

firth, within the Folkland of Strind, the site of the Ftoita- 

Thing, i. i66^g 316^ 31835 ii. 49^ iiL 334- 
FYRI, now Fyns&, a nver running through upsala into die Ue 

of Malaren, Sweden, i. 30^2 
FYRILEIF, now Fárlöf, in the district of Tunge at the heed of 

GuUmarsfjard in Bohuslan, Sweden, iiL 31 6^ 3171 3S44 
FYRIS-MEAD (Fyrisvellir), alluvial plains on either ade of the 

Fyri, i. 3012 376 3816 407 SO21, 
GALIZIALAND, Galicia, Spam, iiL 249^ 
GARTH (ii. 4343), read Gerdi, q.v. 
GARTHREALM, GARTHS (GarSarOd, GarVar), Rusú 

generally, i. is^g 22823 23I1028 2505« 253^ 262,5 «8^ "^^l 

2891 347i8 -22 24—»- 664 8127 »2, 149» IS3« M 154» .36911 

37526 3800 381612 38328 389«) 41614 43811 4S48 466ir->n- 3m 
r. :?S,if i^^^'^sT 154 12 5816 28 59g7S84 77io It 437» 
GATE (Gata), the abode of Thrand, on the eastern ode of 

East-isle in the Faroes, ii. 24621 26921 ^73tt 3^^« 3^3'^ 
GAUL, now Gulelven, the main river of Gauldale in "nana- 

heim, i. 29303 
GAULAR, a countryside round the inner part of DalesfivA in 

the folkland of Fialir, part of the present SöndQord, Nonn]^ 

i- 7929 I04l2 15 

GAULDALE (Gaulardalr), now Gaul- or Gul-dalen, a fidUud 
of Southern Thrandheim to the east of Orkdale, L 95|g 96^ 
16712 2924 296g 2983 31812— ii. 46» 49n S34 s 7«« 

GAULDALE-FOLK, i. 9630— iL 47,. 

GAULEDGE, Gaulridge (Gaularáss), properly the highland 
boundary between Gauldale to the west and Strindfcdk to tht 
east, but by Snorri only referred to in the narrower senaa as 
the ridge that bounded the township of Nidoyce by W. and 
N.W., now called Byaasen, ii. 53^ 7224 279, 

GAUTELF, or, short. Elf (Gautelfr, EUr), now GotaeU; tht 
ancient boundary between Norway and West Gautlandi L 6Jm| 
7^82 10521 io9i6 19 "O16I8 "810 1312Í i32ir 3io«377jr* 
764520 7824 8321 846 22 "3i8 15715211« 267,0 3"ir-^n-««B 
2830 2924 3112 97x4 28 998 "9i6 131» 88 H74 '49« I97ti »«6li 
22614 23 13 2328 3548 40320 4394 4S7i4 


index IT 


GAUTLAND, now Gotland, onginally a kingdom stretching 
from the western to the eastern sea, bounded by north by the 
dominioD of the Svíar, Svíj?j615, í. 56« — by the lake * Vettern * 
it was divided into West- and East-Gautland (Gaudand it 
vestra, it eystra), which distinction is frequently ignored by 
Stiorri, who by Gautland now means the one now the other 
division. Here they are classed according as the context 
seems to warrant; 

Wesi^Gautiand.—l 42^^ ^^ ^ 6i„,ig 63^ 1051^ loSj^, iiOj^ 
i232g 2 59a .^^ (either Gautland, all Gautland) $$6^^ ^j n^-^* 
^3}o7% 93n si> 96.;^ 91^ loi^,^ rra^g isa.^g 1581^ 139.^ 142« 
I43i2 U426 14S34 15033 <ST-2s i53tí ^SSi w 12 ^^^.^ ^S7i ^^Tit 

"4^^ i49ift 22632 3« 

^6^7 n522 SS^M^ 3Us 34Si7 35^j„ 

3 2^30 550^3 15 399^^ 399 j^ ^ 402. 46 1 „ 

MastGauiiand,—l öij^ 1584 isSg^j (259^ ^) ii. uSj^ 15433 

i5Ssrt5<5i— iii.33iT(?)3ÍÍir{'')44s4(?)493oí?^ I" these queHed 

cases presumably East-Gautland is meant rather than West- 

GAUT-SKERRTES (Gautasker), the archipelago off the coast 

of East-Gautland, i. 258^,» 
GEIRSTEAD (GeirsstaiSir), the seat of King Olaf Geirstead- 

Elf, in Westfold, now called Gjerstad, on the bay of Laurvik, 

GEIRSVER, now Gjesvær (Munch), a fishing station *N.W, of 
Magero ^ (G* Storm) which lies on the western side of the 
mouth of PoTsanger Fjord in Western Fin mark, ii. 264^^ 

GELMIN (Gelmin), now Gjolme, a manor in lower Orkdale 
on the western side of the Ork river, Thrandheim, Norway, 
ii. 4815 

GERDl (GerISi), now Gerde, a homestead on a south-east 
going inlet from the Skonevtksfjord, in the district of Etne, 
South-Hordland, Norway, ii. 390x1 434g — ui- 3 7^0 

GIANT^HOME (Jotun-heimar), I 15^7 

GIANT-ISLES (þursasker), rocks supposed by some to be in 
Shetland, by others outside Thurso, or north of Caithness, in 
Scotland; but perhaps the Giant's Causeway in Ireland is 
meant, ii, iSS^g 

GILLING (GylHng), one of the islands belonging to the group 
of God-isles, q.v., i, 33323 

GIMSAR, DOW Gjemse, a manor on the western bank of the 


Index II 

[gim — 

*77n 3^915 %^U—^ 

Gaulelf in the tower part of Gauldala, i. 

349« 35^1 
GIMSEY, a nuns* seat in Hofuzid, q*T^ S. Norway; gitimte 

on a small island below the town of Skida, mod. Skten, and 

was founded a.d. iiio^ iii. 421*0 
GISKl (Gizki), now Gisko, an \mxA off the coast of South- 

mere, in Norway, il 280^ g 4^3» "^ ^09131 225,^ 
GODHOME (golSheimar) -Sweden the Great, Le., Scythia, 1 

2i|^ ^Sw ^—apparently ^ ValhaU, %\^ 
GOD-ISLE (Go^y, or -or), in singular tiie oame of the singli 

island, now called Godo, in pluml comprising also the surJ 

rounding group of lesser isles in the mouth of Salpt-firth^J 

now Saltenfjord, in HaJogaland, i. 339^1 33a. 332^^ 3333^ 
GOD-ISLES' STREAM (GoiSeyja-straumr), a sea-current ^ 

tween Godisles* group and the mainland, i. 33331 
GODNFIRTH (GoíSnarfjörSr), now Randersijord, on Easte 

Jutland, Denmark, iii< 94 j^ ^ 
GOLDPORT (GuUvarta), the Golden Port in Constant 

"i^ 2S9u IS 
GOTHLAND, see Keith Gothland. 
GOTHLAND, Gotland, the laige island Gotland off the S.f 

coast of Sweden, i. 254^^ ^ 355^ 34^ ,^11. Sff 9$ 82,1 ti2|, 

373is 3863s 
GRÆNINGS (Grceningar), now Gioning, a homestead up 1 

above Sk erf-scree, q.v,, ii. 366^ 
GRÆNINO-SOUND (Grœníngjasund), a sea-strait bel^ 

the island of Sartoro and the Lyderhorn peninsula, S.W. 

Bergen, Norway, iii, 3931^ 
GRAVE DALE {Grafdalr), now Gravdal, on the eastern side . 

of Kvarven, the northernmost spur of the Lyderhom, S,W. 

Bergen, Norway, iii* 458^0 
GREECE = Greekland. 
GREEKLAND (Grikkland), Greece^ iL 350^^ «i- Sfti n 

GREEKLAKD% MAIN, Greekland's Sea (GnkklandshafX 1 

eastern Mediterranean, iii* 5930 ^SSm =5*^1* 
GREEKLAND'S SALT-SEA (GríksStX id.^ iii< 256^ 
GREENLAND (Grœnland^ i- 34*17 is 355i u w^^ ^-3 


GRE — hak] Index II 253 

GREENLAND MAIN (Graenlandshaf), the sea between Ice- 
land and Greenland, ii. 136^ 

GRENLAND, a part of the folkland later called Grœnafylki 
(see Munch's ' Historisk-geographisk Beskrivelse over Kon- 
geriget Norge/p. 179-180), i. 21210— H. 35— "i- 222g 

GRENMAR (Grenmarr), now LangesundsQorden, in Southern 
Norway, i. 1053^,— ii. 551^ 

GRIMSBY (Grímsbœr), not in Northumberland, as Snorri 
seems to think, but in Lincolnshire, i. 15232 

GRIMSEY (Grimsey), an island in the Arctic Ocean some 
twelve miles north of the mouth of Eyjafirth, Iceland, ii. 2433 
24430 — *common property,' according to Gudmund Eyolfson's 
statement, when, in 1024, K. Olaf Haraldson asked the Ice- 
landers to concede it him, ii. 24230-2435 i^.^^ 

GRIOTAR (Grjótar), a homestead on the eastern side of the 
main river of Orkdale, about midway up the valley, ii. 4639 

GRISLA-POOL (Grislupollar), a place apparently in France, 

ii. 194 9 
GRITING (Grytingr), a homestead in Orkdale, possibly the 

same as the above Griotar, q.v., i. log^g 170,^ 3197 
GUDBRANDSDALE, Dales, (Gu«brandsdalir, Dalir), now 

Gudbrandsdalen in Norway, i. 7822 ^ 935 9513 13119 — ii. 4I24 

45i6 5320 548 io3i2 10525 1^924 20016 20 20I27 20326 2093 234.^5 

24828 36729 
GUNVALDSBURG (Gunnvaldsborg), a place in France (?), 

ii. 1928 206 
HADALAND, Hathaland (Ha«aland), one of the folks of the 
Uplands in S.E. Norway, now called Hadeland, i. 6723 7235 

79« SI26 ^22 7 13 85i3 8612 936 1224 I3I21 133728— ii. 4^26 29 

45i6 10318 i04io I0926 209ie 249ii— i"- I54i2 48330 

HÆRING, one of the islands belonging to the group of God- 
isles, q.v., i. 33328 

HAFURSFIRTH (Hafrsfjör^r), now Hafsfjord, in Jadar, in 
Rogaland, Norway, i. 11I28 11 25 11 33 

HAKISDALE (Hakadalr), now Hakedalen, a valley anciently 
forming a portion of the boundary between south-eastern 
Hadaland and north-western Raumrick, the locality of King 
Harald Hairfair's first battle, i. 927 

HAKON'S-CRAG (Hákonarhella), now generally caUed Helle- 
ren, the rock on which King Hakon the Good was bom and 

254 Index II • [hal— hba 

where he died, situate on a promontory of a penimnla S.W. 
of Bergen, i. 138,7, where the locality is indicated «• on the 
flat stone, 'a hellunni,' 1887 jq^ 

HALLAND, a province in the south-west of Sweden, bene 
still the same name as of old, L 156^ i60|^ — ^iL 3951 — in. 3!^ 
i22io 13213 i35i3 14215 208,5 SI 3i?i 473n 

HALLKELUS-WICK (Hallkdsvfk), a small inlet into Oe 
mainland in Southmere, due south of Hodisk^ q.v., L ayCn 

HALOGALAND (Hálogaland), now commonly called 'I~ ' 
land, the northernmost division of Norway, 
about to what is now meant by the term ' Noi 
398 418 5027 81 "97 13026 131» 1747 21^ «45« a74f «'7Tjp 
30918 20 32828 32921 3301 3434 344» 350» 3SSft 377*"^ 
1891S 22 19011 21 1911S 19212 V 2373 „ 2s8„ a87„ a ^ 1884 
2925 3332 347i2 29 39726— "1- ^\n 1^3« «10» »««« «*3ir 

274l3 22 27826 3561« 48I16 ^ . 

HAMMERFIRTH (Hamarsíjör^r), the outer part of 'Ostno^ 
fjör^r (now Osterfjord), which bounds by N.W. the bqgs 
island of Osterö, North-Hordland, Norway, iii 358^1 

HANGRAR, a place, uncertain where exactly, in Sweden, iiL 

4i2 5l7 

HARDANG, Hardanger (Har^Sangr), the modem Haidange^ 
the country along either side of Hardang-firth in HonDani^ 
i. 2081720 2165— Snorri's etymology of Rename, a37H( HL 

HARM, Harmfirth (Harmr), now called Velfjord, which from 

N.W. cuts into southernmost Halogaland, iiL aiin azjg 
HARTLEPOOL, Hiartapool (Hjartapollr), iiL 375^ -. 
HATHALAND, see Hadaland. 
HAWKBY (Haukbær), now Hakeby, in the north of Bohodlnb 

Sweden, iii. 202^ 
HAWKDALE (Haukadalr), a homestead within Amessýda in 

southern Iceland, 28 miles N.E. of ThingveUiii L ou^^g 
HAWKFLEET (Hauksfljót) ? L 152,, 
HEADEY, Headisle (Hofu^y), now Hovedöen, an island out 

in the firth, off Christiana, Norway, iii. 352^7 424» 
HEATHBY (Hei«aby, -bær), now Schlesvig, N. Gennany, L 

26O18— iii. 34l8 9^26 28 997 262iy 

HEATHMARK (Hei«mörk), petty kingdom on lake 1601% 
southern Norway, L 6720 22 7 238 77i4 7«8»«t4 79s *«io«^ 

HEA — hin] Index II 255 

9Il7 92I6I9 935 I3I19 378.22— ii- 4I28 544 7 1039 14 17 105l4 22 26 

109325 20971113 24814 33821 34I10 3447 367S0— »"• 1549 
HEAVENBERG (Himinbjörg),the seatof Heimdall in Sweden, 

i. 1623 
HEAVEN.FELL(S) (Himinfjöll), i. 5629 = Heavenheath. 
HEAVENHEATH (Himinhei^r), a mountain tract in Sweden, 

i- 5618 

HE DALE (Hedalr), now Hedalen, a valley south of Vagi in 
northern Gudbrandsdale, Norway, ii. 20O11 

HEFRING (Hefringr), now Hövringen, a promontory on the 
north-western side of the bight at the head of which lay the 
city of Nidoyce, iii. 207^ 2 1035 

HELSINGLAND (Helsingjaland), now the Swedish province 
of Helsingland, i. 11310 1623981 163^ 214151727—". 6520 6610 
2761819 2777 41522 46625— iii. 6ie i4nj 583 

HELSINGPORT (Helsingjaport), Hastings, iii. 18 ij^ 

HERDALES (Herdalir), a countryside of Finland, ii. lOggi 

HERDHOLT (Hjar^arholt), in Salmonriverdale, in the baili- 
wick of * Dalasýsla,' western Iceland, iii. 10337 

HER-ISLES (Hereyjar), now Hero, a group of small islands 
situate N. of Gurskö and W. of Hareidland, in South-Mere, 
Norway, i. 27528— ii. 30237 36130 

HERDLA (HeriSla), now Herlöen, a small island in the archi- 
pelago N.W. of Bergen, North- Hordland, Norway, iii, 35830 


HERN A, an island of the group called Hernar, now Hennöer, 
outside the coast of North-Hordland in Norway, ii. 27024 

HERNEWICK (Hegravik), now Sandviken, at Bergen, Nor- 
way, iii. 32234 

HESIATOWN (Hesjutún), now Hestun (al. Estun or Ostun), 
a homestead on the island now called Havnö, north of the 
mouth of Harmr, or Velfjorden, in southern Halogaland, 
Norway, iii. 21I37 

HJALTLAND, see Shetland. 

HILL-ISLE (Hillar), now Hillö, an island off the coast of East- 
Agdir, a short distance to the S.W. of the present town of 
Mandal, iii. 139 

HILL-SOUND (Hillarsund), the strait between Hill-isle and 
the mainland, iii. 133 

HIN (Hinn), now Hinnö, a large island in northern Halogaland 

256 Index II [hjo — hol 

forming part of the northern sea-board of the luge VértQoid^ 

iii- 35621 
HJORNAGLI (Hjömagli), now Tjcnaj^ a jdaoe m die 

southernmost part of South-Hðrdland (Stona), li. 351« 
HIORUND-FIRTH (HjörundarfjörtSr), a bay that by eait 

divides the island of Hod (Hodisle) from the mainlnd tf 

middle Southmere, Norway, i. «76^ 
HIORUNGWICK (Hjörungavágr), an inlet 00 the north- 
eastern side of Hodisle, now caJled Lid-Vaag or Hjðng- 

Lid-Vaag (Munch), or Liavag (Storm), L a77| %^^ 
HIPPODROME (Pa^reimr), in Constantinople, iiL s60| , 
HISING, a large island in the mouth of the Gantel^ T 

ii. 760 819 16624— iii. 3278 3744 403^ 407st 455» 45^t 45911 
HLEITHRA (Hlei^r), now Leiie, in the Damah idand of 

Sealand, i. 163 2422 4928 508 is 51»— i"- *34ie 
HLESISLE, see Leesisle. 
HODISLE, Hod (Hö^, gen. Ha^r), now HazeidrLaiid, a 

large island ofif the southern part of Southmetey on the eaifeeni 

side of which is Hiorungwick, L 276^ ^4 ^77i 
HOF, a homestead in West-Gautland, now Stora-Hof, iL 14511 

HOF, now Hove, or Thorhoven, a homestead with a Thocli 

temple, situated in the landscape called Broad, q»v.» in noidi- 

em Gudbrandsdale, ii. 201^ (df. ^^^) 
HOFUND (Höfund), now the countryside called Gjeqpen 

about the town of Skien, S. Norway, iii. y^^ 39 it 4*1» 
HOLDERNESS (Hellornes), the south-easternmost 0000117- 

side of the East Riding of Yorkshire, iiL 166,4 
HOLM, Holme (Holmr), now called Holmen, by Bogeay 

Norway, iii. 322^ 324^7 38613 390^ 
HOLM, Holme (Holmr), now Munkholmen, an island one 

English mile N. of the city of Trondhjem, iiL 276^ 348» 
HOLME = Borgundholm, q.v. 
HOLMGARTH (HolmgarSr), now Novgorod in Raasm, i 

22924 2308 20— ii- S216 14820 iS3i4 466a> 46711— iii. 3*63« 7*11 

772 27030 
HOLM THE-G RAY (Holmr inn grái), an islet southemmoit 

among the Whale-isle archipelago, S.W. of Swineaoand, off 

the northernmost part of Götebozgs och Bohuslan, SwedOH 

iii. 36180 

HOL — Hou] Index II 257 

HOLSETALAND, Holstein, i. 2551^ 

HOLTAR, now Holtan, the manor of King Halfdan the Boun- 
teous and the Meatgrudging on Westfold, i. 707 15 

HOLY ISLE (Eyin helga), lona, iii. 22 2^^ 

HOLY-NESS (Helganes), near Riveroyce, on the east coast of 
Jutland, Denmark, iii. 463 jj ^ yy^j^ 79^, 

HOLY RIVER ('Ain Helga), now Helga&n, a river in Skaney, 
in south-western Sweden, ii. 320^ jj 25 3^312 3^52 32624 

HORDALAND, Hordland (Hör^aland), now Söndre Bergen- 
husamt, was bounded from N. by Sognfolk, E. and S.E. by 
Haddingdale, Numdale and Thelmark, S. by Rogaland, i. 
93ir "I48 13129 1339 13729 14226 1561 1811 iSSge 2081^ 24037 
2442^ 24615 30324 3041 30825 3781—11. 1238 21 ig 2i2ie 23I22 

26828 31 II 36O28 3905 42318 43I19 46419—111. 84 228 3447 35819 

37ii6 4S8i6 

HORNBORUSOUND (Homborusund), now Hummersund, 
the strait which divides the island of Hombora, now Hom- 
bergsön, from the mainland of Ranrealm, or the present 
Bohuslan, Sweden, iii. 353i8 

HORNSHAW (Homskógr), woodland tract in Jutland, Den- 
mark, iiL 967 

HORSENESS (Hrossanes), the northmost headland on the 
island of Njótarey, now Nötterö, south of Tunsberg, Norway, 

iii. 4396 
HOUNDHAM (Hundsver), a group of small islands on the 
northern side of the westernmost part of the peninsula of 
Oxenö, called Borgund, northern South-Mere, Norway, ii. 

HOUNDTHORP (Hundforp), now Hundorp, a homestead on 

the northern side of Low-water in northern Gudbrandsdale, 

the seat of the * hersir ' Gudbrand a-Dales, ii. 20 ig 
HOUSEBY (Húsabær), now Hustad, a homestead on the neck 

of the peninsula called Inner-Isle, now Inderöen, within the 

Isles'-folk of Upper-Thrandheim, i. 17020 
HOUSEBY (Húsabær), now Huseby, in the countryside of 

Skaun, on the eastern side of lower Orkdale, one of Einar 

Thambarskeliir's mansions, ii. 46^5 
HOUSE-STEAD (Hústa«ir), now Hustad, on the broad penin- 
sula of Stim, just within the northern boundary of Biiums- 

dale, iii. 2848 

VI. s 


Index II [how — ^nw 

HOWE (Haugr), a king's manor in Veidale in UpperTlnnd- 
heim, ii. 1961— iii. 19^4 20^3 57^ 193^ 

1. HOWE-SOUND (Haugasund^ the northem put of Komt- 
sound outside the homestead of HoweSi RopJandt i 143« 

2. HOWE-SOUND (HaugasundX now Hogasund, a ■biit nev 
the western branch of the GauteUf, by the ootst of the pnU 
of Torsby, in southern Bohuslani Sweden^ iL Siw 

HOWE-THING, see Thing. 

HOWES (Haugar), a homestead in Rogaland, 00 tbe ctMm 

side of the sound that divides the island of Kormt fiom the 

mainland towards the northem inlet to it, the barialflaoeef 

King Harald Hairfair, i. 1434 (Here a memorial oolniBD of 

granite was erected in 1872.) 
HOWES (Haugar), a place now called Mollebakkea, in Ttstf- 

berg (Storm), iii. 470^ 
HRAFNISTA, now Ramso, an island to the norÚMvest of the 

mouth of Folden-fjord, in the parish of Os in Bjomor (StónB)i 

in Naumdale, Norway, iii. 274,0 
HUMBER (Humbra), in England, iii 167, 
HUNGARY REALM (Ungwarfld), iu. 262, 
HVEDN (Hve^n), now Hveen, an island in the Soand, íken- 

mark, iii. 33410 17 
HVIN (Hvinir), now Kvinesdalen, a valley fonned by tliA nver 

Hvin, in North- Agdir, i. 3^0 i33m 3S3i4 
lAMTLAND (Jamtaland), now JamtlanOy a provinoe of N.W. 

Sweden, i. ii3ig 16224 ^ 1635 g ^^ 2141^ 353r-"- ^5« C^n ^^ 

2763-277 29420 81 39329 41521 S6 41646 43^0— "»• ^ >4m » 

2632« 26420 
ICEFIRTH (Isafjör^r), a bay nmning into noruiem SedndL 

Denmark, i. 27010 
ICELAND ('Island), i. 432 Sai 26 618 7* "3« «0?^ ^^^n S*Sii 

15 17 25 334i6 19 25 339i7 340ö ð 3S4i4 ir is 24"^ 694 „ 73n SSn 

9225 9427 I33l7 13520 24 1365 8 19 ^371 7 8 ^^^\A 16 S » «4% M 
24525 24618 24919 274l6 24 27 «754 ^^^7 ^^U 3^1» 333»40Al 

45i5-'"i- 97i9 ^02^ 28 10326 ^^Su «66„ 334^ 335^ 33^ 


ILAWALL (Iluvellir), flats between the bend of die Ifiddrand 
the sea, on the western side of Nidoyce, now the suburb Ikn 
or Ihlen, by Throndhjem, iii. 2769 

IN-ISLE (Inney), so the text, but seemingly by 


INN — ^jon] Index II 259 

many MSS. give the reading 'inni = homesteads,' and an 

Inney seems not to be known, ii. 40234 
INNER-ISLE (Eyin-innri, or -i^ri), now Inderöen, a peninsula 

in upper Thrandheimfirth within the confines of Isles'-folk, 

i. 979 1624 17021 
IRELAND (Irland), i. 12837 1322s ^539 24 ^SSs 15^20 ^592 26122 

26433 26519 26621 24 28919— ii. Í37l2 16933 I74i4 19 24 iS^lö— ÍÍÍ- 
2I2 12224 22I25 22227 22313 23911 24233 30 29539 297i2 13 10 ge 29 

IRONSTONE-LAND (Járnberaland), supposed to have been 
part of the present province of Dalarne, Sweden, ii. 3929 

ISLAY ('Il), an island in Sodor, iii. 22234 2231 

ISLES'-FOLK (Eynafylki), deriving its name from the localities 
called the Inner- and the Outer-isle, now Inder og Ytteröen, 
a petty kingdom on the northern side of Upper Thrandheim- 
bay, conquered by Harald Hairfair in his fourth battle in 
Thrandheim, i. 9719 16119ÍÍ. 4735 

ISLE-LAND = Isle-sysla. 

ISLE-LAND (Eyland), now Öland, an island on the eastern 
coast of southern Sweden, ii. 8233 834 11 219 

ISLE-SYSLA (Eysýsla), the island in the Bay of Riga now 
caUed Ösel, i. 34735 39 ii. 911 17 3« 

IVIZA, now Ibiza, an island of the Mediterranean, iii. 2543^ 33 

JADAR (JaiSarr), the western coast district of Rogaland south 
of the Boknfirth archipelago, i. 11122 ^^H ^'34 '34ii 14 "• 

21737 21813 22034 2249 25537 26811 17 21 26 28328 354ll 24 26 81 

3574 36031 3811 3908 i"- 10624 29I27 299i7 
JAMES' LAND, poetical * kenning ' for Spain, iii. 24933 
ISLE-LAND-SOUND (Eyjasund), a strait by the island of Ösel, 

i. 34789 cf. Isle-sysla. 
JERUSALEM, Jerusalem Town (Jórsalir, Jórsalaborg), ii. 

38119— iii. 178 7115 2561721 257i 337i2 
JERUSALEM-LAND, -WORLD (Jórsala-land, -heimr). Pates- 
tine, i. II9— ii. 20ig— iii. 7O38 7I14 ie3i 721 17 247i8 25616 18 

2579 25820 337i2 37ii8 37224 
JOM (Jóm), probably the island of WoUin in the mouth of the 

Stettiner Haff in Pomerania, iii. 3239 
JOMSBURG (Jómsborg), a fortress on Jom, reared by Danish 

kings from the beginning, i. 27033 2723 36015 — ii. 449^3 — iii 

JOnImEADS (Jóansvellir), on Northness, which 


260 Index II [joR— KOR 

part of the city of Bergen, Norway, deriving their name froia 
a monastery dedicated to St« John, iiL 522^ ^ \ 

JORDAN, the river, iii. 71^^ 72^ 2$^^ 2Sh ^^H% ^93i* SÍlii| 


JUTLAND (Jótland), in Denmark, L 40^1 47^5 $1^ 83^ u 

34io 381s 39» 9037 94i4 9^17 "7u i^S^ ^^^la 47 1« 472 

JUTLAND SEA, -main (JódandshaíX now the Kattegat, 

99i8 '^^2f 
JUTLAND SIDE (JdtlandsfíSa), the western coast of Judand^' 

KALMAR (Kalmamir), a seaport in Kalmar Ian, on Kalmar- 
sound, which runs between the island of Oland and the oiain- 
land, S>E. Sweden, ii. 331^^ iiL 38553^ 

KEEL or Keels (Kjölr or Kilir), the mountain ridge foi 
the boundary between northern Norway and northern Swede! 
i. 2i4i^j iL 66ijj69gp 7634 376441 «77« 17 39330 3952» 39^4 
466^^ 111. 627 14,0 S7i4 

KINGS*-ROCK (Konungahella, Kings' Slab), now Kun^f, 
town on the northern side of the branch of the Gautelf that 
flows on the N.W. side of the island of Hi sing, Sweden, i 
31 1^ \l i38fii2 166,8 ^Ö7i(5so lii* M9ai ^^Zn n^i 27^^309« 
3iS,9 3^4^ 3251Í 354h 399191* 40Oifr 4 i^ir 418» 419« A^^^u 
43Sm 45S«4 45<5fi 4S9ifl ^^% if 

KING'S SOUND (Konungssund), name of the dyke which 
King Olaf the Holy dug through AgniVthwdte into the Baltic, 
and by which he escaped out of the Low or Malar lake in 
Sweden; locality, most probably, where the lake Skarfvcn 
passes by the narrow sound Almare Stake, generally called 
Staket, into the Malar lake, ii* 8|| 

KINNLIM-SIDE, Kinnlimaside (Kiiinlimasf!&i)^ a coi$taI 
district of Friesland, ii* 13411 

KIRIALALAND, now Karelen^ the eastern part of FinUsdr 
ii. laojfl 

KNOLLS (Hólar), a place in 'Ringfirtb ' in Fiance^ ii. 1%^ 

KNOLLS (Hólar), locality on the south- western most projectioo 
of Skaney, S,W. Sweden, ii, 33195 

KORMT-ISLE, Kormt (Kormt), now Kann or Karniöen, an 
island ofiT Rogaland, on the northern side of the mouth of tha 


KOR — law] Index II 261 

Bokniirth, due north of Stavanger, i. 13731 1721^ 313^5 ii. 

21614 22I15 227go Hi. 41427 

KORMTSOUND (Karmtsund), the narrow sound dividing 
Kormt-isle from the mainland of Rogaland, i. 1434 ^^* 74r 

21612 2I9y 22182 

KURLAND (Kúrland), Courland, one of the Baltic provinces 

of Russia, ii. 12027 
KVALDINSEY, island in the lake of Venem, Sweden, iii. 2271 

KVALDIN'S-ISLE, see Kvaldinsey. 
KVILDS (Kvildir), a countryside on the coast of Bohuslan, 

Sweden, iii. 3593 
KVISTSTEAD (Kviststa«ir), now Kvistad, a homestead on 

the Inner-Isle, Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 42632 43010 iii. 21 17 
KYMRY (Land of the) (Kumraland), Cumberland, harried by 

Olaf Tryggvison, i. 26134 
LADIR (HlaiSir), seat of the famous * Earls of Ladir,' now 

Lade, a short distance N.E. of the city of Throndhjem, i. 

9820 13718 19 i49i6 1615 i66g 1695 1718 21422 297i is 3^97 

3iOii 3i38 8 11— ii- 502S 
LADIR-CLIFFS (HlaíShamrar), a rocky rise between the 

manor of Ladir and the sea, i. 3435 
LÆRADALE (Læradalr), now Lærdalen,the countryside round 

the head of Læradale's-firth, an offshoot, in a south-easterly 

direction, from the upper Sognfirth, i. 26737 
LAKTIARN (Laktjamir), a Norse corruption of the name 

Blackernæ of a palace in Constantinople, iii. 25919 
LAND, a district of Hadaland, round the northern end of Rand- 
water, Norway, i. 79^ 
LANGTON (Langatun), an unverified place in England, iii. 

LAUPANDANESS (Hlaupandanes), not Lopness in Sandey, 

but the peninsula on south-eastern Mainland, Orkney, now 
called Deerness (Anderson, * Orkneyinga saga,' p. 5, n. 2), 
ii. 17129 
LAW-BURG (Lögberg), the rock at Thingvellir from which 
proclamations and enunciations to the Althing, the old Folk- 
mote of Iceland, relating to matters of public concern, legis- 
lative, judiciary and administrative, were given out, iL 24215 1^ 

Gudbrandsdale, by the L 
flows N.W. into Raunisc 
3^7js (where Nesiar is a i 

LESISLE, see Leesey. 

LEWIS (Ljó«hús), in Sodo 

North-Agdir in Norway, 
1365J2125 2130.8 iii. 39254 

LIDSTEAD (Li«ssta«ir), 1 
neighbourhood of Gudbrai 


LIMAFIRTH, Limbfirth, set 

LIMFIRTH (Limafjör«r), L 

of Jutland, Denmark, i. i 

^SU 10 274io— »• 316« 12 


the eastern littoral of Agdir, 

LINESTEAD (LinustaSir), r 
in the parish of Stange, ii 
Jónsson), according to oth 
Ramnes, in Westfold (Storn 

LINGS (Lyngar), possibly one 

now as *Eystri' and 'Vest 

LeiiSvallarhreppr, West-Skaj 

>"• 3723 where, after Thorke 
LIOVa/t; — ^ 

LIT — lyg] Index II 263 

LITHE (H1ÍÍS), now Lien, a homestead of the parish of Brats- 
berg in the district of Strind, Thrandheim (Storm), iii. 3022^ 

LOAR (Lóar), now Lom, a countryside on either side of the 
river Otta in Gudbrandsdale, Norway, ii. 19930 200ji 2013 ^ 

2022 5 204i8 

LOFUND, supposed by some to correspond to the island now 
called Lofö, Farentima harad, in the Malaren Lake, by others 
taken to represent * Laghunda hundari ' in Fjadrundaland, in 
the present Uppland, Sweden, i. 52^ 24 

LOFA-FIRTH (Lófufjör^r), now Laholmsbugten in the south 
of Hallands Ian, W. Sweden, iii. 132^4 

LOIRE (Leira), in France, ii. 21^ 

LONDON (Lundúnir, Lundúnaborg), i. 1401 ii. i3g 2634 25 28 
37620 iii. 12611 15720 

LONDON BRIDGE (Lundúna bryggjur), description of, ii. 
^3iM8 — destruction of, by Olaf Haraldson (1009), 146-152 

10-18 28-80 ^^- '2^14 

LONGISLE (Langey), now Lango, an island in Halogaland, 

west of Hinn-isle, ii. 23739 25920 26639 
LONGWICK(Lengjuvik), now Lenviken, running from Malang- 

firth into the N.E. side of the island of Senia, in northmost 

Halogaland, ii. 266^2 288ig 
LORADALE (Lorodalr), now Lordalen, a valley opening from 

the south into upper Lesiar in Northern Gudbrandsdale, ii. 

LOW (Lögrinn), now the lake Malaren in Sweden, i. 163432 

405 ii. 77 28 29 ^1 9817 16230 16315 3875 
LOW (Lögr), now Laagen (var. Logen, Lougen), a river having 

its sources on Drofrafell in northern Gudbrandsdale and 

flowing southward through the greater length of that valley, 

emptying itself into the lake of Miors, ii. 20 19 
LOWSBROAD (Lúsbrei«), now the island of Livö, or Livö- 

bredningen in Limfirth, Denmark, iii. 12813 
LUND (Lundar, ue, the Groves), now Lunde, a manor on the 

eastern side of the Gaul river in lower Gauldale, i. 2923 9 
LUND (Lundr, Le, the Grove), now Lund, in Skaney, the 

southern university town of Sweden, ii. 33239 iii. 443 4815 

LYGRA, now Lyren, or Lygren, an island on the coast of 
North Hordland, Norway, ii. 27 19 273311 


Index 11 [lyr — mer 

LYRSHAW HEATH {H}fiikiSphe%K « the locality about 
the pr^senl Lmsdiati, noftia of St^wick, iii. 34^ 

manor on liie eastern side of the tnaiD river that runs iniú 
the head of Eyja&lh in oorthem Iceland, L sj4^ iL J^fi^ 243« 

MANHOME (maniiheiEiiarX Sweden ptofieT, as Snoro win 
haTCit, I 21^,^ 

MAN (Mon), the Isle of Mao, harried hy Harald Hair&ir« L 
1 1 5jy^ 1 1 6^0— by Olaf TiTggyisoo, aói^ — hj Magnus Bare- 
foot, HI aj^jg 225^ 

MAN (Mon), now Moen, a Danish bland off the southern end 
of the island of Seeiand, tii, 354^ 

MARS-ISLE (Mársey), now Morsö, a large island in ibe 
Lim&th in North Jutland, L 257^^^^ 

MARK LANDS, MARKS (Blarkir)/ the marches between 
Sweden and Norway from the Vener lake north to Eidshavi 
ii 76j| ii2jj 144^ 590jgj (Woodlands^ iii, 226^ 456^ 474^ 

477i 4^13 4^^ 

MAS WICK (Masarvik), now Mosviken, a bight on the western 
side of Thrandheim-firth a short distance down bdow Skam- 
sound, and opposite the northern part of Ouier*isle, ii. 49,^ 

MEADS (Vellir), ut Jonsmeads- 

MERE (Mænn)j now Mæren, a homestead with a heathen 
temple within Sparbiders'-folk, * a great chief stead and big 
houses,' Upper Thrandheim, i. lyon ^ Si 721 SiS^ojo 3í9jr 

ÍÍ- I94i5 <9St í97íns 

MERE (Mærin), a homestead in Wall-dale on Todarfirthj q, v, 
ii. 3632& where the text should read : ' Now there dwelt at 
Mere a good man hight Bnisi.* 

MERE (Mærr), now More, a maritime folkland of Norway 
stretching from Naumdale, in the north, to Firthfolk in the 
south, but divided into North and South Mere by the inter- 
vening folkland of Raumsdale. Besides signifying the whole 
folkland the name {Mere) may, according to circumstances, 
also mean North Mere or South Mere. A few cases admit of 
doubt as to which is meant. All references to the folkland 
whole and divided are gathered below : 

1, The whole folkland : i, loSj^ t22]| 135^ 1264 213^5 ^47i6 *74i 
377m— ii' 72i9 I99is^íií' 40221 44% 4S7a3 

2. NORTH*MERE (NoríS-mærr) : i. 99^,^, looy^ 101^ tjisj 1364 


Index, II 



I7O27 I7I2I I75l6 203io 20522 21321 21428 21622 24O28 24729 (?)> 
24828 27418 27 293l9— "• 24211 27928 30224 372i»— ÍÍÍ. I" 

295i7 (?)» 343i6 349i2 3584 
3- SOUTH-MERE (Sunnmærr), i. loi^ 1035 20 '^78 2065 240^3 

24328 20 2442 27728 30821— ii. 30226 37219 4261^ 46321— iil. 

2104 22529 295i7 (?)» 44215 

MICKLE-DALE (Dalr mikli), now Store Dal, a homestead 
within the district of Aumord, the present Borge, in south- 
easternmost Norway, iii. 2772A 27822 

MICKLEGARTH (Mikligar^r), Constantinople, iii. 5913 19 27 

6281 702« 7218 16 732 7 75l4l7 76914 247l9 24 2562 H 25981810 

26012 2628 37225 42817 42920 4312 474i8 

[MICKLE-ISLEJ (Eyin mikla er liggr í Mjörs, * a great island 
that lies amidst the lake of Miors *), now called Helgö, i. 7825 

MIDDLEDALE (Me«aldalr), a homestead in Orkdale in 
Thrandheim, i. 20922 ^^ 461 

MIDDLEHOUSE (MeSalhús), now Melhus, a homestead on 
the eastern side of Gaulriver in lower Gauldale, in Thrand- 
heim, i. 16711 17016 2924 2935 319« 

MIDGARTH (MiíSgar^r), the mid-earth strong work erected 
by the gods against assaults from the giants; hence central 
earthly abode, earth = the world, iii. 9930 

MINORCA (Manork), the most north-easterly of the Balearic 
Islands, iii. 2552 7 

MIORS (Mjörs), now Mjösen, the next largest lake of Norway, 
reaching from Gudbrandsdale to Raumrick, i. 7826 ii. 641^ 
(called the Water, 10612 ^°77 12 27 82 ^°^7 ^"^ ^^s southern- 
most end Watersend, 10714) 

MIRKFIRTH (Myrkva-Qör^r, Fogfirth), now Mörkö-fjárd in 
Södermanland, Sweden, i. 591^ 

MONKBRIDGE (Munkabryggja), in Bergen, Norway, iii. 3224 

MOST, Most-isle (Mostr), now Mosterö, on the western side of 
the sound called Bömmelen (the main inlet from the south- 
west to Hardangerfirth), South- Hordland, Norway, i. 1385 14 
29I10 iii. 393i8 

MOUTH (Mynni), now Minne, a place on the western side of 
the river Varma, where it issues from the southern end of 
the Miors lake in Raumrealm, Norway, iii. 34922'3506 

MUCH-HERNES (Hemes mikla), now Store Hemes, an estate 
on the peninsula of Frosta in Thrandheinii Norway, iiL 334^ 


Index II 

MULI-THING (Múla-fjing), in this form an unverified locaiii 
in Sweden (but * Múla * seems merely a corruption for ' 
a locality on the highway ab, 12 km, S.E. of the present 
Upsala, where, in ancient times, Swedish kings used to be 
elected (and deposed ?) by the people in a public assembly. 
Thing )j ii 12I35 

NAUMDALE, Naum dale-folk {Naumudalr, Naumdæla*fylki), 
a maritime folk land of northern Norway, extending from 
Northmere to Halogaland, now Namdalen, i» 971^ 98jj 163^ 

NAUSTD ALE (Naustdalr), now Naustdal, in the parish of Eid, 
in Nordijord, in the north em parts of FÍrthfolk, Norway^ L 

NECK (Hals), now Hals, a town on the southern side of the 

mouth of the Limfirth in Jutland, i. 237^^ a^Sj^ 239^ 
NERICK (Næríki), now Narike, a province of Sweden, u 5^ 

6 1 1365^28"- 36919 

NESIAR, the peninsular formations between the bay of Tuns 
berg and Grenmar, or mod Langesundsfjord, in soylbem 
Norway, ii. 551,^ 57,^ 793*, {56723 misprint for Lesiar, q.v.) 

NESS (Nes), now Sönstenes^ a manor in the countryside of 
Loar in Gudbrandsdale, ii. aoOr, 

NESS (Nes)j now Bynæsset, a broad but small peninsula jutting 
out into Thrandheimfirth between Orkdalefirth in the west 
and the bay of Nidoyce in the east, ii* 4835 72^ 

NESS, see Caithness and Stream isle-ness, 

NEWMOUTH (NyjamóíSa), a sea-port in England, unc< 
which ; Newhaven in Sussex ? ii* 1 7^7 ^ 

NID {NiiS), the main river of Stiord ale folk, running to the 
north-west and through Strind emptying itself into Thrand- 
heim bay, i, 318^ 322^5 il 5020 2» SSis 3>3ið IIH "*- ^^\ 

i292ð ^Hn 2»S 34§2n 
NIDAROS, J« Nidoyce. 
NID-BANK (NiiSarbakkiX the portion of the bonk of the ri 

Nid whereon Olaf 7Vyggvison founded the town of Nidoyi 

i, 321231 ^^^ Nidness. 
NID-HOLM (Ni^arhólmr), now Munkholmen, an islet ouit- 

side the city of Drontheim, i, 397^^7 335ia *^* 2^4ie 
NIDNESS (NiiSarnes), a homestead on a ness of 

name by the mouth of the river Nid, where Olaf Ti 


NiD — nor] Index II 267 

afterwards founded the town of Nidoyce, the present Trond- 
hjem, L og.,! ii. 50« 
NIDOYCE (Ni«aróss) 

1. The mouth of the river Nid, i. 31630 32122 

2, The name of the town founded, on the western side of 
the river on a peninsula formed by a sharp bend of it on one 
side and the sea on the other, by Olaf Tryggvison in 996. 
In the middle of the sixteenth century the old name was re- 
placed by the modem name of Trondhjem, i. 32X22^ 3^6x0 
327» 3348 u 35081 354ii 35521 357i 29—"- 4831 5019 535 21 ^428 
^711 17 i«9io 19017 19221 19812 23427 2583 27526 294i9 30220 
34^ 3758 44810— 111- 1724 3522 8728 935 129^ 16310 1654 '841 

18 1^810 1921928 I95lO 1963 202ii 20512 22525 26313 2756 2775 

283n tt 30227 3344 3802 48116 48326 
NIORDLOW (NjarSariög), now Tysnesö, off South-Hordland, 

NIÖRD^ISLE (NiaríSey), now Nærö, off the coast of Naum- 
dale in the northern part of the governorship of Trondhjem, 

NIOR^rS SOUND, read NORVISOUND (Niörvasund, Nör- 
vasund, better rendered Narrow-sound), the Strait of Gibraltar, 
i. 11^ ii. 20i5 iii. 237ii 10 252J, 15 37125 

NITIA (Nitja), now Nitelven, an affluent of the Raumelf, ii. 


NIZ, NIZI (Niz), the river Nissan joining the sea by Halmstad 
in Hallands Ian, S.W. Sweden, iii. 13315 1352 14315 22 ^5425 

NOATOWN (Nois, i. 1637 read Noa-, Nóatún, which means 
really Ships'-Town, Shipton), Niord's Swedish abode, 22g 

NORFISOUND, see Niorvi's sound. 

NORMANDY (NoríSmandí), i. 1182532— ii. 2I26 22^, g 281— iii. 
I55i7 1568 18014 

NORTHDALE (Nor^dalr), a district on the western side of 
Vener Lake, northern Dalsland, Sweden, iii. 22619 

NORTH-ISLES ^(Nor«reyjar), the group of six islands lying 
E.N.E. of Eastisle, the northernmost part of the Faroe archi- 
pelago, ii. 30525 30628 30712 

NORTHERN ISLES (Nor«reyjar), the northern or Lewes 
group of the Hebrides, iii. 223^ 

dinavia and Denmark (England, in one instance, apparently 

-.vy^xr»Ait (iNoregr), Norge, 

9414 954 "312 2124 28 "45 I I 

140^ 141,, 14333 i49„ 1« 15 
'7320 17410 12 16 18028 i88»4 

^3^8=^3512 1,25 8,^3614 1.,;^ 
245^ 246» 249„ 253,0 ,8 27 

} : !* » « *73i 2851, ,8 2875 22 5 

i ' 341,8 27 28 342, 3458 8, 35O1 

^U 378« 27— "• 20ji 21^ 223 jy J 

i á^M 4I9 42ia 25 4381 444 28 5 

3' "„!« ^42 9116 94,7 28 82 9; 
17 80 I08j^ I09„ 117 „9 

1761« i78,y 181,5 188, 191,, : 

f,^''''/,i?'»»*527i0 2,26 253 

2759 276« 29412 3098, 311,8 , 

33O4 21 ») 3344 6 33Sll 18 22 34 

ifa" ?,? ^"" « 358,2 3592 
372,2 3765 « 377j ^ ^ 379^ 3{ 

20 3«9i e j2 28 27 390,8 39 15 , 
17 18.4501 45 17 45228 4548 460) 

3024 3ÍJ9 33« ,«4526 5128 527 7 

1!«,«^*"'».» "928 13129 

1499 160. « 162. ifiC. T«, 


NUN — olf] Index II 269 

33^8 3378 3408 6 15 350ir ZSHh 26 27 28 si 35328 si 36018 3651^ 

36635 3683 13 21 37228 37632 3773 37922 24 3^04 9 10 336^ 399i5 
402n 4094 42I25 42526 42922 436» 4388 9 462,4 4654 IS 16 20 22 

466jo 469S1 47122 28 473i 8 12 19 24 4748 4794 

NUNSEAT (Nunnusetr), St. Mary's convent for Cistercian 
nuns, Bergen, Norway, iii. 32223 

NUNS'-SEAT (Nunnusetr), St. Mary's convent for Benedictine 
nuns, Oslo, Norway, iii. 4242^ 

NYRFI, the island of Nörvö in South-Mere, Norway, ii. 363^ 

OAK-ISLES (Eikreyjar), a group of islands off the western 
branch of the Gautelf, now called Öckerö, ii. 81^ 1571^ 29 

ODDSOUND (Oddasund), a strait between the southern point 
of die peninsula of Thyholm in the Limijord and the main- 
land, Denmark, i. 412 

ODIN'S-ISLE ('0«insey, al. '0«insvé = Odin's holy place), now 
Odense, the chief town of the island of Fion, q.v., formerly 
apparently an island, i. 152331 

OFRUSTEAD, OPRUSTEAD (Ofrusta«ir, Oprusta«ir), ac- 
cording to Aall, Munch and Unger the present Offig- or 
Offrig-stad, in the parish of Öier in the Gudbrandsdale, but 
by Storm identified as Obrestad in Jadar, Rogaland, i. 2233 

2248 225i5 19 2267 35315 

OGLO (Ögló), now Skatval parish in lower Stiordale in Thrand- 
heim, i. 2055 17 20617 

OGVALDSNESS (Ögvaldsnes), one of K. Har. Hairfair's 
manors, situate on the north-eastern side of the large island 
of Kormt, the south end of which is watered by the mouth of 
Boknfirth, i. 13731 17231 31334 3^46 29 (origin of the name, 

3156-18) »• 2161a 16 2197 22I32 2223 22424 2273^ 23O5 

OIKEL-BANK (Ekkjals-bakki), in Sutherlandshire in Scotland, 

OLAF'S**BOOTHS ('Oláfs bú«ir), ii. 39337 

OLAFS CAVE ('Oláfs hellir), a grotto down below the Skerf- 

scree, in Walldale, Norway, ii. 3662 
OLAFS-LITHE, ii. 45720 
OLFUS (Ölfus), a countryside on the western side of the lower 

Whitewater (Hvítá), the main river of Amessýsla in Southern 

Iceland, i. 26935 

270 Index II [oLV — out 

OLVIRSHOWE (ÓlvíshaugrX now Alstahougca cw Aistad 

hatigen m Skatmfolk, Thrandbdm, L I70|g 
OMÐ (Omd), the eastern part of the island HLn, dow called 

Hindo in Halogaland, Norway, i 503^ %ZHt *^- ^'4« 
ONEBV (Einbái), a homestead in the counti>side of Lesjar ia 

the northernmost part of Gudbrandsdale, iL 567^ 
OPRUSTEAD (OpmstalSir), set Ofnist^d. 
ORDOST (Oríkist)í now Orust, a large island in the sout] 

part of Göteboi^ och Bohus liin in Sweden, ti. Sigj 
ORKDALE, Orkdalefolk <Orkadalr, Orkdœkfylki), oow 

dalen, the westernmost of ihe folklands or peiiy kingd 

on the south side of Thrandheim-fiith, i. 95^^ ^ ^ 2^3^! 

31S1S 3S3ii u* 2^2^ 4610 ^ ,,j 47^^ 4Sgg 53i7 ^^ 72,3 279^^ iÍL_ 

_"3ie 4^3/7 

ORKDALE FOLK, su Orkdale. 

ORKNEYj-S(Orkneyjar), i. 1133- iio^^ la^igig \2%^ 

12631 i27fi aasi 13220 "S^T ^S3ig I54» ^SSs i59i7 Mi^ 243 

290J,— ii. 691^ I37i, ^, 168, 7 H 1- i69y n S2 '7<^* «713 «i 

nSissi 23 »744 12 nSii í76ií> 178242» «79ií i^ö^ ^^ 181^ 

í84g i(j Iö5l5 l& 2S 

18*^31 1S72J 2g 3j i88jj i^ i99i, 241^,— ik 
1823^ 221^^ 239^ 2423^^ 2483« wai 357if 

37*19 21 
OSLO (Oslo), a *cheaping-stead, 'founded by K. Har. Hardredy, 

the site of which is now occupied by the eastern portion oí . 

Christiania, the present capital of Norway, iii 127^ i42|g i4Ji^H 

»4617 iSa^g 297^ 3iOg 3137 35210 ^ 353^ 367^ 4182^ 4^9^ 

423s 474,^ 
OSLOFIRTH (Oslóaríjör^r), the northernmost part of the 

Chnstiania fjord, Norway, ii. 35 3*^ 
OSTERFIRTH ('OstrarQöríSr), now Osterfjord, a bay in North- 

Hordiand, ii. 232 jg 
OTTA ('Otta)» now Ottaelv^ an affluent, from west, of the Low 

(Ldgr), now Laagen, the main river of Gudbrandsdak, 

Norway, ii. 19935 
OUSE ('Usa), river of eastern Yorkshire, England, iiL 167^ 
OUTSTONE ( Utsteinn), one of K, Har. Hairfair^s majioi^ 

situate on the western, or Boknfirth, end of an island of the 

same name, now called Utstenö, or sometimes Klosterö, 

Rogaland ; the modern name of the homestead is Utsten 

Utstens Kloster (from having in Catholic times been a coft- 

the 1 

PAN — RAu] Index II 271 

vent of Augustinian regulars); the manor: i. 11223 13730; ^^ 

island: ii. 358^, 36124 
PANNONIA, western Hungary, iii. 2623 
PEITA, Peita-land, Peita country (Peita, Peituland), Poitou in 

France, ii. 2033 ^^2 13 
PENTLANDFIRTH (Petlandsfjör«r), between Caithness and 

Orkney, i. 29027 ii. 37712 
PORTYRIA, in Limgarthside on Eastern Agdir, now Portör, a 

small sea-port in Nedenes Fogderi, Norway, iii. 35422 3552 
PEITA-LAND, see Peita. 
PEZINA (Fields oQ, in VVallachia, iii. 4293. 
PULWYKE (Pílavík), probably quite a different place from 

Pulwyke on Windermere, although K. Eystein * harried far 

and wide about England ' after burning Whitby. Pulwyke is 

a mere guess, iii. 37619 24 
QUISTSTEAD, see Kviststead. 
RÆNING (Ræningr), a royal manor, probably the place 

Ræninge, which in mediæval records is mentioned on the 

island now called Toster-ön in the Melaren Lake, in Söder- 

manland (Hildebrand), i. 6325 643 
RAND, Randwater (Rönd), now Randsfjorden, a lake in Ha- 

daland, i. 8614 iii. 382^ 
RANDBERG (Randaberg), a manor on the peninsula in 

which the district of Jadar terminates towards north, situated 

to the N.W. of Stavanger, iii. 47411 
EAND-OYCE (Randaróss), now Ran<Jers, on the east coast of 

Jutland, Denmark, iii. 472^ 
RAN-REALM (Ránríki), a folkland on the eastern side of the 

Wick, the northern boundary of which was Swinesound, the 

southern, at least at one time, the Gautelf, now the Swedish 

province called Göteborgs och Bohuslan, i. ioqi 13124 151 17 

(where Van-realm is a misprint), 37737 — ii. 76^ — iii. 202^ 

RASMEAD (RásvöUr), now Rosvold, a homestead of Verdale 

(Storm), iii. io4io 
RAST-KALF (Rastar-kalfr), a locality on the east side of the 

island of Frædi, i. 1775 q 
RAUMELF, Raumriver (Raumelfr), now Glommen, the largest 

river of Norway, running from north to south into the eastern 

side of the Christianiafirth, i. 7032 9312 ii. 641^ 7837 



Index II [rau — Rif 

RAUMDALE, see Raumsdale. 

RAUMREALM (Raumariki), now RomeriJce, Norway, L 67 
öBis 7^22 7721 2i 7^5 10 15 15 S6,í 936 ^^535 loöfl 10834 iJ 
249ii 27Í18 37^21—"- 4^2^ 54ii »0233 103^ i^ ^i gg 105^ i 
'^7iB tí592(> 2iOi3^iiL 14611 IS333 3S3i . 4251^ 

RAUMRICÍCp see Raumrealm. 

RAUMSDALE, Raumdale {Raumsdalr), now Rom&dal&n, 
Norway, between North- Mere and South* Mere, L 995^ loOj, 
T03i2 iJisi 164^7 206s 21325 240«» 24S10 2 74i 30^23 377»— 
ii' 19910 3<3^2&— 1^*- ^^^* 44^20 447i> 18 

RAVEN NESS (Hrafnsnes), now Ramnæs, a homestead in Re, 
Weslfold, Norway, iii. 45127 48S17 

RAVEN 'S'ERE {Hrafnseyrar)^ now Ravenseeron Holdemes^ 
England, Hi, 182^,^, 

1, RE (Re), now the island of Rugen, off the coast of 
Pomerania, íii. jS^o 33 

2. RE (Re), now the 'parish of Ramnaes, N.W, of Tunsl 
Norway, Hi, 45113 ^^ 48411; 13 

REEK-KNOLLS (Reykjaholar), a homestead on the south- 
eastern peninsula called Reykjanes (Reekness), which be- 
tween þorska-firth in the west and Beru-firth in the east, 
shoots south into Broadfirth, western Iceland, hi. 356,^ 

REEKNESS (Reykjanes), the south-westernmost promontory 
of Iceiandi i. 2691^,^2 

REINFIELD (Reinslétta), a locality in the parish of Rissen, 
within the countrj'side of Stadsbygden, on the northern side 
of outer Thraodheim-firth, i, i36j^.ig 

RE IN I, Reynir, better Rein (Rein), now Reinskloster, in the 
countryside of Rissen on the northern side of outer Thran" 
heim-firth, iit. 184^, 348^ 

REITH^GOTHLAND (ReiiSgotaland), this name, which gen. 
ally signifies Jutland in Denmark, must here refer to soi 
other country, the island of Gotland ? i. 32 j 9 

REYNIR, see Reini. 

REYR, now Ror, a homestead in the countryside of Ringsacre, 
Heatbmark, Norway, iií, 3991^ 400,^ 407,3 ^0%^^ 415^ 438^, 

RIMUL, now Romol, a manor on the river Gaul in lower 
Gauldale, Í, 292 1^ 294^ 

RINANS4SLE (Rinansey), now North-Ronaldsay, in the 
Orkneys, i. 125^ ii* löS^^ 

RIN — Rou] Index II 273 

RINGACRE (Hringisakr), now Ringsaker, a manor and locality 
on the eastern side of the western arm of the lake Miors that 
runs north toward Gudbrandsdale by the west of Heathmark, 

"- IO3I8 Í0582 io^8^) 

RINGFIRTH (Hringsfjör«r), in France, ii. 1834 29 
RINGMAR-HEATH (Hringmarahei«r), now Ringmere, in 

East-Wreatham, Norfolk, ii. 1651421 
RINGNESS (Hringunes), now Ringnæs, in the countryside of 

Skaun, now the parish of Stange, in Heathmark, Norway, ii. 

54io 648 '078 24814— iii. i22i5 
RINGREALM (Hringariki), now Ringerike, Norway, i. 815 862« 

^78 9Il§ 935 IMl9 1223 I3I21 3IO31 3II6 13— ii. I0928 209is 

249u— m. I54i2 4338o 
RINGRICK, see Ringrealm. 
RINGSTEAD (HringstaíSir), now Ringsted, a township in the 

island of Seeland, Denmark, iii. 433^ 

1. RIVEROYCE ('Aróss), the mouth of the river Fyri, on the 
lake Malaren, ii. 16223 3^76 

2. RIVEROYCE ('Aróss), ►now Aarhus, a city on the eastern 
coast of Jutland, Denmark, iii. 3835 3911 5030 

ROGALAND, a folkland of S.W. Norway, bounded by Hord- 
land in the N. and Agdir in the E., and for the rest by the 
sea, now Stavangeramt, i. iiig 1341 1422« 1433 ^5^i 208^ 
24027 24450 27421 30417 30825 31324 35320 378i ii. 23^7 55^3 

2ii6 2175 360233905 4641021 
ROGNVALDSEY (Rognvaldsey), South Ronaldsey, Orkney, 

i. 29O22 ii- 16917 
ROISWELL, see Roskild. 
ROME (Rum, Riimaborg), Rome, ii. 273 235^ iii. 124 141 23712 

2567 26210 28812 37921 3801520 46119 
ROME-BURG, I ,,, p^^, 
ROME-TOWN, r^^ ^''"'^' 
ROSKILD (Roiskelda, Hroiskelda), now Roskilde, Cathedral 

town of Seeland, Denmark, ii. 3253^ iii. 2915 792 
RYDIOKUL(Ry%jökull),a homestead in Raumrealm, Norway, 

iii. 4757 4763 
ROSSEY (Hrossey, Horse-isle), now Mainland, Orkney, ii. 

ROUEN (RúíSa, Rd^uborg), the capital of Normandy, u. 2ior^ 

2728 29i 31330 3145 »i- i55i7 1569 

VI. T 

1 . 

the lower reaches of T 
peninsula of Fosen, Noi 

SALPT (Salpti, or Salfti), r 
in raid Halogaland, Noi 

SALTWICK (Saltvik), a 1 
Ofot, in the bay of the s 

i- 3538 
SALTNESS (Saltnes), a h 

Orkdale-firth into two ari 
SAND (Sandr), a homestei 

land, iii. 35628 
SAND-BRIDGE (Sandbni) 
SANDEY, now Sanda or Ss 

tyre, iii. 2223« 
SANDVER, a fishing statioi 

of Malangfirth, Finmark, i 
SANDWICK (Sandvik), the 

coast of the peninsula no 

ney, ii. 17129 17639 
SARP (Sarpr), a waterfall in 

i"- 31912 14 19 

SARPSBURG (Sarpsborg), 
market town on a ness ( 
north, by the great waterfi 

"• 7^28-794 I02i I44o rtr liH 

SAU — sea] Index II 275 

part of middle Bohuslan, towards its eastern frontier, Sweden, 
ill. 4195 

SAURLITHE (Saurhli«), slope by the river Nid, near the 
southern boundary of Nidoyce as it was in 1 030, ii. 44835 

SAUR'S HOWE (Saurshaugr), now Saxhougen (Sakshauger) 
on Inner-Isle, Thrandheim, i. 1625^ 

SAXLAND, the land inhabited by Saxons, North-western Ger- 
many, i. iSj^ jo 49r 64.25 12825 13404 253i8 255i2 2604 2« 2P^\ 
— ii. 8ii— iii. 2S22 34ii 

SAXON-LAND, see Saxland. 

SCILLY, Scillies (Syllingar), the Scilly Islands, i. 26128 262^5 jg 

SCANIA, see Skaney. 

SCARBOROUGH (Skar«aborg), Yorkshire, iii. 16611 
SCOTLAND (Skotland), i. 1 1526 29 ^'^21 12827 ^3^23 '5 29 1539 

1555 12 15^20 26I18— ii. 16817 25 I74l5 18O12 18724 lS«15 25324 
25484—1"- 2I2 1660 22227 22431 32 225ii 239« 33713 3685 

SCOTLAND'S-FIRTHS (Skotlandsfir^ir), iii. 22134 22517 

SCRATCH-SKERRY (Skrattasker, from skratti, a sorcerer, a 
fiend, cf Engl. * old Scratch '), a tide-washed rock by the isle 
of Kormt, where Olaf Tryggvison caused Eyvind Wellspring 
and his fellow wizards to be engulfed by the tide, i. 31425 

SEAHAM (Sæheimr), now Sæm, or, more commonly, Jarls- 
berg, a homestead a short distance to N.W. from Tunsberg, 
Norway, i. I35i8i5 24 

SEAHAM (Sæheimr), one of K. Har. Hairfair's manors, now 
Seim (or Saeim), on the north side of the Osterfirth (north 
of Bergen), almost opposite Hammer on the island of Osterö, 

i- 13780 13814 18825 
SEAHOME-DERNE (Sæheimru«), uncertain, iii. 38313 
SEALAND (Sjáland), the later name for Selund, q.v., of the 

Danish island of Siselland, i. 27012 ii. 3124 12 32527 29 i"- 338o 

3^8 39i 4284 43i7 24 448 461 7822 9812 1323 142^6 3^728 
SEALAND (Sjáland), the littoral on the Bothnian Bay of the 

part of SvífjóíS (Sweden in a narrow sense) called Upland, 

ii. II22e 

SEAL-ISLES (Seleyjar), a group of islands N.W. of Lidandis- 

ness, Norway, ii. 3547 iii. 392^ 
SEAL- WOUND (Sel-mein), a poet's etymology of the name of 


Index II 

[sea — SILj 

the Danish island Selund, q.v. (sel = seal, mein = ynd = 

wound), i. i57i8 
SEAWOODSOUND (SjáviíSarsund), the Golden Horn* Con- 
stantinople, ill. 75| 
SEINE WATER (Signa), now Seine, river in France, ii. 22^ 
SELE (Sæla), now Sælö (Sælö kloster), on the south side of 

Cape Stad, Norway, ii, 307 ^ 
SELIAPOOL (Seliupollar), uncertain where in Franceji. 19^1 aO| 
SELUND, the oldest name of the Danish island of Sælland (cf. 

Silund, Sjáland), i, is^j 165 24,., 45^^ 47,3 157^ .^^ ,^5 i^Oj^— 

ill- 78.^^ 
SEL-WÁTERDALE (Selárdalr), a homestead on the western 

side of ArnarfjorlSr in the bailiwick of Ðar^astrandar-s^^sla, 

North-western Iceland, iii. 37 .^ 
SERKLAND THE GREAT (Serkland hit mikla), the great 

land of the Saracens, North Africa, i. ii^^^ iii. 63^ ^ ^^j jo^j 

25^1« 28133 28215 2S734 
SHAW (Skógr), now Skog^ a homestead on the eastern shore 

of the western branch of Lake Miors near its northern term-j 

ination, in the extreme north of Heathmark, Norway, iii 

SHEPPEY^SOUND (Féeyjarsund), the sound het^^een tiie 

island of Frædí and the island Féey (Sheppey), now Flad- 

seto, west of the formerj Í. 17631-1771 
SHETLAND (Hjaltland), i. 1132^ iiSi^ iió^ iJSs— "- &9iii 

^Hin iS7sji 18813— iiL 165^ 
SHirrSAND (Skiptisandr), on the eastern side of the lake 

Rand or Randwater, in the district of Land, iii* 382j« 
SHIF^CROOK (SkÍpakrókrX a locality by Nidoyce, i, 3213- 
SHOOTER'S FORD (SkjótansvaS), a ford over a river in 

Jutland, i. 32ifi cf Weapon ford 
SICILY (Sikiley), iii. 63^ 1^ 6^^ -js^r n7u ^SSii sr 
SIDON (Sætt). iii. 257g,, 25813 
SIGTOWN, SIGTUN (Sigtúnir), name both of the territory _ 

Odin St! cured in Sweden and of the capital thereof (Ancient" 

Sigtown, near the present Sign Ílds berg on the Sigtunafjárd^* 

Malaren), i. 16.^, ^ 521, Íi. 7,, ÍÍÍ. 4, . 6j^ 77^ ^^ 
SIL (Sil), now Sel, a small countryside on the north side oí^ 

Low- water opposite to Vagi, in northern Gudbrandsdak 

Norway, ÍÍ, 202^ 


siL — ska] Index II ttj^ 

SILI, an island, now possibly Selaön in the Malaren Lake, 
i. 62ie 

SILUND, see Selund. 

SILWALLS (Silvellir), plains in the countryside of Sil, ii. 202,3 

SINHOLMSOUND (Sinholmssund), a strait between 'Senhol- 
men ' and the * mainland in the district of Askvold in northern 
Bergenhus governorship ' (Storm), iii. 28213 

SKÆREID (Skærei«), *at Skiringsal,' i. 672« 685— 'Where 
this Skæreid has been located is not known with certainty 
now. But seeing that one MS. in this passage also has the 
reading SæreiíS (/>. Sævar-eiíS), one is led to think of the 
homestead Sjávaristra or Sævaristra (now Sörist) in Thjöling. 
. . . This homestead lies even on the "eid" ( = isthmus) be- 
tween Vigg's-firth and Sand-firth. Not far from there, at the 
mouth of the Vigg's-firth the port of Skiringsal must have 
been situated, where even to this day the name of Kaupang 
(Cheaping) reminds of it.' — Munch, * Hist.-geogr. Beskrivdse 
over . . . Norge,' 171. 

SKALHOLT (Skálaholt), the then southern cathedral see of 
Iceland, in the district of Biskupstungur, within 'Arnessysla 
in Southern Iceland, iii. 3363 ^i 

SKANEY{Skáney, Skáni),nowSkane, the southernmost province 
of Sweden, Danish possession till 1660, i. 6311 ^^ iSSio 'STso 

25420 2558 27O24 27I27 2724— ii. 31215 31922 3203 3257 28 33124 
— "1- 33l7 27 3^16 4484 4581 4727 4^6 14 498 28 7^18 9^28 93l8 29 

SKANEY-SIDE, side of Skaney (Skáneyjarsí«a), the eastward 

sea-board of Skaney, i. 1573^ 31 25820 iii. 49io 16 ^^o 
SKARAR, now Skara, a city of West Gautland, Sweden, ii. 

946 1554 
SKARNSOUND (Skarnsund), the sound which divides the 
Inner-isle in Thrandheim-firth from the western shore, ii. 

SKARPA, now Skorpö in Korsijord (the broad north-western 
outlet from Björnefjord), a small island east of the southern 
end of the large isle called Stor Sartor in southern North- 
Hordland, Norway, iii. 45824 

SKARPSKERRIES (Skörpusker), on the east coast of Eng- 
land, apparently; unknown? iii. 37613 j, 

I. SKAUN, now *Skogn i Indherred,' Upper Thrandheim, i. 
978 ii. 7010 


L— 'Prapoiy 

put of 

I the aMRdh of 

Ibf Aft fctli GÉBsð Vftn^oidt 

Kois^' p. 30, and liis 
_ ^* i 35* «1, L 67^ 68, Cr.SkaaráL 
SKOT, 00« flicotr Sfcottet, a bomestaid od m [Moiiiociiorir vtim 

tlie ciitwanl contioBaáon of SdvQ^xd, die NotdQocd, tak^ 

m ihafp beod to die sooth Í11I0 StfÐgsQoid, Southmere, 

Norwaf, il 363,, 
8K0TBUR&WATER (Skotbo^ii). 00m Koo^eaaum^ South 

f Qthnd^ lii, 34,, 
SICURBAGA (SUfhagarX a homestead tincalaiti which, bt 

the nrnghboiirhood ^ Kings' Rock, iii. 328^ $^9m 33?t 
S K\JiJ*%^A RTH (SkdIagailSr), a residence in Nidoycej iii. 206^ 
SKUl'A (Skúta), a river, beside which V^anland was burned, u 

SÍKYlstí1S)i the Isle of Skye, Invemesshire, Scotland, iú. »» 
SI^ESWICK (Slésvfk), now Schleswig, N. Germany, iii. t6t,| 
HLliSWICKi read rather Sleswickbay (Slé), now Slíenljon^ 

long narrow inlet running in South-westerly direction in 

from the southern end of the Broad-Belt up to the town of 

SI en wick, i. 357|8 
SMALI.ANDS (Smálönd), now Smiland, a province of Sweden 

on the south of Öster-GöLlandi li* 3357 iii. 284^ ^^5ft u n 

m ' 

SMA — sot] Index II 279 

SMALSHORN (Smalsarhorn), now Homelen, a sheer crag at 
the easternmost point of the island called Brimangrsland, now 
Bremanger, divided by the outer reaches of Nordfjord from 
the southern extremity of the peninsula of Stad in Firthfolk, 
i- 34019 

SNOS (Snös), a homestead at the head of a lake of the same 
name, in mnth-eastem Thrandheim, the countryside about 
the lake also bearing the same name; all three now called 
Siiaas(en), ii. 48322 48610 

SOGN, Sognfolk (Sogn, Sygnafylki), a folkland of Norway ex- 
tending over the basin of the Sogn-sea (Sogn-firth), i. 79^2 ^^ 

22 26 31 ^04i2 14 15 I3I29 1561 24O27 24426 24Sl7 24615 26723 

30821 3S3i8 3781—11. 3020 23214—111. 22io 23829 3449 394ir 
SOGN-FIRTH, see foil. 
SOGN-SEA (Sognsær), the Sognefjord, Norway, i. 245,2 Z'^\% 

— ii. 2125 2132 
SOKENSOUND (Sóknarsund), now Sokkensund (Munch), the 

sound which bounded on the south by the peninsula of 

Tungunes, now Tungenes, affords a N.W. passage into 

Stavanger harbour, ii. 46425 
SOLI (Soli), now Sole, the manor of Erling Skialgson, situate 

on the isthmus between the head of Hafursfirth and the 

ocean, in the district of Jadar in Rogaland, Norway, i. 30323 

ii. 2i7i5 2i8u 26822 35924 i»- 10624 3563 
SOL-ISLES (Sóleyjar), now Solör, a district of Norway on the 

north-east of Raumrick, i. 652, 25 30 ^79 12 "• 2107 
SOLSKEL, now Solskelö, in Ædö parish, oif the coast of the 

southern part of Northmere, i. loo^ 1025 
SOLUNDS (Sólundir), now Sulendöer, a group of islands off the 

mouth of Sognfirth in Norway, i. 2672^ ^^^- ^^38 22 
SOLVI (Sölvi), now Selven, a manor south-east from Agdanes 

on the southern shore of outermost Thrandheim, i. 1364 
SORRELDALE (Súmadalr), now Surendal, a vaUey in the 

southern part of Northmere, running N.E. up from Súrna- 

fjör^r (Sorrelfirth) toward Orkdale, ii. 27927 
SOTANESS (Sótanes), now Sotenaset, a ness in Ranrick, or 

the present Goteborgs och Bohuslan, on the east side of the 

Wick, i. 1728 21117 
SOTISKER (Sótasker), islands in the Swedish archipelago 

(Sviasker) off the coast of Southmanland (Sodermanland), 


m 4 


Index /I 

sou — SIK 

where King Otaf the Holy fooght his first battle with ibi 

viking Soti, from whom, apparently, the skerries got theif. 

name, ii. 6*7 73 
SOUTHDALE (Sunndalr)^ a district bordering on the Venef- 

lake, southern Dalsland, Sweden, iii. sao^g 
SOUTH-ISLES, Southern isles (SutSreyjar), Sodor, Hebrides, 

^™3a ifl "So 16 3395 í95ig 37 In 4^4^ 

SOUTHLAND (Su^rland), Sutherland in Scotland, i. 11635— 

ii, 170,^ 1 7^3 in the latter two cases Sunderland is a mistake. 
SOUTHLANDS (SuíSrlÖnd)^ Mediterranean countries, ill 63^3 
SOUTHMANLAND (SuíSraiannaland), now Södermanland, a 

province of Sweden on the south side of the lake Maiaren, 

i. s^e-r"- "ÍI21 1^ 

SOUTH-MERE (Sunnmeeri), see Mete* Æ 

SOUTHROP (SulSa})orp), now Suderup, S. Jutland, mTg 1,0 
SOUTHWARK (SuíSrvirki), in London, fortified by the Danes, 

SOUTHWICK (Su^rvikX a bight in the island called HoJffleii 
in the bay of Ringköbing on the western coast of Jutlai 

SPAIN (Spann), nu 250^3 ^^ j^ 2513 ^ „ 571«^ 

SPAREBY, Sparbiders^folk (Spaiabd, Sparbyggja-fylki), mt 



Sparbuen, a folkknd round the head of Thmndheim-&rtb 

SPAREBIDERS, See Spareby. 

i< ST AD (StaiSr), now Stadtlandet or Cap Stadt, tJie^ 
most peninsula and promontory of Southmere, i. lojj^ 1 1 ij, 
'72iT 17595 ^7^n^ 2i3^2sa,j 2143, 2441^ ^ 345^ ^ 275» 
27722 JöS^n 30927 u. 507 aroag siOji, 348^5 35135 36133 in. 348^1^ 

2. STAD {Stair), now Stadsbygden, parish in the bailiwick of 
Fosen, on the northern side of Thrandheim-firth, i, 1 36^^ 

STAFANGER, see Stavanger. 

STAFF (Stafr)f a homestead, now disappeared, in Verdil^] 

1. i70iflii. 39^1^44651 
STAFFBRENT (Stafabrekka), 

now Stavebrdike, a mountaht] 
pass south-east of Loradale in the northern parts of 
brandsdaie, ii, I99gg 
STAFFMERE (Stafamýrar), bpg-lands at the homestead 
Stair in Verdale, Upper ThmnSieim, ii. 3981^ 

STA — ^STi] Index II 281 

STAFFNESS-BAY (Stafanessvágr), now Stangfjord, the north- 
westernmost baylet in the district of Fialir, i. 10418 '^Ss 

STAMFORD BRIDGE (StanfortSa-bryggjur), on the river 
Derwent, N.E. of York, iii. 16913 

STAUR (Staurrinn), uncertain ; the south-eastern point of the 
island of Femem (off the north-easternmost point of Wagrien 
in Holstein), which is called Staver or Staber (huk) has been 
suggested, as well as the north-easternmost point of Rugen, 
Stubben-Cammer, i. 346,3 

1. STAVANGER (Stafangr), now Byfjorden, on which is the 
city of Stavanger, Norway, iii. 2733 

2. STAVANGER (Stafangr), the city of Stavanger, on the 
eastern side of the northernmost peninsula of Jadar, Roga- 
land, Norway, iii. 30813 324^ 

STEADS (Bies on the map, Bæar), now Bo, cluster of home- 
steads in Lesiar, Gudbrandsdale, Norway, ii. 19925 

STANGS (Stangir), now Stange, homestead and countryside in 
Vingulmark, now Smaalenene, Norway, iii. 477ie 

1. STEIG, a manor on Angle-isle in Halogaland, iii. 48115 

2. STEIG, a manor-house in the southern countryside of Froen 
on the northern side of the Low- water. Upper Gudbrandsdale, 
Norway, ii. 2483^ iii. 8425 

STEINKER, an ancient trading station at the head of Thrand- 
heim-iirth (favoured by the earls Eric and Svein, to the dis- 
advantage of Nidoyce, which Olaf Tryggvison founded), ii. 

4^26 492 50$ u 
STICKLESTEAD (Stiklasta«ir), now Stiklestad,* a homestead 

in lower Verdale, Upper Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 409^ 30 

410,1 41S4 42516 42818 43328 4407 4463 44781 449? 45O5 45428 

46716— "i- "5 1^26 1982 20ei4 2I22 577 5^12 1^52« 4283 42912 

STIFLA-SOUND (Stiflusund), some inlet near the royal manor 
of Geirstead and the old market-place of Skiringsal, on West- 
fold, i. 71,. 7211 

STIM (Stimr), a peninsula which marks the boundary between 
Romsdale and Northmere, ii. 352^ iii. 2843 

STIORADALE, see foil. 

STIORDALE (Stjóradalr), now Stjördalen, Mid-Thrandheim, 
J- 972 2054 ii. 5013 7018 

STIORNVELTA, an unknown place, but apparently north 
of, and not far from, Biorgvin, iii. 4033 

282 Index II [sxo— SUN 

STODREIM (StoiSreiiiir)^ a manor simated in the neighbvwjr- 
hood of Naustdai on the northern shore of Eidifjord) ^ 
eastern continuation of NotdQi^d^ Firthfolk, Norway, iii 

STOCK-SOUND (Stokksund), supposed to be the narrow cut- 
let from the lake Skarfven into the Malar Lake, called Staket 
(or Almare Staket), I 333^ 3410 n< 7ia » 

r, STONE (Steinn), a homestead on the Ness (BynæsseU.íti 
Thrandhetm, ii* *j2^ 

2. STONE (Steinn, at Steini), a place in Ringrick, Norway* i* 

3. STONE (Steinn), a place in * the east parts of Sweden,' * ^ 
Scythia Magna, Godhom^ L a6| 

4. STONE (Steinn, at Steini), a district in Esthonia^ i. 53^. « 
STONEBIGHT (Steinavágr), a strait running betwecn'iltc 

islands of Aspö and Hesö near JUdesund, Norway, ii* 361^ 

—iii. 444i 
STONEBERG (Steinbjorg), clifi in the neighbourhood of 

Nidoyce, iii, 20757 
STORD (StoriS), an island, now called Stord-oen, off South* 

Hordland, i. iSi^ 190^0 
STREAMISLE (Straumey) now Strömö, one of the middle 

group of the Faroe isles, Íi* 304^ 3^5« 
SI REAMISLE-NESS (Straumeyjar-nes), unknown locality in 

Denmark, i. ^^^^^ ^ ^ 
STRIND, the principal district of Strindfotk, in Thrandheifni 

east of Nidoyce, i* 31812 li. 72^ 931^ (wheie» as/a/^j /n' jW^, 

it stands for Norway)* 
STRIND-FOLK (Strindafylki), a petty kingdom 00 the sotiih 

side of Thrandheim-firth, i* ^6^ 97i ii* 47^5 
STUÐLA (Stu^Sla, aL Stö^a), now Stole, a manor in the district 

of Etne in South- Hordland, i. 353^ iii* 371 15 39 1^, 
SULA (Stila), a homestead in uppermost Verdale, ii, 39 7 ,^ 437^1' 

—iii, 1831 
SULT, now Sylte, at the h^wi, or nearly so, of TodarfjoriSri,. 

now Tafjord, the easternmost offshoot of Storfjord, Raumf^ 

dale, Norway, íl 363^3 373^ 
SUN BERG (Sólbjargir), a homest^ul apparently a short waf 

to the north-east of the town of Kings' Rock, iii. 32$^ JJJm 

SUN — swi] Index II 283 

SUNDERLAND, ii. lyo^^, 1713 read Southland, q.v. 
SVaVA (Sváfa), Schwaben, Swabia, Germany, iii. 262^ 
SVIMR-OYCE (Svirararóss), now Simrishamn on the east coast 

of Southern Skaney, Sweden, iii. 285^5 
SVOLD-MOUTH (Svöldrar mynni), the mouth of a river which 

the poet Skuli Thorsteinson knew by the name of Svold, i. 

SVOLD (Svold, Svöld), not an island, as Snorri supposes, but 

a river port (cf. Svold-mouth) a short distance west of the 

idand of Rugen (Storm), i. 361^ 362^ 
SWANFIRTH the Southmost (AlptafjöríSr hinn sy«ri), the 

southernmost bay of the bailiwick of South-Múlasýsla in 

Eastern Iceland, i. 323,5 
SWEDEN (SvíJ)jó«): 

1. SWEDEN the Great or Cold (SvíJ>jó« hin mikla e«a 
bin kalda), Scythia, Svíþjó^ being a mere imitative corrup- 
tion of Scythia, by means of folk-etymology, qs. Svia ))jó%, 
Scythia Magna of the ancients, i. xi 14-129 155 — also called 
Godhome, 2\^^ 2522-26^ 

2. SWEDEN, Swede-realm, in a limited sense (SvíJ>jóíS, 
Svíaveldi, once Svíaríki; terms mostly synonymous, though 
of different extent of meaning at different times: anciently 
the land and dominion of the Sviar, as distinguished chiefly 
from the Gautar, their neighbours to the south and west ; 
later the land over which the dominion of the master-kings 
of Upsala extended, when the tribal kingdoms had been 
turned into tributary earldoms or provinces), i. 2021 2I15 20 
«4i2 «529 274 3221 364 3^8 3934 402 429 24 44io 45i8 28 47i8 4812 

4928 2» S®9 5^27 80 5^7 1« 538-9 11 548 10 15 16 17 27 81 558 5^12 
S7l2 14 16 n 59l6 639 ^422-84 6^28 94l6 21222 26 22524 227ig 25 

«^4i2 16 28S1121 28712 299i8 31214.15 34510-28 3478 348i8 20 
359«4 81—"- 529 ^14 18 76 27 ^511 667 g QCje 97i8 I "26 81 "23 e 

IS 90 25 29 "324 "426 "523 "^2 8 "O21 14925 ^5326 ^5416 17 

15^6 i6Si3 21012 25610 22 257i5 3335 36814 36929 38629 3874 

38928 39O1 20 80 39^8 27 39225 27 40028 4 1 625 46625— lii. 3i7 47 8 
616 IO4 Ml7 158 33l8 25 4582 589 775 7816 7928 93l9 14522 19528 
2208 12 2335 28427 81 42629 42810 47824 48631 

SWEDE-SKERRIES (Sviasker), the archipelago to the east of 

Stockholm, Stockholms skarg&rd, ii. 837 
SWINESOUND (Svinasund), now Svinesund, the narrowest 


Index J I 


part of Hringdals-fjortSr, which cuts into the land from 
Whaleisles between Vingulmark and Elfhome or Rani^alni, i, 

SYRIA-LAND (Sýrland), Syria, ill 2578^ 
SYSLA^ see Adalsysla. 

TANABRANCH (Tanakvisl) = Tanais, q.v., i. i%^ 
TANAIS, the river Don of Southern Russia, I \%, 

'4 11 


TAUR (Taurr), now Södertörn, a peninsula south of Stock- 
holm J between Mörköfjard to, the west and the BaJtÍc to the 
east, i, 34jö a* 

TENTHLAND (Tiundaland), O.Sw. Tiohundarelaod, (?) the 

land of 'teii hundreds' ; Snorri erroneously supposes that the 
name meant ^ Tithe- land ' : a part of the Swedish province 

of Upland, i, 43ia 55i(j 353i— »i' ^^^^^ 2s íí3h n lx> 
TENTSOUND (Tjaldasund), now Tjddesund, a strait on the 

eastern side of H in island in Halogaiand^ dividing from it the 

island now called Tjeldð, iii. 356 j^ 
THAMES (Temps), it. 13^^^ 15, I 

THEKSDALE (þeksdalr), now Teksdalen, a valley fanned by^ 

the river now called Bredes Elv, running north to Jössund 

through the western parts of the Fosen peninsula, north of^ 

Outer Thrandheim-firth, iii. 210^^ 
THELMARK fþelamörk), now Telemarken, an islaod 

land of Norway surrounded by Hordaland N,W., Numif 

N.E. and E., Grenland E. and Agdir S. and W., i. 

Uhr 353tt "í' 39 1 4 48014 486.^, 
THINGNESS (þtnganesX now Dingenes, the ness on which the 

great folk-mote of Gu lathing was held, on the south side of 

the mouth of the Sognfirth^ i. 24ÓJJ 
THINGWALL (þingvöUr), name of the lava-plains where the 

Althing of Iceland congregated yearly from 930-1 Soo, ii, a4i|ij 
THIODA (bjóíSa), now Ty or Tyland, tracts in north-wesn 

Jutland, Denmark (not in the east, as Snorri surmises), m\ 

9^18 El 

THIOTANDI (þjótandi), *a point of the mamland ' (the [ 
insula of Okseno) * jutting out just opposite Nyrvi ' (the island'" 
now called Norve) (Munk), north-west of Borgund, in South 
Mere. * In the older, saga more correctly þrjótshverfi, noif 
K verve n, the westernmost ness on Ellingsöen ' (su^ 
Storm), ii, 3631 

iortb oí^ 

id fblL-l 
111« iJ 


Index II 


THIOTTA (þjötta), now Tjöttö, island in Southern Haloga- 
laod, i. 50923 3J4,>, 327a » ^0 ^i 3^9»^"^ 189.^ ^^ 19O19 19X19 
19820 237« 29211 ^io^ 332i7 3333 347i2 349i l^U l^\ ^^H 
423$ 434i3--"i^ i7n 

THORSHAVEN 0>örshöfn), now Thorshavn, the capital of 
the Faroe islands, situated on the eastern side of Strömö 
(Straumey) towards the southern end of it, ii. 30437 

THORSCLIFF (þórsbjörg), now Thorshaug, in the parish of 
Stadsbygden in Fosen, on the northern side of Thrandheim- 
firth, i. 136^,1 

THOTN (þótn), a district on the west side of Miorswater, in 
southtjrn Norway, i, 67^3 ^4 ^% IHf, 7% 93ii ^3*^1 iJ- 4i2(j 
209if. 234i2 Í4910 Í"' 4Hl^ 

THRALLS^ BERG (þrælaberg), by the town of Oslo, Norway, 
iii, 424^3 4262, 

THRANDHEIM (jJrandheimr), the basin of Thrandheim -firth, 
anciently containing eight folklands or petty kingdoms: Isle- 
folk, Spareby, Verdale, Skaun, Strind, Stiordalei Gaudale, and 

Orkdale, i. 96^5, 97^^ j^ 9S17 99^ loonj gj loi^ to, 

ÖH 2n 



"^28 Í& 13^32 í37iE 18 UI30 í45i6 144: i49i4 ^S^H ^5539 ^Sh 


i 18 213 


lit 30 


í67i5 I 


t70u 17111^ IS IP n ^97i: í99n 21 

M2 W ^^3^5 ^^5i7 -fíi ^Obg 3,v Sa ^^^^ 21^^^ .>b 2l4g ^^ .,5 9^ 2*6.^ 

21723 27 *3^i> 23930 ^413 28 ^4322 2442» ^595 ^73^1 n 28328 
2994 31610 as 3i92ri ss 32 1 15 326^, J27ai* 334s 3452^ 3539 3545 
377-Ö a^— "' 223t, 47iii2s4S^^ 5 'is n 523c, 5432 ^322 ^42i as 65.,; 
66,2 67s öSj^ 72^^ 73^ 80,1 i67^a 1891^ .3^ 1922^ ^^ g, 193^ ^^ 
í94a.i 19^2 199,'i 2113^ 23426 24015 2421,» 2663^ 374^^ 2752^ ^76^ 
9 ir as 2S3jj^ 284,^ 287,5 302^1 343.27 347i^ 34^20 ^^^is 30*33 u 
37219 3743 375n 3^8^^ 39Ö22 397^- 400^7 4^^2\>4^^q^ 4T7s 43O0 
4507 4524 la 4544 r. 45S& 46312—111. 6.,^ 7,, 34 i7.T,j 403.^ 8733 104^^ 
106, 1072, irijö 1143 24 í282(j 145^^ i6Sn 205^1 j^ 206. ^^ ^^ 
2iOö5» 211^ 21322 2i7iT 274ití 32 Is 3470 2s 34^2;. 36810 3704 
39O22 392^^ 402, 40730 41 Sh aa 4í6ío 43811 440^4 44it 457it 

46 78 23 24 2tí 48O11 4S331 

THRANDHEIM MOUTH (þrandheims-mynni), between Ag- 

dirness and Yrjar, iii. ^$8^ 35 9i7 
THRANDNESS (þrandarnes); now Trondenæs, on the N.E, 

side of the Hinnisle Ín Halogaland, Íi. 2142^ 23914 
THUMLA, belter Thumlí (þumli), locality^on the island of 

Hising, iii. 1313^ 

286 Index II [thu — ^upd] 

T HUN DERM EAD (þnííSvangr}, Thor's Swedish home, \. ih^ 

THURSO (þórsá), a town at the mouth of Thursowater, north- 
western Caithness, Scotland, iii. 37431 

TIREY (Tyrvist), Tiree, island west of Mull, Argyleshiie:, Scoi- 
land, Hi. 222^ 

TODAR-FIRTH (ToíarfjöríSr), now Tafjord, the innermosl 
part of Norddalsfjord, which, in its turn^ is the continimticsi 
of Storfjordenj South Mere, Norway, it, 3631^ Zl^^t 

TOFTS (þoftar), now Tofte {Toftemoen ?), in the parish of 
Dovre, in north Gudbrandsdale, Norway, i. 1 1 g^ 

TONGUES (Tungur), islands oíT Tungenæs, north west of Sta- 
vangar, ii. 35 7^ 1^ 

TRYGGVrS CAIRN (Tryggva^hreyr), the mound raised over 
K, Tryggvi Olafsson on Tryggvi*s-isle (Tryggvaey), on the 
western side of Sotaness^ Bohuslan, Sweden, L 211^,^ 

TUMATHORP (Tumaþorp), now Tommarp, a village's shorty 
distance SAV, of Simrishamn {Svimr-oyce), Sweden, iiL 2S5- 

TUNSBERG (TiJnsberg), now Tönsberg, the chief trading ^\ 
tion in Westfold, i. 105^ 10838 ^^Sss '249 i34i» 51 ^^\h% 



air^fl 24033 3"i8 "' S4is 7S3o ^"^U 130^^ 

i33iit lojit aio** 

21230 249i3 ^S^ai^ 345« ZA\i Z%H\ 353^0 ">■ ^^3^3 31 j^^ 3 19^1 

ZS^A 3S4a4 3Ö729 43840 440n wn 44834 4SO(i 4SSia 4Öiu 4^^^ 

470g4S49 4S7a 
TURKLAND (Tyrkland), the Seldjukian empire of AsiJ 

Minor, established 1073^ i. 15.J. ^^t^ 
TUSK A LAND (Tiiskaland), Tourraine in France, ii. at- 
ULFREKSFIRTH (^UlíreksfjörSr), Lough Urne, in nortbl 

eastern Ireland, ii* 13714 ^74 20 
ULLERACRE (Ullarakr), the seat of Princess Ingigerd^existitsg 

no more, was situated near the spot where the present castle of 

Upsala stands, ii, 114^^ ^*Siais '^3i8 
ULLERS-ACRE, see UÍleracre. 
ULSTER ('Ulaítir), Ireland, iii. 239i§ 10 m 
UNARHEIM, now Onereim, a homestead on the eastern 1 

of Tysnæsö in Bjömefjord, South-Hordland, Norway, 

UPDALE (Updalr), the uppermost part of Orkdale in Thf&ad<^ 

heim, Norway, ii- 45so 
UPD ALE-WOODS (Uppdals-skdgr), the woodland of Updale, 

the highest part of southern Orkdale, i. 99^— ii« 45^^ 

UPH — val] Index II 287 

UPHOWE (Upphaugr), now Ophaug, a manor in Yrjar, i. 27731 


UPLANDS (Uplönd), a collective term for the five folklands 
Hadaland, Heathmark, Raumrick, Gudbrandsdale and East- 
dales, in Norway : i. 6720 7^24 7^29 H 9^24 26 9Si2 "©22 "Sr 

"98 "111 13322 14480 IS016 25 I5I424 209i4 ^IO^ 2I2i5 225^ 

i»732o «77i6 28380 2879 28926 299ii— 11. 4O10 4121 4528 10I262880 
1032 12618 19280 I99i7 21O20 234i4 2485789 2587 33780 338« 
34326 39027 400ie 41823 4546—1». 8730 10517 10^20 '"si '447 
1464 I49i4 20522 2108 2794 2836 31517 349i6 19 38111 38526 447i9 
44819 457i6 47420 25 4777 48329 
UPSALA (Upsalir), now Gamla Upsala, some 3^ miles to the 
N.E. of the present university town, i. 420 1623 223029 2420 

2^28 2 78 29l2 17 30ii 3^18 406 28 422 12 14 15 17 22 27 30 43l5 18 4^17 
SOl9 5I5 22 55lO 15 57lO 11 14 25 27 58i2 6I25 627 6631 933^ 2I3g— 
U. 97i, 981 III28 II27 30 82 33 "3l2 "427 "^S^YS 

VADLÁ (VaiSla), a river, uncertain which, running by Borro, 

Norway, i. 6913 25 
VAGA, see foil. 
VAGAR (Vágar), now Vaagen, on the south of the island now 

called Östvaagö, on the S.W. side of Hinn isle in Halogaland, 

Norway, i. 30928— »• 23815 2884— iii. 26317 35730 
VAGI (Vagi), a countryside along the lake Vagi ( Vaage Vand), 

formed by the river Otta in northern Gudbrandsdale, ii. 20010 

2022 5 204i9 

VAGI-ROOST (Vágaröst), the countryside between the eastern 
end of the lake Vagi (Vaage Vand), and the Low river, through 
which the lower Otta flows, Upper Gudbrandsdale, Norway, 

ii. 202q 

VALDRES (not Valldres), now Valdres or Valders, a district 

east of Sognfolk bounded to the north by Gudbrandsdale, to 

E. by Land and Ringrick, to S. by Haddingdale, i. 9318 28239 

— ii. 4I27 23217 23311 

VALHALL (Valhöll), the Hall of Odin's Elect, i. 20j, 18830 1893^0 

VALLAND, France, chiefly Normandy, i. 1 1822 ^2827 261 25 — ii. 

1226 2I17 23 2728 292 31380 3341—1». "óg 157,3 237,0 24923 

VALSNESS (Valsnes), a place in the parish of Jösund, lower 

Theksdale, on the N.W. side of the Fosen peninsula, North- 
Mere, Norway, iii. 3582 

288 Index II [van— ^^t| 

VANABRANCH ( Vanakvf si) = Tanais. I iz^ 
VANAMOUTHS, the outlets of the river Tanaisinto the Bladt 

Sea, i. 12^ 
VANG (Vangr), now Vossevangen, a homestead in Ihe distiáa 

of Vors in North- Hordland, Norway, ii ^51^3 
VAN HOME, see Vanland 
VANLAND (Vanaland), or Vanhome (Vanaheimr), the kndof 

the Vanir, betwecM the mouths of the Tanais, L 1 2^ 14^ 35^^ 
VARDYNIAR (VarSynjar), now Valbo (harad), a distria in 

Dal or Dalstand, Sweden, iii, ^iöjg 
VARNA, now Rygge f^rish, in the so-called Smaalenene, Nor-^ 

way, i. 68^^ 
VARNESS (Varnes), now Vsernes, a homestead in Stiordak,m( 

Upper Thrandheim, i. 170^^ 319^ 
VEAR (Véar), now Vedbo harad, on the N.W. boundary of 

Northdale, in Dalsland, Sweden, iii. 2261^ 
VEBIORG (Vébjörg), now Viborg, a town in ceotml Jutiaud, 

Denmark, uL aS^íí 9^ö 
VEIGA, now V^eiio, an island in southern HalQgalan4 i- 

VE-ISLE (Veey), now Veö, in the mouth of the Langfjori 

Raumsdale, Norway, iii. 442^ 445^ j^ ^ 

VENDIL (Vendill and Vindilí), now Vendsyssel, a district of 

North- Jutland, Denmark, i. 472^ ^^^ 6832 ^7431 
VENDILSKAGl, now Skagen, the northernmost part of JilW 

land, Denmark, iíL 981^ 99^ 43 ^15 
VENER'LAKE, Vener- Water (Vænir), now Venern in Vaster-- 

gotland, Sweden, i. 50^^ 655^ 6630 iio^^ ii. 763^ iii. 149^ 

^^"l6 1« SI ^27l8 

VERADALE, Verdale (Veradalr), now Værdalen, in Upp« 
Thrandheim, I 977 ^l<^w i** 69^^ 1953^ 397^ 4091s 41^43^ 
43 7 18 44Ö3 

VERMLAND, Wermland (Vermaland), part of the 
Swedish province of Vármknd, a petty kingdom coloniii 
out of wild woods by K. Olaf the Tree-shaver, l 65 jg é* 


105^^ to6,^ ^4 1^ 

1081^ so IlOig— ii. \12^^ t5M 

^Vl 1» 7*26 .. . _- .. 

3^917 39029— "i- 1467 226^7 
VETTLAND (Vettaland), a manor in northern RanreaJmr no« 
Vattlanda, in the northern part of Goteboi^s och Eohuslii^| 

Í- 79bi S04'-"i'4i9as 

viG — wal] Index II 289 

VIGG (Vigg), now Viggen, a homestead on the eastern side of 
Gaularóss, the small bay that runs S.£. into Gauldale, Outer 
Thrandheim, Norway, i. 292^ 

VIGG, now Viggen, in Börsen parish, on the eastern side of the 
Orkdale-firth, Outer Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 48^^ 409i« — iii- 

VIKARS^KEID (Vikarsskei«), now Skei«, which a sandy shore 
stretching westward from the mouth of Olfus-river (Ölfusá) 
the main river of 'Arness-sýsla in Southern Iceland, is called, 
i. 26912 

VIMUR (Vimr), a mythic river, iii. 249^8 

VINA, see Dwina. 

VINELAND THE GOOD (Vinland hit gó«a), part of North 
America, discovered by Leif the Lucky, son of Eric the Red, 

i. 355» 
VINGULMARK (Vingulmörk), a district round the Oslo- or 
Christiania-firth, bounded east by the Raumriver, i. 7029 72^ 
77i« 20 S07 25 937 10527 loSgo 13116 15117 2417 249i8 ii- 


VISKDALE (Viskardalr), a valley formed by the river Visk, 
now Viskan, in northern Halland, Sweden, iii. 208^^ 27 

VIST ('lvist), now Uist, in Sodor (the text comprises under the 
name probably both North and South Uist), iii. 2223 

VIST, now Viste, a place * in the northernmost tracts of Jadar' 
(Storm), Norway. F. Jónsson localizes it in Raumsdale, iii. 

VLAKMEN'S LAND (Blökkumanna-land), Wallachia, iii. 42939 
VOGAR, see Vagar. 
VORS (Vörs), a part of North-Hordland now called Voss, 

Norwiiy, i. 2162 ii. 89^ 23122 
VORVI (Vörvi), a place in Reith-Gothland, i. 32^ g ^^ 39 
VULGARIA, Greater Bulgaria, on the Volga, iii. 38111 
WAINWICKSTRAND (Vagnvíkaströnd), the coastal tract 
about the place now called Vagnvik in Stadsbygden on the 
northern side of outer Thrandheim-firth, North Mere, Nor- 
way, iii. 2I02(j 

WALD (fyrir Valdi), a sea-port of Northumberland (?), ii. 29^ 
— * Fyrir Valdi * would seem to point to: * off the Weald,' or 
* off the Wold.' Locality unverified. 

WALES, see Bretland. 

VI. u 


í fifths— 


290 Index 11 [WAL — wes 

WALL-DALE (Valldalr^, on the northern side of Todarfifth^ 

South Mere, Norway, ii. 363^^ %iz^ 
WALLS (Veggir), now Vagga, on the sou^ (east) side erf 

ness, Sweden, u aiij^ 
WAMBHOLME (VambarholmrK now Vomma or Vombaut 

small island on the westem side of Havnoen off the month 

of the Velijord, Halogaland, Norway, iii. 212^ 
WARRAND (Varrandi), a trading town of Poitou, acx^rdiug 

to the saga, but = Guarande, a landscape m Southern Brk* 

tany? iL 20^^ 2ij^| 
WATERBY (Vatsbú), now Vadsbo, a district in nonh*eastem 

West Gautland, Sweden, iL 3^9,^ 
WATERDALE (Vatsdalr), the midmost of three valleys which 

from south open into the HiinaQorBr in Hdnavainssj^sb, ^ 

Northern Iceland, iL 373, ■ 

WEAPONFIRTH (Vápnafjörtír), a fetli in north-eastern Ice^" 

land, i, 26^^ 26921 
WE APONFORD ( VápnavaíS), another name for ShooterVford, 

WAY-SOUND (Vegsund), now Vegsund, strait between the 
islands of Sula (Sulo) and Okseno, in South Mere, Norway, 

WEATH ER-ISLE (VeíSrey), now Váderöama, off the district of] 
Kvtldir (Qville) in Göteborgs och Bohuslan, Sweden, iL 33213^ 

WENDLAND (Vindland), the southern seaboard of the Baltic, 
from the river Weichsel west to Holsteini inhabited by the 
Slavonic race the Northmen called Wends (Vindr), i. 25»^ ^ 
35410 13 2553 la ^^^n ss sa 362„ 270,, 3711 346n 349» -7 
3SO10 35.1? ish^ 35916 S^o^o is Z^H n 375ai as 3764-'ik ijj, 
1^ 449ia in. 3^3 9 la so 84 3o3n 33397 n 

WESTFIRTH (VestfjorSSr), in noithera Halogaland, ii. 191-^ 

WESTFOLD (Vestfold), folkland on the western side of the 
Fold, q,v,, and its westem offshoot, the Drafnfirthi i. 67jj ^ 
^^1» m 25 707 7^1« 77ii 7^9 Sóg^ 9% u 9H "^^S^ '3^17 '34if 
^35* 1424 Í 5 ha í97w ^4'/ ^^4^ 11, n^ ^ 

WESTLAND (Vestland). a seaside district on the island of 
Rugen, iii. 3813 ^4 A 

WESTLANDS (Vestrlönd)^ genemllf the British Isles in the ■ 
widest sense, in a narrower sense the north British isl^ I 



WES — wol] Index II 


WESTMANLAND (Vestmannaland), a province of Sweden 

on the west of Upland, ii. 1 1 2^2 
WESTMERE (Vestmarar), seemingly the coast district between 

Langesundsfjord in the east and East Agdir in the west, S. 

Norway, i. 70^ 733 
WHALEISLES (Hvalir), now Hvalöerne, west of the mouth 

of Swinesound, belonging to Smaalenene, Norway, iii. 36 ig^ 
WHARFNESS (Hvarfsnes), now Kvarven, the northern spur 

of the mountain now called Lyderhom, west of Bergen, iii. 

WHITBY (Hvítabýr), in Yorkshire, iii. 3761 ^ 

WHITING-ISLE (Hvitingsey), now Hvidingsö, an island-group 
in the mouth of the large Bóknarfjör^r, now Bukken-firth, 
N.W. of Stavanger, Norway, ii. 741Q 26837 

WICK, The Wick (Vik, Vikin), a general territorial term for 
the folk-lands bordering on the bay of Fold, now Christiania- 
fjord, viz., Grenland, Westfold, Vingulmark and Elfhomes, 

i. 1047 1059 12 24 1 154 6 1 181 3 12325 1287 13422 M^O 12 ^446 

15 18 27 ^S'S I56910I581322 16O1H6 1721^ I99i2 202^5 2\\^^^ 
212^ 2I3l8 2254 23728 24O22 24204 299l2 30^8 SO'lS 28 ^^H 
3031 4 18 17 30929 3II18 312x4 313I8 20 3424 28 37830— "• 3328 
547 16 5Sl6 18 22 ^4l5 7522 26 SO 779 7^27 799 ^Oji 813 8430 853 

863 12629 1279 1442 i67i3 21028 21I18 29 2483 249i2 25614 
2683 27521 33311 12 35230 35331 35615 4504 46412— iii- 93i "713 

I3I2 MS27 I49l8 í602i 205- 207i9 20814 21480 2IS1 21724 

22030 22625 2279 2323 31518 24 31725 31811 3194 32023 347i4 

16 18 35^26 3522 35421 23 359? 18 36120 3734 28 38610 39022 39I1 
39221 28 394i8 20 399i7 4005 8 40218 403i(, 41519 41627 23 41824 
43811 25 44I1 44819 24 26 45^10 45521 4583 n 15 46018 46I11 

46S11 26 27 4664 46930 47I4 11 472g 474i 25 28 477ö 6 11 4796 7 26 

4809 4843 

WICK (Vik), now Saxvik, in the district of Strind, Thrandheim, 

iii- 233i8 33620 
WICK, better Wicks (Vikar), now Vik, in the district of Brönö 

on the Velfjord in southern Halogaland, iii. 35724 
WILLIAM'S-BY (Vilhialmsbær), a place in France, ii. 19512.18 
WINCHESTER (Vincestr), iii. 920 253 13 
WITCHWICK (Gandvik), the Whitesea, ii. 26322 
WOLFKELSLAND (Ulfkelsland), dominion of Wolfkel 

Snilhng in East. Anglia, ii. 165 n 


Index II 


WOLF-SOUND ('Ulfasund), between Vágey, now Vaagsöen, and 
the niainland, in North firth (Nordfjord) in Firthfolk, Norwaj, 

Í- i75i4— "• 301^— i"- ^3s6 ' 

WORK = Danework, q.v. 

WORLD-RIDINGS (heims>ri«jungpffX the three puts of vhidi 

the known world consists, Europei Ajía, Afika, L iim 
YORK (Jórvík), capital of Northumberland, L 151^—«. x67| 

YOUNGFORD (Jungufur^), an English town? iL aS^ 
YRIAR (Yrjar), now Örlandet, a peninsula on the nocdMOi 

side of the mouth of Thrandheim-firth, NocA Mere^ NotiMQ^ 

i- 9625 21526 «7721 31728 3231 iii- "I4 



All matters relating to Dress^ House^ Ships, IVeapons, will be 
found grouped together, classified where needful, and arranged 
in alphabetical order, under these headings. In technical mat- 
ters more or less beyond the reach of the language of the trans- 
lation, such as certain articles of dress, names of, and terms 
relating to houses, appellatives for ships, the Icelandic word 
takes precedence of that of the translation. At the end will be 
found a complete list of Icelandic terms (phrases mostly omitted) 
dealt with in the Index, with a cross-reference to the leading 
word of each particular entry. 
ABBESS (abbadis, O.E. abbodesse), of the Benedictine convent 

of Gimsey, iii. 4213^ 
ACREGARTH (akrger^i), a fenced-in cornfield, iii. 31631 
ADDER (eiSla = viper, or perhaps lizard, lacerta), crawling out 
of the hollow image of Thor, when smashed to pieces by Olaf 
the Holy's order at Hof in Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2081 ^g — (nair, 
poet, term for ormr) used by the poets to designate the two 
* Worms ' = Dragonships, the * Short ' and the * Long ' in Olaf 
Tryggvison's navy, i. 3702« 3750 377i8 
AGE (old) — I. age of burning (brunaöld) — 2. age of barrows 

or howes (hauga-öld). See Burials. 
ALE (ÖI), the national drink of the Scandinavians. Borne 
round to guests even by kings* daughters, i. oo^.g — worshippers 
at the temple of Ladir must bring with them their own ale 
and victuals, 1659.14 — ^^^ should be drunk by litten fires at 
Olaf the Holy's court, ii. 672« — and should be carried round 
the long-fires in the hall to the consumers, i. 16525.25 ^"' ^93w 
3291 — (mungát), homebrewed, small beer, iii. 357^ 
ALL-BYRNIED (albrynja^r), in full armour, iii. 17322 ^7^i6 
— of horses, 17328 

i i 

fíK — ^ANG I 

294 /íl^^^ /// 

ALLrFOLK-HOSTING (almenninp lelíSangr), Iev>^ of all the 
force which by law was liable to naval miíitary service 
(leilSangr), which, by the provision of the Older Gula-Thing 
Law, ch- 297 (*Norges Gamle Love,' i* 97), amounted to 
'every seventh nose,' or 14 per cent* of the population, iíí. 
1^928 i87|7.jg *^^' 47'&-T — all-men wai^musteF, id., one half of, 

ALTAR (altariX H iSHi 4S6sa4S7io « n 4S9io 4^0^ Hi. t^Snm 
30937 42920 — altaT'tabie (tabula) of Byzantine workmanshipi 
3092^.31 ^altar-cloth (altarisklæíSi), made of a cloak of brown 
purple given to Steig-Thorir by K- Harald Sigurdsooj iii* S71 

ALTHING, see Thing- 

ANGELICA (hvaun-njóli), made present of to Queen Thyri by 
OL Tryggvison, i- 35 Tji.^. As the story of this gift is told in 
all sagas relating to 01 Tryggvison; Odd Snorrison's 'Christi- 
ania,^ 1 85 3, p. 4717 80Í F°as. x. 33629-33730 ^f* Scripta hist 
Islandorum, x. 310^-31 ii^; OL s. Tryggv. Fms. ik 244^^- 
245^2 cf. S, h, L ii. 2283-2293 ; Fris, 15519-15635 Flat. i. 447 j^- 
4483, the king's act becomes apiece of aimlesSj puerile civility, 
and'its real historical significance is utterly lost. But through 
the whole we can see what really must have taken place. The 
queen considered herself wrongfully deprived of the income 
which her possessions in Deninark and Wend land should 
yield her. She urged ber hmband to get these possessions 
restored to her. He and his coun<dl were utterly disioclined 
to embark on the adventurous undertaking advocated by the 
queen, and so resolved to settle on her such a dowry as 
Norway could alTord* This the king offered her^ and in ac- 
cordance with ancient custom observed when landed dominion 
was conferred on a princely recipient^ presented her with the 
plant which symbolized an irrevocable right of possession|fl 
cf. reed, The queen, considering the offer insufficient, spumsV 
the symbol of acceptance^ remarking that her father Harald't 
gifts to her used to be a good d^ greater, a remark which 
cannot possibly refer to the insignificant plant, but must have 
alluded to the difference between the appanage offered by « 
Olaf and the dowry settled on Thyri by her father in Den^ 
mark J in the shape of landed dominion. This seems to be the 
true historical meaning of this interesting incident of which 
the Christian admirers of Olaf lost sigl^ thinking that 


tat hA^ 


ANG — ^ARs] Index III 295 

wanted to show his spouse a signal token of the divine fevour 
which blessed his reign with seasons of miraculous fertility. 

ANGELICA STALK (the hollow part oQ (hvann-njóla trumba), 
used for an instrument of torture, i. 3333-8 

ANVIL, see Snout-anvil. 

APOSTLES' CHURCH, see Church. 

ARCHBISHOP'S CHAIR (erkibiskups stóll), at Upsala, 
erected 11 76, ii. 11231 — K. Sigurd swears in Jerusalem that 
he will set up one in Norway, iii. 25723.24 — which was estab- 
lished first in the reign of K. Ingi Haraldson at Christ's 
Church in Nidoyce, a.d. 1152, 3801.3 

ARCHERY: Einar Thambarskelfir the hardest shooter of 
men, i. 37i5.e^^' ^^ví-tx — Finn, on board Earl Eric's war-galley 
the Ironbeak, the greatest of bowmen, i. 37115.16 — Olaf 
Haraldson knew well the craft of the bow (kunni vel vi^ 

ARROW, see Weapons, offensive. 

ARROW-BIDDING (ör-bo«), the promulgation of the sum- 
mons which were attached to a war-arrow, q.v., ii. 4621.22 

ARROW-SHEARING (örvar-skur«r), the cutting-out of a war- 
arrow, q.v., iii. 21011 

ARROW-THING, see Thing. 

ARSON (brenna), we group imder this, for want of a better 
heading, the burning of human habitations together with the 
inmates. — The sons of Visbur fall upon their father unawares 
at night, and bum him in his house, i. ^^yí-ta — ^^^g ^^Ivi 
came unawares on (tók hús á) K. Eystein of Sweden, and 
burnt him in his house, 52^.11 — K. Ingiald burned six kings in 
one hall at Upsala, 5721-594 and took the house over (tók 
hús á), and burnt within it, kings Granmar and Hiorvard, 
^*i4-20 — ^^ Swedes took the house over (tóku hiSs a), and 
burnt in his hall, K. Olaf Treeshaver, 661^.1^ — Solvi Klofi 
burnt K, Har. Hairfair's men out of house and home in 
winter warfare, ioIiq — Rognvald Mere-Earl took the house 
over the head of K. Vemund of Firthfolk, and burnt him 
within with ninety men, 10310^3 — two sons of Hairfair took 
the house over (tóku hús á) Earl Rognvald, and burnt him 
within with sixty men, 1 2422.26"— Eric Bloodaxe burnt in his 
house, together with eighty wizards, Rognvald his brother, 
^3321-36 ^"^ ^oo^ ^^ house over (tók hús á) the head of his 


Index III [asc— BAi I 

brother Biom, 1351^ — Halfdan the Black (s. o. Har, Hairfaii) 
took the house over the head of {tók hds a) his brother Énc^ 
who escafiedj while all his men were burn I within^ 1 5^,|i— 
Harald Greycloak burns Earl Sigurd and all his men in \k 
house at Oglo, 205^3,3^ — the same Harald takes the house 
over the head of his first cousin, Gudrod, and slays him, 
aitj^-iiag — Harek of Thiotta burns Grankel in his house 
with thirty merit ii- 347ia-27 — Thorir of Stdg bums the house 
of John in Birch isle, and a longship of his besides, iii* ^w^ 
10-10 — ^' Ey stein Haraldson bums down the residence of 
Gregory Dayson in his absence, 391^^.54 and is accused of 
having burnt down the fine dockyard at Nidoyce, together 
with ships belonging to his brother Ingi, 39121-81 — Gregory 
Dayson sets fire by night to the manor of Saur-Byes, 419B— 
Erling Askew takes the house on Ozur in Hising and burns 
him within ; bums three homesteads beside, and slays one 
hundred people, 460^^.^^ 

ASCENSION DAY, ste Fe^ts. 

ASHES (aska), of dead men burnt under Odinic law should bt 
carried out to sea or buried in the earthy i. lo^,,^ — somethÍBg 
resembling ashes was kept by Gunnhild in a linen sack and 
made use of by her for the purpose of leading wizard Finns 
off their scent, 129^5,^2 — ^^ same stuff kept in the same 
manner by Thorir Hound^ and used for the same pi 
against pursuing Biarms, li. 262gj-263^ 

ASK (askr), a measure for liquids holding 4 * hollar ' bowls 
16 'justur;' we have not the means of comparing it with ai 
English measure — ask of honey, iii, 342^ 

ATONEMENT (bœtr), stt Weregild 

A UN'S SICKNESS ('Anasótt), painless sickness unto death 
from old age, L a^x^^ 

AXE (ox), an executioner's^ in the phmse : to lead under tbi 
axe (leilSa undir oxi), to execute by the axe, iii* 363.3 

BACKBONE-PIECE (Hryggjarstykki), the name of a book 
written by the historian Eric Oddson, containing the history 
of Harald Gilli, his sons^ Magnus the Blind and Sigiml 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3651^.2^ 

BAILIFF (sýsiuma^r), an official whose business it was 
gather in a king's or an earrs dues, finesj etc., and to 
tain law and justice in his district (sýsla), ii. ^Z\^^\ I^s ^95 




BAi — ban] Index III 297 

— 2. (ármaír), in England, iii. 1829 where, however, the 
persons in question seem to have been engaged in military 
service. Cf. Steward. 

BAILIFFRY (ármenning), the office executed on the king's 
behalf by an ármaíSr, a bailiff or steward of royal estates, i. 
3S4i8 ^- steward — 2. (sýsla), the office of a tax-gatherer and 
justiciary, ii. 7 523.24 2 1 2^5 2 1 a^^ 2 3 723 

BAILIWICK (sýsla), the district over which a * sýsluma«r ' is 
appointed, ii. 7823 798 19O10-12 «377 1^ 17 24 2925 SS^ai 345« 
34818 — iii. 728 ^^17 2827 — Harek of Thiotta had the b. of Ha- 
logaiand part as * grant * part as *fief,' ii. 23 7^^^ — Bailiwicks, 
i. 13I29 should rather read grants (veizlur), cf. grant. 

BAKE (baka), bread baked in heated ovens, iii. 12515.29 

BALE (bál), funeral pyre, i. 20^ g 

BANESMEN (bana-menn), slayers, iii. iio^g 

BANNER (merki), war-standard: King Eric and Jonind's in 
the battle of Fyris-meads, i. 40^ — King EgiPs, 4431 — K. 
Guthorm Ericson's, 17225 — K. Har. Hairfair's in the stem of 
his dragon, 9829 — his banner long borne by Egil Woolsark, 
1762.3 — Hakon the Good's banners in the battle of Rast- 
kalf> 1 7 79-16 \% 25— and in that of Fitiar, 1835 '^52 1^914— 
K. Gamli Encson's at Rastkalf, 178^ — Earl Sigvaldi's at the 
battle of Hiorungwick, 2773.^ — Olaf Tryggvison's on board 
the Long Worm, 35223 — banners set up before captains on 
board ship, 36630-3671 ^ — Olaf Haraldson visits his mother 
with his banner flying forth, iL 373.4 — his banner in the battle 
of Nesiar white with a snake drawn on it, 579 — set up, on 
going into fight, 5720 — borne in front of the king in battle, 
597.14-— the pole of it gilt, 5911 — K. 01af*s banner at Stickle- 
STEAD set up in the centre of the army and supported by the 
bodyguard and the guests, 39930 40O13.18 42430 4295 e 43324 
43^16 — ^^y Ringson's stationed on the right, 400^^.20 43^ u — 
on the left the banner of the Swedish mercenaries, 400,0^ 
cf. 4 1 02 5 41233 41615 — Kalf Arnison's banner in the centre 
of the rebels (facing K. Olafs), 423^ n, 42429 42712 42821 — 
the banner of the men of Rogaland, Hordland, and Sogn on 
Kalfs left (facing Day Ringson's), 42313.19 4349 — orders issued 
by commanders in each army to the ranlc and file how to 
heed the banners they served under, 40 ig 42415.31 — Svein 
Wolfson's banners, iii. 443 1373 — K. Magnus the Good's, 4810 

298 Index III [ban— BAE 

S^ii — S*^^ ^^^^ ^^ possession of his son-in-kw, Hakon Ivar^OR, 
1SO20.21— 'lost into Harald Hardredy's hands in the engagP^ 
ment on Vener Lake, and recaptured by the Earl, 1 5 1 15 3i^«t ^« 
— Harald Hardredy^s banners, 68 „^i^ 70^ — ^the Landwaster, 
8 1^.2^ iio,(j — in the battle of the Humber, lojj^ 16S1-4I 
Stamfordbridge, 172^ 1- ijj^g — Morcar's banner, leja-^ 
Tosti's banner, i72jg^Magnus Barefoot's banner, 24Í1C 
saved by Vidkunn when Magnus fell,342iy.2i^Harald GiÖí^ 
at Fyrileif, 3162^— K. Ingi's at the battles of Mouth, Kinp' 
Rock, and Oslo, 34935^2« 4i3sð 4269— Gregory Dayson's ai 
Kings' Rock, 401 ij,^^ — Hakon Shoulderbroad's at the hatti« 
of Kings' Rock, 4o9jjj--Erling Askew's at the battle of Ke, 
4532Ö — '^^^1 Sigurd of Reyr*s in the same fight, 4543«—^^ 
stein Eysteinson's at the battle of Re, 4843^ 

BANNER-BEARER (merkismair), i. 1763 ii, 12^^ ^ \\H 
iii. 6812 40112 1^ 15 

EANNER'STAFF (merkistöng), n. 40S1 41 3^ AlP^^ ^^* °®» 

BANQUETS (veiilur), see Feast. 

BARESERK (berserkr), a tiame given to Odin's own mm^' 
arms, who, Snorri says, ' went without byriiies * (coals ^ 
mail), whence the inference has been drawn that they fougM 
in bare shirts {serks, sarks), and so got this name; thiSj \l 
would seem, was Snorri's idea of the origin of the name, i 
173^-183 — noted bareserks: Hildebrand and his company i)f 
eleven, S i ^^.^^ ; Haki, 8 1 ^5.^7 ^ ^r í Y^'Qltí of Berdla, 1 o^^^^ \ Thorii 
Longchin, 11130 — Harald Hairfair manned his dragon -ship 
with bareserks, gS2^.ai""t>areserks and wolfcoats (iilftéíinar)v 
/,í., men who instead of coats-of-mail wore jackets of wolf- 
skin, are grouped together by Hornklofi, ir^j^.^^. It may be 
noted that BEAR-SERK = Bear(skin)-coat may possibly coni« 
nearer to the origin of the name, seeing that the bearserks 
of Harald are called 'UlfhéíSnar ^ Wolf -jackets in ' Vatnsdoela- 
saga' (1S60), p. í7ii.js; moreover the personal name Ejam' 
héíSinn ^ Bear-coat seems most likely once upon a tiíaé tft 
have been an appellative for a * berserkr/ 

BARE-SERKS-GANG (berserksgangr), described, L \1^\\ 

BARN, ue House, i, 

BARROW (haugr), burial mound, i. 4^0 ^^—set also Burial and 

Bar — bat] Index III 299 

^ARS (slár), of red-hot iron to be walked over for an ordeal, 
iii. 2963 

fiAR-SPEAR, see Weapons, Offensive, Spear. 

Bastard, see weapons 2. 

fiATH (laugX i- "76 ni- 283^ cf. Tub. 

BATH-DAY (laugar-dagr), Saturday, iii. 420^7 cf. Wash-day. 

Bathing (at lauga sUc), in Jordan, * done after the fashion 
0Í other palmers,' by Harald Sigurdson, iii. yiso-si — ^^y Sigurd 
Jcnisalem-farer, 25620 2570.^ 282^8 29313.14 

Battles and wars, excluding the story of the Yng- 

Halfdan the Black's war with Gandalf of Vingulmark, 
77iA^ — "^^ ^ Sigtrygg of Heathmar-Raumrealm, 7721-784 
— with K. Eystein, brother of Sigtrygg, 784-794 — with the 
SODS of Gandalf, 80^20 — ^8^^ between K. Sigurd Hart and 
Haki, 8i2|)^ — Harek Wolfs raid on Haki's house, 8214.22 

Battle in Hakisdale between Harald Hairfair and Haki 
GandalfsoD, c. 861, 9I18-927 — Harald's with Gandalf in West- 
fold, 927.14 — Harald's war with Hogni and Frodi, sons of 
Eystein, and their allies, Hogni Karason and Hersir Gud- 
bmnd, c. 862, 9214-932 — Harald's battle with K. Gryting in 
Orkdale, 866, 9521-29 — ^his fight with the kings of Gauldale 
and Strind, 9627.30 — ^^s fight in Stiordale, 975.4 — fight with 
four Up-Thrandheim kings, 974.13 — his sea-fight at Solskel, 
868, 9928'iooi4 — his second battle at Solskel, 869, 1022.32 — 
battie in Staffness-bay between Earls Hakon Griotgarthson 
and Atli the Slender, 870, 1040-1055 — Harald's war with the 
Gautlanders, 871, 10915-110 — battle of Hafrsfirth, 872, iii- 
113^ — Harald's war in the Westlands, 1151Q-116 — battle in 
Orkney between Turf-Einar and Halfdan Highleg, 890, 12512- 
12620 ii. i68i2.|6 — battle in the Elf between Guthorm Harald- 
son and Solvi Klofi, i. 128^11 — ^great battíe in Esthonia in 
which fell Halfdan the White, 12812.15 

Eric Bloodaxe's viking wars, 908-18, 12821-1292 — fight at 
Seaham between the brothers Biom Chapman and Eric 
Bloodaxe, 1351.28 — battle at Tunsberg between Eric Blood- 
axe and his brothers Sigrod and Okf, 934, 14410.26 — ^"^ 
Bloodaxe's wars in Western lands and last battle, c. 935-50, 

iS2«.ii iS3i4-i54i7 
Hakon the Good's war m Jutland, 952, 1565.33 — his battle 

300 Index III [bat 

with Danish vikings in Eresound, 1573.1^ — his further warfare 
in Denmark, 1 57^^-1 5S^(j— raid of Eric's sons 00 Norway, 
95 J, lóO;^^.-^^ — Hakon gives battle to them at Ogvaldsneas, 
i7i;g-i73ig^Hakon has a battle again with Eric-s sons i£ 
Frædisberg, 955^ i74i4-i79aft — í^ís fight with Eric's soos at 
Fitjar, 961, 1803^-187 

Harald Grey cloak invades Biarmland and fights a battk 
on the river Dwina, c. 965, 21 S3 is — E^url Hakon of Ladii 
fights a batde in Mere with his uncle Grjotgarthj 969, a i6^f 
217^ — Harald Greycloak fights a battle and falls at Neck in 

Jutland, 970» iz3S2fl-í39s4 

Earl Hakon has a battle with Goldharald in Jutland and 
hangs him, 970, 2403,^,— Earl Hakon overcomes Ragnfrod 
Ericson in a battle in South-mere, 971, 244^^^y— and again in 
an engagement at Thingness in Sogn, 972, 245^-346— the 
Emperor Otto II. invades Denmark and is repulsed in a 
battle at the Danework, 974, 2531^-25630 — renewing the fight 
he turned the Danish position at Sles wick and routed the 
Danes, afy^^jg^Earl Hakon fights a battle with Earl Ottaroí 
Gautland, 2 5 81^-259™ Harald Gormson ravages Norway, 975, 
*^7ia-20 — battle at Ice firth in Denmark between Har. Gonn* 
son and his son Svein, 986, 370^.1^— battle in Hioningwick 
between Earl Hakon and the Jomsburg vikings, 986, 27%- 
2 84 J — Earl Eric's warfare in the Eastlands, 347g-348n 

Olaf Try ggvi son's war-raids in Britain, 26 1^^262 j^^— batde 
of SvoH 1000, 36710-3 7 5ifl 

Olaf the Holy's viking battles \ at Sotisker, ii, ^^^^^ — *^' 
Isle-sysia, 9i(,^2 — in Herdales in Finland, lo^.^ — ^ín Southwick 
in Denmark, iiy^j^^j — off Friesland, i^a-ie — at London Bridg^j 
^4r^5s5 — ^^ Ringmar-heath, io^..^;^ — at Canterbury and New- 
mouth, 17-184 — in Ringfirth in France, iS^a^s* — at Grisla-Pool 
and Seliapool, 1 9^-2 o^^ — at Charles water, soji^jg — at \^''aTTand, 
202y-2rjg— at Youngford, ^^x^^s — ^^ Wald, 29,^.7 — battle oil 
Nesiar, roi6, between Olaf the Holy and Earl Sveln Hakoo-^ 
son, 57g-6i^battle in Ulfreksfirth, 1019, between K, Kono- 
fogor and Earl Einarof Orkney, 1370^3— Olaf the Holy^sand 
K, Onund of Sweden's war-raid on Denmark^ 1027, 312-3131» 
3i9ig,24— battle off the Holy River, roaS, 32^-325^ — ^fight 
between Olaf the Holy and Erling Skialgson, 1028, jsSif 
360^^ — battle of Stickles tead, 1030, 409-434 — battle of Sokeii-, 



Index III 301 

sound between K. Svein Aliivason and Tryggvi Olafson, 
»033, 46417-465 

Magnus the Good's battles : at Jomsburgh, 1043, iii. 3123- 
3^23 — at Lyrshawheath, 28 Sept., 1043, 36-37 — at Re, 1043, 
38j^ — at Riveroyce, 18 Dec, 1043, 3^27-43i8 — ^* Holyness, 
followed up by a punitive raid, 1044, 4530-5017 

Harald Sigurdson*s battles : many in Africa, 623-642 — four 
in Sicily, 645-7 Oji — his raids on Denmark, 1048, 948-961^ — 
1049, 97i2-'®24 — ^^5^» I20i8-i2iy — 1061, 127U-128 — battle 
of Niz, 1062, 135-14211 — battle by the Vener-water, 1064, 
I49ig-i52i| — battles of Scarborough, of the Ouse, and of 
Stamford-bridge, 1066, 1661^^1 1677-1681^ 176-1794 

Battle of Anglesey sound, between Guthorm and K. 
Margath, 1052, 123-1241^ — battle of Hastings, 1817.33 

Magnus Barefoot's battle in Anglesey, 1098, 2232^-22429 — 
battle in Kvaldinsisle, 11 00, 226^-22819 — battle of Foxern, 
iioi, 231-2323 — battle near Ulster, in which K. Magnus 
Barefoot fell, 1103, 23923-24237 

Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's seafight with pirates in Spanish 
waters, 1 109, 25013.27 — battle at Cintra, 25023-25 ig — ^at Lisbon, 
^5'io-?i — a^ Alcasse, 25122-2525 — in Norvi-sound, 2523.17 — at 
Formmterra, 25213-25422 — in Iviza and Minorca, 25455-2553 
— atSidon, 11 10, 25733-25813 

King Magnus the Blind and Harald Gilli : battle at 
Fyrileif, 1134, Z^S^yl^l^^—^^^'^^ of" Biorgvin, 1135, 32I25- 
32327— battles at Kmgs' Rock, 3263-32811 32813-333 

King Ingi and his brothers: battle at Mouth, 1137, 34921- 
35014 — at Crookshaw, 35033-35 120 — battle at and burning of 
Oslo, 3529-35312 — Sigurd Slembi-Deacon's fights at Erri, Man 
(Denm.), and the Elf, 3543.13 — battle at Holm the Gray, 11 39, 
36 124-36329— battle at Leikberg, 1153, 37327-37422— at Apar- 
dion, 375i3-2o--at Hiartapoll, 37521-82— at Whitby, 37533- 
37610— at Skarpskerries, 37612-18— at Pulwyke(?), 1 153, 37619^« 
— ^at Langton, 37639.33 — battle in Biorgvin, fall of K. Sigurd 
Haraldson, 11 55, 3893-3907 — Ingi and Hakon Shoulder- 
broad: battle at Kings' Rock, 1158, 4013.39 — battle in the 
Elf, 1 159, 412-414 — fight at Saurbyes, 1160, 4193^ — battle 
of Oslo, 1 161, 42317-42712 — Hakon and Magnus Erlingson: 
battle in Tunsberg, 43817-44030 — battle at Ve-isle, 1 162, 445^- 
4477— battle of Re, 1163, 45iV455i6» "77, 48411-48521 

302 Index III [bea — ^be: 

BEACON (viti), lighted fires, oa high bills, so that each conili 
be seen from the other, to aiinounce the advent of a hostile 
invasion, first introduced in Norway by K. Hakon the Good 
(on English pattern ?)j u 1 742,7— kindling of any such beacons 
without due cause strictly forbidden, i74«g-i75ii 

BEARD {skegg)j Thorgny's so long that it lay on his 
and was spread out all over his breast, ii. nog^j^ — ^o^ 
after death, 45 6^ ^^,« 

BEAVER-SKINS (bjórr), ii. 260^ 291,^ 

BEDESMAN (ölmusumaíSr, alms^man), a beggar, ii. ia4g 

BEER-CASK (mungáts-bytta), i. 32550 

BELIEF (trú), in one's * might and main' characteristic 
certain irreligious heathens, 1 6920.2a ^^^ 395ar 4^53o 

BELIEFS: Odin must gain the victory in every battle, i a, _ 
Odin's laying hands on people and giving them his bJ^sin^^ 
a sure warrant of victory, i a ^^.^^ --calling on Odin in trouble' 
brought help, 131^ — ^Odin believed to have gone after bds 
death to Asgarlh the Old to live for ever, aios^gr^-^Swedef 
thought he showed himself in dreams before battles, 21^*^1 
— victory specially the gift of Odin, 2i^j — he would appear 
to favourites, inviting them to come to him {when death was 
near), 21^^ — the height to which the column of smoke arose, 
when a dead body was burnt, a sign and measure of thai 
person's exalted state * in heaven,' i. 225^.5— treasure buried 
with the dead made him correspondingly wealthy in the other 
world, 225^— peace and plenty of the year believed to be 
owing to the ruler of the land» 22,^.^;^ ^^.^^ 231.^ 24^^^ ^^1^ 
bad harvests and hard times likewise, 29^^^^^ 30^^ — 'wont of 
the Swedes to lay upon their kings both plenty and famine/ 
66g.|5 — Swedes believed that lukewarm interest in blood- 
offermgs brought about hard times, oo^g.^^j^the people of 
Thrandheim see in the failure of harvests the anger of the gods 
because K. Olaf Haraldson had converted Halogaland 
Christianity (1021), ii. 193^.10 

BELL (klukka), the sound of bells an attractive novelty foff 
heathen Icelanders at Nidoyce, L 3363(5.31 — a great bell sent 
by K, Olaf Haraldson to the church of l^hingwall in Iceland, 
which was still in existence when Snorri wrote Olaf's saga, 
ii. 24 1 j^.^^— bells ring of their own accord round Olaf the 
Holy, 4591-9 4^%* — ^- Ha raid Sigurdson sends a bell to the 


BEL — BLo] Index III 303 

church of Thingwall to which Olaf his brother had given the 

timber, iii. 1031.3 
BELL-RINGER (klukkari), ii. \2^^^ 
BELT-SHAFT (fetilstingr), see Weapons 2, Sword. 
BENITHE (ni^a), to heap abuse upon, iii. 2301Q 
BILLETS (ski«), fuel of wood, ii. 441«.^, 
BETROTH, betrothal, plighted troth (fastna, festar), i. 119282« 

ii. 122,5.17 15228 
BEWITCH, see Wizardry. 
BIRCH-BARK (næfrar), used for leggings as protection against 

cold by the Birchlegs, iii. 4791415 
BIRCHISLE-RIGHT (Bjarkeyjarréttr), the law regulating the 

administrative and judiciary affairs of towns and market-places, 

especially in respect of trade and commerce, bye-laws, iii. 


BISHOP (biskup), the first in Norway called in from England 
by K. Hakon the Good, i. 16428.34 — K. Olaf Tryggvison's 
court bishop, Sigurd, 31S21.28 SS^it-SS^is— Olaf Haraldson's 
court bishops: Grimkel, ii. 6720-21 ^3^4-8 4544-456i; Sigurd, 
202^4 20522.33 2074.7 229i5.24"~E^r^ Hakon Ericson's court 
bishop Sigurd, 4171^-419 45330-4544— bishops and bishoprics 
in Sweden, ii. 11214.23 — Bishop Magni and K. Sigurd Jerusa- 
lem-farer, 3075-30814 — Bishop Reinald of Stavanger and Kings 
Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and Harald Gilli, 3081^-309^ 3245.35 — 
Bishop Magnus Einarson of Skalholt specially honoured by 
K. Harald Gilli, iii. 33426-33529 — Archbishop Eystein of Ni- 
doyce and his relations to the crown of Norway, 461 1^-464 

BISON, see Ships. 

BIT (bitull), the rival horse-trainers, Alrek and Eric, sons of 
K. Agni, killed each other with bridles, i. 351^ 

BLAZING FIREBRANDS (logandi brandar), used for shoot- 
ing at a besieged garrison, iii. 2281^.12 

BLESSING (bjanak, from Gael, bennact, beannachd, Lat. 
benedictio), ceremoniously given by Odin to his people before 
starting for the wars or on other business under his orders, 
i. 1230 

BLOOD-BOWLS (blót-bollar, lit. sacrificial bowls), i. 367^. cf. 

BLOOD-FEASTS (blótveizlur), religious festivities in U^per 


Index III 

Thnmdheim accompanying the great bloodofferÍDg cefe-| 
monies, ii. 196^ i97h ] 

BLOOD-LETTING (blólSlát, lata h\á%\ fatal to Earl Eric] 
Hakonson, ii. 27^ iii. 417^ 


I . Sweden. Bíood-ofTeríngs of the 'Æsir ' derive their ( 
from Asgarth (the Ancient), Odin^s eastern residence, where hisl 
twelve Diar did the service of officiating at sacrifices, i- i t^^i^ \ 
— on coming to the end of his northern migration at Old^ig- 
toun in Sweden, Odin set up there the sacrificial rite on the 
old pattern of that of Asgarth, 151(147 ^^is-ia ti-sr^^^^^^'C^Atr- 
ings were made to all Odin^s Diar after their death, and mt^ 
called them their gods, igg^.^a ^^id-ir — ^^^J ^^^^ upheld by 
Niord after Odin's death, 22^.^^ — ^at Upsala by Frey after 
Niord's death, 22^ — ^by Freya, when all the other Diar had 
passed away, ^Znm — ^^^ Swedes sacrificed to Frey (the 
national god) for a long time after his death, 4,^ 241^.15— m 
his cult the chief ceremony was the * sónarblót,' the sacrifice 
of the *Sónar-gÖltr,' the largest boar that could be found 
(Lougobard, Sonorpair : verres qui omnes alios verres in 
grege batuit et vincit^ Sievers, ' Beitrage,' xvi. 540-44) cf 
Hetg. HjörvaríSs,, Bugge I'^Sh^^^^ Hervar. s, ch. 10. The 
usual translation atonement sacriiice, is etymological ly mis- 
leading (cf. O.E* sunor, herd of swine), 32^1— ^it is to this 
primitive divinity of the Swedish race that Odin undertakes 
to sacrifice on behalf of the Swedes, aogg — blood -offering 
festivals ordained by Odin: against winter (in autumn) for 
good year, aoj-.^g — in midwinter for the growth of the earth, 
20jg,|g— at summer = against summer, i.€, in spring, for vic- 
tory (sigrblót), 20|fl^ cf. 62^^; for this seems to be the sami 
festival that Snorri refers to as *the chief blood-offering 
which 'should be at Upsala in the month of Goi (Feb 
March); then should be done blood-offering for peace and 
victory to the king,* ii. iiiaa-ai, — blood-offerings in special 
cases : at Upsala, in the reign of Do maid, to avert persistent 
famine, oxen were sacrificed the first year, human beings the 
second, the king himself the third, the seats of the gods 
being reddened with his blood, i* ^%.^^ — K. Aun sacrificed 
his nine sons for long life to himself, 41 31.32 A^w4Z\6 — *^ 
Olaf Treeshaver, ' little given to blood-offerings,' 1,/., an un- 



Index III 305 

believer, was in time of famine sacrificed by his own subjects 
for the year's increase, ooj^j.^^ — Olaf the Holy's tax-gatherers, 
as intruders in Swedish Jamtland, are designated for blood- 
offering, ii. 295^5.1^ — blood-offerings still in vogue in Sweden 
under Blot-Svein and Eric Year-Seely, end of eleventh and 
beginning of twelfth century, iii. 2851.3 — ^^^Y "^ Sweden are 
sacrifices to the goddesses, dísablót, mentioned, i. 503^.33 

2. Norway. Here the ancient temple of Mere at the nead 
of Thrandheim-firth is the chief centre of heathen worship 
(Odinic cult), although Ladir, first built by Hairfair about 
868, through the religious zeal of the Earls Hakon Griot- 
garthson and Sigurd his son, had become a centre of worship 
for the men of Outer-Thrandheim, already before the reign 
of Hakon the Good (934-61). For the blood-offerings of 
Ladir, see i. 1655- 16617 1681^1 169-170^ — at the temple of 
Mere, in Hakon the Good's time, blood-offerings were carried 
out under the auspices of eight lords, respectively representing 
the eight folklands of Thrandheim, i. 1701Q-17125. But this 
statement is in conflict with others relating to the sacerdotal 
constitution of this temple, the oldest, apparently, in Norway; 
for in Olaf the Holy's time * twelve men took upon themselves 
to carry out the blood-feasts ' (blót-veizla), (which recalls the 
temple constitution of Odin, Diar), ii. 19633.33 — the same 
constitution of the temple service must have prevailed in 01. 
Tryggvison's days; for when, at Mere, he threatens to offer 
the * noblest of men ' in a great sacrifice to the gods, he de- 
signates twelve Thrandheimers thereto, seven of whom (ace. 
to the best MS. authority) Snorri mentions by name, adding 
that 'other five he named withal,' i. 318^^0 »"3^ ?i2 — ^^^^ 
the seasonable arrangement of blood-offenng festivals was 
the same as in Sweden: at winter-nights (Oct. 14), />., in 
autumn, * for the booting [bettering] of the year,' * to wel- 
come the winter,' *cups signed to the Æsir after ancient 
wont,' 'neat were slaughtered there and horses, and the 
stalls reddened with blood,' ii. 1933.12 19627-28 — ^^ midwinter, 
for peace and good winter-season, 19418.18 2»-8i ^9^8 2« — ^^ 
spring (at sumri = towards summer) for the welcoming of 
summer, 1963^ — the midsummer offering (miíSsumars-blót) 
at Mere, i. 31719-28 S^^io ^^ obviously to be a sort of 
show-festival, arranged out of ordinary course, at 01. Trygg- 

VI. X 


Index in [blo — BOI 

vison's special request — blood-offerings of human 
frequent in Sweden, are rare m Norway : Olaf Tryggvisí 
refers to sacrifice of thralls and evil-doers as a matter 
custom,!, 3193.4 — ^Earl Hakon is alleged to hare sacrificed 
his son Erling to Odin, for victory over the JomsvildÐgST 
28327 — individual sacrifices i Raud the Strong * busy in 
blood-ofTerings,' 329^^ — Sigurd of Thrandness held the three 
blood-offering festivals every year, ii. 2143^.31— blood-offi 
houses (blót'hús), private temples, 204^5,2^5—01. the Hoi] 
punishments for bloodofferings, 403,,^ 
BLOW (blása), a technical term variously applied to indical 
signalling by trumpet; blow up (blása), to give the signal, 
3623^, — blow the warblast (blása herblástr), to give signal ft 
attack, i. 1785.7 ii. 571» 32t<í iii- 364 707.^ "^^V^.^ 2411« l^ 
444.^^ 45 ^ — blow (people) together (bl monnum, her, saman, 
^' 3392*^ "Í- 13^19— blow for departing (bl til brottlogu), i 
361^4 — blow up for the gathering together of ships {bL til 
samlogu skipum)j i, 366^^ — blow a gathering for the gu; 
(hi til hir^stefnu), ii, 1 30^.3 — blow to a thronged assembl 
(bl* til fjolmennrar stefnu), ii, 1845^— blow for a Thi 
(bl. til >ings), ii. 20328.3g a 88 jp iii. 8421^ jSóig^blow 
host for the ships (bl. HíSi til ski pa), ii. 354^^ iii» 4680.1^ — blow 
to landwending (blása til land^ongu), iii, 170^ — blow foIk_ 
up after (the leader) (blása liíSi upp eptir . . .), 301 ^i^g^- 
blow the host to a busting (blása li^i til hustings), 404^' 
blow the host up (for a muster) (blása lÍÍSÍ upp), 4231^» — 
blow folk out (to confront an enemy) (blása UíSi út)^ 207^^ 
BOARDING (of a ship) (uppganga), i. 372^^ ii, 59^ 6 o^ 
coll.)j the household troops of a king or magnate; Hi 
Hairfair's, 1. 901Q 983^ 991^ — Hakon the Good's^ 1501^ 183^ 
Earl Hakon Sigurdson's, 338^1 — Olaf Tryggvison*s» consisi 
both of natives and foreigners. 352^134— Olaf Haraldson^ap 
numbering sixty^ their service and wages being r^ulated by 
special laws, ii* 6733^— their great dormitory within the king*s 
residence, ÓS^.^ — many shared donnitory with the king himj 
^^5í0-í& ^f' ^33ao5a — murder ofj by blind K* Rœrek's plottti 
1 29^^ 31 gg^sign ailed to gather on an emergency, 1303 — Th< 
arinn Nefjolfson incorporated in K. Olaf^s guard, 13510 it" 




BOi — bon] Index III 307 

so alsoGowk-Thorir and Afrafasti on being baptized, 3995.91 — 
K. Olaf takes frequent counsel with his body-guard when K. 
Knut threatens invasion, 34621-3473 — K. Olaf's guard in the 
centre at Sticklestead, 40014 — K. Olaf the Swede's guard at- 
tend him at Upsala Thing, 11810.11 15-1« — ^ ^^^s Earl Rogn- 
vald's him on the same occasion, ii8ig — K. Onund of 
Sweden, on being elected ten years of age, surrounds himself 
with a body-guard, 165^4 — he places officers of it at Olaf 
Haraldson's disposisd for the reconquest of Norway, 39X18^1 — 
K. Magnus the Good, eleven years of age, establishes his 
body-guard on being proclaimed King of Norway, iii. 731 — as 
Earl of Denmark Svein Wolfson surrounds him with a body- 
guard, 3 1 21 — ^Asmund, a prince of the blood royal, punished 
for ribaldry by being relegated to the body-guard of K. Svein 
Wolfson, ii7i9 — Harald Sigurdson's in his ill-starred raid 
on Jutland, 9814 — Olaf the Quiet* s body-guard, commanded by 
Skuli *the son of Tosti,' 18319.30 consisted of one hundred 
(=5 1 20) persons, 1943 — K. Hakon Magnuson's body-guard, 
20521 — Harald Gilli's, 3143 — sixty of whom fell in the battle 
of Fyrileif, 31734 — ^recruited by many of the followers of Mag- 
nus the Blind, 33410 — refuse to acknowledge Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon king after the murder of their lord, 3444 — they settle 
with Queen Ingirid the succession after Harald's death,347^.j3 
— Magnus the Blind's former body-guard gather round him 
again on his leaving the monastery of Monkholm, 34910 — 
K. Ingi Haraldson's, 35515 3^7i7 3^^8 — ^- Sigurd Harald- 
son's, i87ig 35924 — ^- Eystein Haraldson's, 38530.21 

BOIL OF THE THROAT (kverkasuUr), cured by Olaf the 
Holy, ii. 38329-38480 

BONDER, GOODMAN (búandi, bóndi), a free householder, 
husbandman; took in Norway rank in the social scale below 
the * franklin,' höldr, q.v. The copious references are due to 
the consideration that in Norway particularly the history of 
the country is so intimately bound up with the traditional 
rights and customs of this originally the most powerful class 
of society, which steadily declines in importance as royal 
power and hierarchical supremacy gain in ascendancy, i. 6831 

931518 963-7 lOSsi-IO^i 15-1075 S2-I08e I49W-I5O28 l60u>.28 
16431 l65g.i4 16621.22 25 1672 18 29 88 '^85 12 ig ig 24 ^^^Vii 25 
I7O8O I7I6 12 l7Sl9 80 I«l2 1S34 20785 «1324 «1725 2l8,^ 14.1« 


Index HI [bon — boo 

(319^ Iceland) {^2%^ Esthonia) %^^ 173^ ^7^ t it ^^^: 
^9*>i*^ifi 29i*i «1 nn ^93iKW 3» ^94ii 295»i ^9^^ t »97iHr 

30311 3041« M 30Sf tf 1* n » 309, $l6jg jy gi 317^ ^ jy 3 

3«»i » 3i9u 17 » 33*^ 13 ir Ja's & U^vr^- 33f4 
47t 4 e u w *s 4Sa |^ ^ SOj, 54^ 55^ ^ 65^ 68^ 69^, 70^^ 
75jT 7611 ift 77i» u IT IS n 7^1 14 ir 79ia 85^ 86« 106^ 1 
109» ii3i 10 "81 » liOia i2i„ 152^ 155« 165« t7t^ 
» tr K 11 * 73i í89j5 J, \^y^ igi^ j^ í93s is k »a *94i n « tr 
K í95i s 18 w » ^<*^fi 1« *«>4i « u ^**5f» ^o^!t tt i4 2« so ^^J 

308j , 2092, ^ 2Jí6^^ ajl^ ^ 231^ j4 233. ^ 10 17 » it 234 

a37io ^^7ii í9S«T 33011« 345i* 346^0 %^^x% 3S4ii359_ 
3^3« 4s «T 3Ö4i« 3Ö5t w 3^2! 3^71 397» u 39^2 7 n 400^, 401 
» 402ft ig 83 4í>3ié 404i 4064^ » 4097 4103ft 4 ilj r 
4*338 414, * iMfl 416.1 417« 3t 433» 434i6 435ii 1« tr 4ai 
427« i»fi 4^8* a « T as 43% 4367 437io i* ss 4385 e 439u 44 J 
4465 it 447io so 4501T— iii' 7 IT ^7 It ifi 1« s« ti 9fi ^iir^4« 
^6í9 47si S720 ^ 981s ifs io2i io7s» n ^^^i » *o* u i& »1 a ' * >» 
"Sifl i 183 i32„ 13831 i40tft 1421* 1455 ^^% i49iö iS3n*í 55i 
»7921 í99(» í05i5 aai^ 243» MOg-o V^^x^ s? 3i7t 3»^» » 3^91 
344ft lu 3704 1, 373ifi so 374* 4ooi 40281 4I9i».m ta 4*05S^« 4*li, 
4496 17 80 45644 so 4S9aft 37 » 460| ^g 4618^^ ^ 4791^ ,^ ,| 

4SS16 16 

BONDFOLK (ánau^igt folk), slaves employed as herds and 

herdesses, i. 491,^15 

BONDMAID, S€€ Bondwoman. 

BOND SLAVES (state of, ánauíSX i^ ^tg^ 

BONDWOMAN (ambatt), L 49,^— ii- 160^1— iii. 115^,^ 

BOOK (bók), all written in golden letters, />., the pleo 

brought from the East to Norway by Sigurd Jeru5alen)4arei, 

iii. ^^^^^ 289^ g 1^.^^ 3iOj,g 

BOOTH (bdiS)j literally a dwelling, but specially a shed ge^e^ 

ally tilted over (tjölduíS) at a * Thing-stead,* where, during the 

business of the Thing, q.v., the chief men with their retainers 

took up their abode, ii. 2431ft 3^51 2 us V=>^\^ 3o7t V^Hk 309» h 

— booth tilted, 306^ ^ jjj 12 — oais (pallr) in a booth, 3073 ^ 308^1 

BOOTH FELLOWS (bú^arliíS), attendants on a chief during 

the session of a Thing, when a booth is his habitation, ii, 309, 

BOOTH -MAN (búlSarma^r), one of such an attendance, ii« 309^ 

BOOTH-MATE (bdSunautr), a fellow^inmate of a booth, " 



BOR — bul] Index ill 309 

BORROWS (giskr), mutually given and taken on peace being 
established between the kings of Norway and Denmark, iii. 
I4834'i49g^given by Hising bonders to Eyst, Haraldson, 
3746 14— cf' Hostage, 

BOUNDARY disputes between Norway and Sweden í under 
Harald Hairfair^ i. 10513-10822 109^,^-1 lOj^j— under Hakon 
the Goodf 163^22 ii- 2762^.31 — under Olaf the Holy, ii. 761- 

7835 íi8ao-ii92 rio 276ar277n <^f- "»- 26325-^6432 
BRAGI'CUP (Bragafull), a cup which an heir should empty at 

a heirship- feast on succeeding to his father's lordship; the 

ceremony described, i. sSj^.^g 
BRAND (dill), an indelible mark, Lat stigma, iii. i6ij| 
BRASS (eir), more correctly copper, iii. 30920 
BREAD (braulS), baked in heated ovens, iii. 12515.^0 
BREAD-BASKET (brauíS-kass), L z%%^^ 
BRIBE (miita), ii. 3073^^ 
BRIBERY by Knut the Mighty, Íí. 3293.J3 33 S21-33620 ^vu 

3422Ú-343U 37^37921 
BRIDAL ESCORT, described, ii. 1523^^ j^.i,^ 

BRIDAL FEAST (veizla, brullaup), to dnnk a (drekka), ii, 

BRIDGE (brii), across water, 111. 4203^ 45 3^^ 
BRIDGES (bryggjur): 

1. Piers at which ships could be berthed (also, less ac- 
curately, translated 'gangways'), 1. laSiT-jg 33523 s* "- i95m 
2Ö426 M "^' 3^7i9 n 4^*='ais 401» ^g 4173 ,0 19 439aö^ 

2. Gangways, movable, carried on board ship, ii. 265^ 
iii. 40ii(, 

BRIMSTONE (brennisteinn), mixed with wax, used for tinder, 

iii. 64n 
BROTH (soi), of horseflesh drunk at blood-offerings, 1* 1692Y 

— of a sodden dog (hundssoíS) cast upon the tomb of King 

Eystein Haraldson to put a stop to miracles taking place 

there, iii, 396J 
BULL (griiSungr), fed up for sacrifice, grew wild and killed 

maiiy people, King Egil of Upsala the last^ i. 452g-46|(j — re* 

presenting the guardian spirit of the family of Thord the 

Yeller, in Western Iceland, í69g.nj 
BULUS-HORN (dyrs horn), drinking horn, used when Bragi's 

cup was emptied, i. sSa^.^g 

Index III [bur^by- 


BURG (borg), a fortress made of turf and timber with a moi 
round it in KvaldinVisle» iii. 2272.9 ^*^- Sarpsburg— burgs 
distinguished from castles^ 259^ 

BURIALS: burning (brenna) the dead, ordained by Odiii, 
30g— ^tiie dead should be burnt on a bale-fire togethef 
some of their chattels, standing stones being set up 
monuments over them, 4^7,1^ ao^^.j^— the ashes were canted 
out to sea, or buried in the earth, a mound being raised over 
noble lords, and standing stones oi^er men of fame, 30|m— 
the higher the smoke rose the more exalted ^ in heaven^ would 
be the dead^ and the richer, the more treasun^ was buHed 
with him, aig^ — burning the dead on a pyre on board shi] 
a very famous funeral rite enacted on himself by iC Haki 
Sweden^ 401^,3^— burning of Odin, asj^ — of Vanland, z^^^ 
of Domar, zo^.^ — of Agni, 34^^— Burning agk (bmnaol 
the period dunng which the dead were disposed of by bui 
ing their bodies, 417^3— lasted in Sweden and Norway h 
after the mound age came into vogue, ^^.^ — Mound a^ 
(haugaöld), the era when laying the bodies of the dead íö ^ 
barrow or mound (haugr) came into fashion, originated ii 
Sweden with Frey being laid in barrow at Upsala, j^yjta ^3ii^sg 
^and in Denmark when Dan the Proud was laid in mound 
with all his kingly raiment^ armour, horse and saddle gear, 
besides plenteous wealth, 4^.^ — burying one*s self alive in a 
howe with a chosen company and plentiful store of victuals and 
drink, an alternative preferred by K. Heilaug of Naumdale 
to giving himself into Hairfair's power, 972^^— Earl Sigiud 
of Orkney buried in a howe at Oikel-bank in Scotland, 1165^ 
— fallen warriors buried in ships with mounds heaped owr 
them at Frœdisberg, iSoj.^ — Hakon the Good buried in a 
great howe, all armed with the best of his array, hut with 
wealth beside, and his men spake such words over his grm^ 
as heathen men had custom, wishing him welfare to Valhalt, 
i88.í5,3(j^Halfdan the Elack^s body divided and laid in mound 
in four separate folklands, S6.>g-S75 

BURIED TREASURE (jarSfe), where hidden, 
Odin, i. 19^ 

BUTTER-KEG (smjor-hlaupr, cf- prov. Engl, leap, 

BY-MEN (byjar-menn), to?*iis-foIk, íii. 400^^ 


d in mound 
known bfl 
, basket), ^1 

BYR— CAv] Index III 3 1 1 

BYRNY (brynja), see Weapons, i, defensive. 

CABLE (ka%all), drawn between two ships, and pulled in when 
a third craft passed, so as to capsize it, ii. 30^ — (tengsl) 
whereby ships where lashed together in action, oo^, 

CALDRON (ketill), in which the flesh of sacrificed animals 
was cooked over fires on the floor of the temple, i. 16522^ 

CALTROPS, see Weapons, 2, offensive. 

CAMP-FOLLOWERS: many staff'-carles (stafkarlar), ue., old 
men leaning on sticks, followed either army, as well as poor 
people, who begged their meat, at Sticklestead, ii. 44415-10 

CANDLE (kerti), for use in holy worship, i. 331 27 — a large, 
given by thralls in Jamtland as song-reward to a guarded 
prisoner, ii. 297^2 — ^^8^^ ^^ ^ seen burning over the spot 
where the body of Olaf the Holy was secreted at Stickle- 
stead, 44 7i5.2o— candles light of their own accord on the altar 
where Olaf the Holy was enshrined, 4603.4 cf. 4599.12 

CANDLE-PAGE, CANDLE-SWAIN (kertisveinn), servant in 
the king's court, whose duty it was to hold a lighted candle 
before the king's table during meals, and while drinking went 
on, iii. 19310 28914 

CANON-LAW (kristinn réttr), for Norway framed by Olaf the 
Holy, with the assistance of his court bishop Grimkel, ii. 

CAPITULATION, of a garrison, having to run the gauntlet 

on evacuating the fort : as they went out each of them was 

whipped with twigs (er ))eir gengu út, ))á var hverr ))eira sleginn 

límahögg), iii. 22812.J6 
CARTING (aka), cartmg com, ii. 353 279^4 
CASK OF MEAD (mja«ar-bytta), ii. 1264 12715 
CASTING OUT of children (at bera út böm), a heathen 

usage in Iceland, permitted after the conversion of the island 

to Christianity, ii. 697.3 
CASTLE (kastali), a great, erected by K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 

farer at Kings' Rock of turf and stone, with a great dyke 

(mote, diki) round it, iii. 2782.4 327^2 32^14 329^2 3308 33ii6 

3327 Cf. Burg. 
CATTLE, neat, oxen (naut) slaughtered for heathen sacrifices, 

i. i65i5 ii. 1938.10 
CAVALRY (riddarar, hestaliíS), in Kaisar Otto's army invading 

Denmark, i. 2551^ — in Harald Godwinson's army at Stam- 


Index HI [cav — chiJ 

ford-bridge^ UL 1712^ i?^!^^ '73i-s — ^ '^^ heatheo aimy 

PeziDa, 43 Oi 
CAVE (hellir), in the island of Forminterray occupied as 

stronghold by Moorish pirates, iii. 252^^-253^^ — in the pi^ 

cipices on Cleughfirth in Halogalaiid, wjnter abode of Sij 

SI embi -Deacon and his band, 356^^^ 
CENSER (gló^ar-ker), used far testing the inflamoiabiljtf 

Olaf the Holy's hair cut after death, ii, AS^\%m 
CHAFFER-FARINGS (kaupferíSir), merchant voyages, ii. 

S126-S311 25V265 iii. 33B5 

CHAINS, of gold and silver {viíSjar or silfri ok gulli), 
for the dog-king Saur, i, 1 62, — of iron (jam), drawn acr< 
Stocksound to stop thoroughfare from the lake Malar, 
7i4iö — of ^^^^ {jám-rekendr)í across the strait of the Goldeo 
Horn at Constantinople in Harald Sigurdson*s time^ iii, 75^ 
— of iron, with wooden spars (sumt meS viSum), laid acro! 
the bight at Bergen to bar Harald GilH's approach to 
town, 322^,4 3331 

CHAIR, STOOL (stoll), provided at the open-air Thing 
Upsala for the king and the chief men, ii 1 1 §10 le 21 5^ 

CHALICE (kalekr), belonging to the cathedral of Skakhall 
formerly a drinking cup, 'board-beaker' (bor^ker), in 
Harald Gilli's possession, and presented by him to bish^ 
Magnus Einarson, iil 33S1J.J5 3361.9 


CHAMPIONS (kappar), warriors peerless in skill of 
seem to have been the class of men who afterwards, in Haral 
Hairfair's army, went under the names of Bareserks and \\q\ 
coats; twelve such in sea-king Hakims company (Harald's 
bareserks were also twelve), i. z\^^ ^tt 4°i 4Si7 

CHAPEL (kapella), erected to Olaf the Holy i^* a street w 
Constantinople where he had appeared to his brother Harali 
and promised him delivery from prison, iii. 731^,20 

CHAPMEN (kaupmenn), i, 2292ÍÍ. 345^ 423*4 iii- ^9^14 J^7ji^' 
— merchant men (kaupskip), 2991» 328^ ^ 

CHARACTER READING, an accompUshment posseted 
by Dale Redson of Eastern-Dales, Norway, Íi. 340|^,j^ ^^ 

CHEAPING, Chippingham, Cheapingstead (kaupangr), tin 
market place, th€ trading town^ a current term for Nido] 



CHE — chr] Index III 3 1 3 

from the days of Olaf Haraldson, ii. 27533 3® 2« 45424 4^^ — 
"i- 7i6 3526 10422 20614 21 207i8 2o8i 21018 23324 23720 2387 
26920 275i5 2848 3155-« 34825 35780 359i6 20 3^914 370» 391» 
26-26 41580 41610 43821 44121 447ii 20 48118 
CHE APING-SHIPS (kaupskip), merchant men, 1. 25455 iii. 

44124 4425 

CHEAPING-STEADS (kaupsta«ir), rose much in Norway and 
flourished in the reign of Olaf the Quiet, iii. 192^1, 

CHEAPING VOYAGES (kaupfer«ir), i. 2898 n 300^ n 

CHECK, V. (skækja), of a move in the game of chess: * skæk^i 
(skáka^i) riddara af konungi,' not, as translated, ' checked 
the king's knight,' but gave check and took the king's (Knut's) 
knight, il 3261C.19 

CHESS (skák-tafl), played by King Knut and his brother-in- 
law, Sept. 29th, 1028, ii. 3265.^ 1Y.21 

CHESSBOARD (taflbor«), ii. 326« 21 

CHEST, I (arka), an ark, a large chest on feet, ii. 297^0.21 — 2. 
(kista), a portable chest, i. 28034.26 iii- 394i — 3« (lik-kista, or, 
shorter, lasta), lyke-chest, a coffin, ii. 44725 27 2» 4485 6 21 

455i4 16 20 21 . 
CHIPS (spænir, sing, spánn), whittled from a wooden pin on 

a Sunday by Olaf the Holy, burnt by himself in the hollow 

of his hand for penance, ii. 385^.20 
CHOIR (kórr), the chancel in a church, ii. 1318 32710 iii. 31011 

CHOIR-COPE (kantara-kápa), cf. A.S. cantercappa, a bishop's 

cope, ii. 20528 
CHRISTIANITY (kristni), K. Athelstan had Hakon the Good 

christened in England, and he was a good Christian, i. 1414^ 

18 — also Hakon's brother, Eric Bloodaxe, with his wife and 

children, 15222-28 20I12.18 

Propagation of: 

I. In Norway. Hakon the Good has to keep secret his 

Christian observances, all his subjects being heathen, i. 16325- 

i64y — his endeavours to convert tíie people of no avail, 16411- 


The sons of Eric Bloodaxe broke temples and images, but 
made no converts, i. 2011J.18 

Harald Gormsson of Denmark, having become King of 
Norway after Harald Greycloak, takes active interest in con- 


Index III 


verting the Norwegians, but when Svein, his son, succ^ 

a general lapse back to paganism followed, i joticfc-jo^^ 

Okf Tryggvison converts the people of the Wick, i, l^t-^^ 
303i3~of Rogaland, 3043 ^-30 5 ^^^of Hordland* aoo^-joy— of 
Sogn, Firths, South-Mere, Raumsdale, 308^^-3094 — of North- 
Mere, 3^95^— of Ringrealm, 3103^,3^ 3>ii3n— ^f Thrand- 
helm, 318^-3211^— of Halogaland, 324-334* 

The Eails Eric and Svein Hakonsons, though pa^ns 
thernselves, let every one do as he liked with re^rd to 
Christianity, ii. 73^3,24 

Olaf the Holy has a court bishop and court clergy, iL 
6730^1 — ^^ frames church law for Norway by the counsel of 
the bishop and other clerks, ^^x^.^ — ultimately the * bondeis' 
submitted to these laws, 683^.3^— these laws he has read out 
at every public assembly in 1017 on his progress south along 
the land, ii. 7313.30 — when he began his reign, the marinmc 
folklands were Christian, but ignorant of canon law, while 
inland the people were all heathen, 7325-743 — reasons why 
Christianity sped better in the Wick than elsewhere in Nor- 
way, So.^-Si^ — ^Olaf's ways with stubborn heathens, 7333* 74* 
io3|.27 — King Rœrek's disbelief in the gospel, i3iiT^i^01ar 
finds Christianity in a most backward state from Ui>ptír 
Thrandbeim to Halogaland, i89j4.jq — has the law of tbe 
church promulgated in these parts accompanied by the in- 
fliction of severe penalries where called for, 1911^ — Haloga*^ 
land christened again, ig^i^j. — all Thrandbeim coDvertedyfl 
^97is'i9^* — Gudbrandsdale christened, aooi^-aogj — Heath- ^^ 
mark, Thotn, Hadaland, Ringrealm, Raumrealm, Sol- isles, 
converted, ao9(j-2iOg — Vors, 231^*232^ — Valdres, 232J5-2341 
—Olaf ready to accept military service at Sticklestead froÉil 
robbers and waylayers provided they let themselves be bap- 
tized, 394s.n 2j'39SiB 399&3i — ^^ turns away five hundred whi 
refused baptism, 3981^-399^ 

a. Denmark. Keisar Otto converts* at the point of th< 
sword, K. Harald Gormson and his host to Christianity, K^n* 
975» Í- 25318-28 35511-3573»— ííarald's way of converting hi' 
subjects, 3oii»^K 

3. Sweden. Snorri is silent about propagation of Christi- 
anity in Sweden, knowing only the militar>* conversion of the 
Smalknds by K« Sigurd Jerusalem -far er, iij. 284^-2^5^ ^^ 

CHR — CHu] Index III 315 

4. Orkney, Shetland, Faroe: Olaf Tryggvison converts 
Earl Sigurd, son of Lodver, and his Orkney subjects to 
Christianity, i. 29032-2913 ii. 169^9^^ — O^ ^^ Holy keenly 
interested in the progress of Chnstianity in all these islands, 

5. Iceland. Olaf Tryggvispn's measures for converting the 
people: mission of Thangbrand, i. 3235^ 33?ir:340io— Ice- 
landers baptized in Norway, 33414-3388 — Christianity made 
law in Iceland, 5^ 617 73 ^ 35410.25 — Olaf the Holy earnestly 
interested in Chnstianity m Iceland, ii. 69^.22 

6. Greenland. Leif Ericson, christened by Olaf Tryggvison, 
undertakes to convert Greenland, i. 34115.20 SSSsir 

CHRIST'S SCATHE (kristni-spell), offence against Christian 

ordinances, such as eating horseflesh, casting out children, 

etc., ii. 6822 69^ 
CHRIST'S MEN (Krists men), part of the watchword in Olaf 

the Holy's army at Sticklestead, ii. 4003^ 42713 
CHURCHES (kirkjur), first erected in Norway by Hakon the 

Good, i. 16423.29 — *^^ o^ these burnt down in Northmere 

by the incensed heathens, 17020^ — localities where churches 

are mentioned : 

Agdirness: church erected there by K. Eystein Magnusson, 
iii. 26311.12 

Alburg, Jutland: Mary's church, burial place of Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 36720.25 — ^"d of Olaf the Unlucky, 


BiORGViN : Apostles' church, erected within the * King's garth' 

by K. Eystein Magnusson, iii. 2639.^ 

Christ's church *the Old,' * Ancient,' *the Old out on the 
Holme,' the earliest cathedral, a wooden fabric, com- 
pleted by K. Olaf the Quiet, iii. 19217.13 — burial place 
of K. Harald Gilli and his son, K. Sigurd, 34422^ 

Christ's church, the later cathedral, a great stone church, 

'reared from the ground sill by Olaf the Quiet, but little 

was done of it' in his lifetime, 19215.17 
Michael's church on Nordness, burial place of the hanged 

bishop Reinald, 32422.23 
Nicolas church, 41813 
Olaf's church, K. Harald Gilli vowed to build a church 

^iM s cnapei, 73i5-20 
Force, the church of, b 

»i- 39521-25 

Olaf the Holy, buildi 

Iona: Columbkill churcl 
by K. Magnus Barefoc 
Kings'-Rock: Castle ch 
Cross church (Kross k 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem 
consecrated 1127, ri 
which was a chip of t 
from Jerusalem, iii. 2) 
and destroyed by We 
London : Olaf 's church, i 
Paul's church, burial pi 


Most (Island of): Olaf ' 
church in Norway, i. 29 

Nidoyce: Christ's churcl 
mason and his men, on 
to Nidoyce, waked it n 
Saurlithe, ii. 44833^ — b 
had moved further up i 
sandhill, where it lay fro 
whenitwflQ /i"" 


Index III 317 

been, 45715.17 iii. 1959.14 — ^^^ ^^ occasion of the consecra- 
tion of this church, K. Olaf 's shrine was removed thither 
from Clement's church and placed over the high altar, 
^95i4i« — Archbishop Eystein's great minster which now 
standeth {i.e. his extension of the cathedral) left undis- 
turbed the position of the altar, ii. 45712.16 — the spear with 
which King Olaf foxight at Sticklestead * now standeth be- 
side the altar of Christ's church,' 41310.11 — the burial place 
of Olaf the Quiet, iii. 20210.1,; ®^ ^ Olaf Magnusson, 
277^12^ of iC £y stein Magnusson, 2843^; of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, 4479.12 

Clement's church, the first church built in Nidoyce by Olaf 
Tryggvison, restored by Olaf the Holy, ii. 6429.30 — bis 
body removed from the sandhill where it had been first 
buried, and laid in earth in Clement's church, 455ii.^r — 
twelve months and five days after the death of the kmg, 
it was translated to the high altar in this church, 45517- 
4572 — (here K. Magnus the Good placed the shrine he 
made for his father, iii. 163.28) — the bell called Glad 
given to the church by K. Olaf, 3524.26 — ^- Magnus the 
Good laid in earth at Clement's church, where then was 
the shrine of his father, 935.7 20622 
Gregory's church, built by Harald Hardredy, iii. 10511.12 
John's church, iii. 481 17 
Margaret's church, buUt of stone by the Drinking Guild in 

Nidoyce, iii. 19223.24 
Mary's church, reared by Harald Hardredy on * the Mel,' 
nigh where the body of K. Olaf had lain in earth the 
first winter after his fall, iii. 10430-1053 — broken down 
by Archbishop Eystein, 1053^ — the holy relic of K. Olaf 
removed to ttus church when it was finished, 105^.3 — the 
burial place of Harald Hardredy, 18413.20 — ^y tbe north 
door of this church were cut in the stone marks show- 
ing the height of the three kings, Olaf the Holy, Harald 
Hardredy his brother, and the litter's grandson, Magnus 
Barefoot, 233^.3^ 
Nicolas church, built by K. Eystein Magnusson within the 
' king's garth,' and done with much care, both of carvings 
and other work, iii. 26313.1^ 
Olaf 's church, built on the spot where stood the waste out- 

Index III 

house within which the body of 01 af was walced by 

Thorgils Halmason and his men the night after it arrived 

to Nidoyce, ii. 457n-2o — ^'^ building of it begun by 

Magnus the Good, and completed by Harald Hardredy, 

iii, 1 0421 .^^ 2ö-2s^^^^ ^^^ church was removed from 

Clement's church the holy relic of St. Olaf, and here it 

was kept while Mary*s church was building, io5(^g^ 

probably the body of Magnus the Good was moved here 

from Clement's church at the same time, for here, beside 

the tomb of K. Magnus, were buried Einat Thambar* 

skelfir and Eindrid his son, 1049, iTo^^.^g 

Oslo: Hallward*s churchy burial place of K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 

farer, iii, 3iOjtj,|^— burnt down by Danes, 353^ — rebuilt, it 

received the body of K. Magnus the Blind, 3673^.^ and of 

K. Ingi Haraldson, 4271^5- — used for a council-chamber by 

K. Hakon Shoulderbroad and his party, 427171^^ 

Roskild: Lucius church, richly endowed by K, Knut, in 

atonement for the murder of his brother-in-law, Earl Wolf, 

it* 3276-23 

Sarpsburg : Mary*s church, reared within the castle by Olaf 

the Holy, ii. 79^ 
THmGWALL in Iceland: (Olafs church), built of timber 
given for the purpose by Olaf the Holy, wherewith he also 
sent *a great bell which is there still,' ii* ^A'^w\% — ^* HaraJd 
Hardredy also presented a bell to this church, iii, 1033,^ 
Vagar: church erected by K. Eystein Magnusson, iii. ^^Zwxi 
Valdres : churches built and consecrated about the distnct 
by Olaf the Holy, ii- 234^10 
CLEARING WOODS {r>«ja mörk, r, markir)» K. Olaf Tre^ 
shaver*s method of colonization, i. 65 14-1 g — ^ ^^ which Erling 
Skialgson set his freedmen that they might set up a house of 
their own, ii, i%^^.2\ 
CLOISTER (klaustr), monastery (at Holme, in Thrandheim 

bay), iii. 334£, 34838 ao 
CLOTH, fit for royal robes of state (pell), obtained ffom 

Novgorod, ii, Sij^.^^ 
CLOTHES, s€€ Raimeiit— Robes, 
CLUB (klubba, rudda), a weapon of attack, always borne by 

Kolbein the Strong, K. Olaf the Holy's attendant, ii. 206^1^ 
COLLAR (men), of precious melaJ round Jomali's neck, robbed 

COL — cor] Index III 3 1 9 

by Karli of Longisle, ii. 26215.22 — claimed by Thorir Hound 
it becomes the cause of Karli's death and falls into Thorir's 
possession, 26381-26411 26512.23 ^^Qio-aö 

COLONIZATION r—of wild woodlands in Sweden by K. Road- 
Onund, i. 5417.25 — likewise by a number of younger sons of 
kings of Sweden from the days of Agni to those of Ingiald 
Evilheart, 5714.23 — of Vermland, by Olaf Treeshaver, 6511^21 
66g — by Norwegians of Iceland and the Faroes, partly of 
Shetland, 11322-24 — ^^ lamtland, ii3ig 1621^.24 1634.58.19 "• 
2768-12 14-18 cf.iii. 26325-26422— of Helsingland, i. 1131^ 16235.2^ 
cf. 163^.821.22 li- 27612.1419.20 

COMBING HAIR (grei«a hár), the famous act by Rognvald of 
Mere on Harald Hairfair, whose hair had not been cut or 
combed for ten years, i. 117^ 

CONFIRM (biskupa), to perform the ecclesiastical act of con- 
firmation ; in the case of K. Olaf s converts to Christianity on 
the eve of the battle of Sticklestead, confirmation followed 
immediately on baptism, ii. 3992$ 

CONSECRATE (vigja), 'hallow': Jon Byrgison consecrated 
first Archbp. of Nidoyce, 1152, iii. 37920-80 — Eystein, his 
successor, 45615 — Bishop Brand to Holar, 461 21 — Cross 
church, Kings' Rock, consecrated, 30924 310^.7 

COOK (steikari), i. 3161 

COPPER-PENNIES (eir-penningar), current in Sweden in 
the days of Frey, were poured into his howe through one 
of the three windows in it, in payment of Frey*s scat, i. 


CORN (kom), grown all over Norway up to Halogaland ; great 
failure of, in the reign of the sons of Gunnhild, i. 2181^^.32 — 
plenteous harvests of, when Earl Hakon succeeded to the 
rule of Norway, 2423^54 — cutting of, and harvesting described, 
^' 357-10 ^^' 2791415 — S'^^^ scarcity of, through northern 
Norway in Olaf the Holy's reign, 19220-29 21029.30 21I4.11 
2151218 25-27 80"2i68 30-82 217» 88-21922— ^om packed in skin 
(belgr), iii. 217^ 

CORONATION (konungs vigsla), Harald Godwinson's in 
St. Paul's, iii. 1581^.17 — performed for the first time in Nor- 
way, 1 165, when Archbishop Eystein crowned K. Magnus 
Erlingson, iii. 4625-464. 

CORPSE-FARE (likfer«), the journey of Thorgils Halmason 

^uywuiL (rá«uneyti), í 
^^'! young son Sigurd ai 
principal buildings at a 1 

COUNTY (hexa«)faS 
mark, m. 28^« 

king's bodyguard summc 


^^URT-HALL (hir«stofa) 
either end, the king's hiV 
middle of one of the loc 
high-seat in the same ma 
Qhi?"^j *«^~'"'^ %ht ai 

COURT M^'^/^*=°"«h^l 
Olaf Haraldson (the Hoh 

dnink by lit fires/court aS 
& V^ the guard suK 
amll^ dormitory for bodj 
,Vir •u^'*'^^ personal hí 
fL^"í*' transaction of pu 

cou — CRo] Index III 321 

d^ee, — candle-swains (kertisveinar) held lighted 
candles before the king's table as many as men of distinction 
were present, 19310.18 — ^ 'trapeza' was placed on the hall 
floor, apparently, reserved for washing of hands, 19318 — the 
marshal's chair (stallarastóll) was so placed that the occupant 
should turn towards the king's high-seat, 19314.15 — before K. 
Olaf s days the kings of Norway drank out of horns, had ale 
borne round the fires, and toasted whomso they pleased, 
'93i6w — ^- OlaPs body-guard numbered one hundred ( = 1 20), 
the guests sixty, the house-carles sixty, these latter being em- 
ployed in bringing into court what goods were wanted, and 
to do whatever the king wanted done, 1948.7 

Swedish : K. Hugleik had in his court all kinds of minstrels, 
harp-players, jig-players, fiddlers, spell-workers, and all kind 
of cunning folk, i. 3782-3^2 — ^^ the Swede had attending at 
dinner in his hall players with harps, gigs, and other musical 
instruments, and special servants to pour out the drink, ii. 
i59g^ — he also had always at his court twelve counsellors as 
assistant assessors in adjustments of cases at law, 15917.22 

Russian: The Queen Allogia, as was the wont in those 
days, had one half of the expenses of the body-guard to sus- 
tain, due amount of the revenue of the state being allowed 
her for the purpose, i. 2511.8 

COURT-MEN (hiriSmenn), persons of the body-guard, q.v. ii. 

COW (kýr), worshipped by King Ogvald and laid in howe near 
Ogvaldsness, i. 3157-12 ims 

CROSS (kross), the sign of the Christian cross made over cups 
at heathen festivals so like imto that of Thor's hammer as to 
be allowed by jealous heathens to pass for the latter on the 
plea that such was the sign used by all who believed in 
nothing but their might and main, i. 1691^^ — ^^^t of Olaf 
the Holy's men had the holy cross laid in gold on their white 
shields at the battle off Nesiar, ii. 575^ — a cross was painted 
in white on the front of the helmets of his warriors in the 
same battle, 577.5 — in Snorri's time two crosses were still 
standing at Cross-brent where K. Olaf had rested on his way 
through Wall-dale, ii. 36431.^ — K. Olaf orders the helmets 
and shields of his army at Sticklestead to be marked with the 
Holy Cross in white, 40037.3^ — on his own white shield the 

VI. Y 

► 1 

^lai^cu iL in i^ross Chun 

2785.7 í>-i3 309-.>.vor— it ^'a 
the battle of Fyrileif, 3 
was deposed, when it was 
no information about it 
have been found again, 2 
sack of Kings' Rock, 33 
priest Andreas, 33205 — b 
ship, such heat spread tb 
in dread of burning, 33 
bosom on being set free 1 
boat he was put into to b 
an act supposed to be pro 
Halt, Saga Lib. i. 27^5-2 
brought into safe keepmg 

CROSS-MEN (kross-menn) 
Sticklestead, ii. 40O32 427 

CROW (kráka), made of wo< 
as an ignominious emble 
Vendilcrow, i. 4851.^5 — thr 
indicate to an old interpr 
property of his is hidden ( 


CRUPPER (slagálar), i. 1 
Slagálar were straps attach 
as to be behind the rider's 
objects the rit^f^r v^ant^*^ t 

CUN — dan] Index III 323 

and an axe at the other. Such a stick made of cane with a 
runic calendar engraved on it we have seen in the National 
Museum of Stockholm. It may have been, like the /óajð^, 
a staff of office, the axe, necessarily a small one, being rather 
emblematic of authority, than doing the service of an actual 
weapon. In Heimskringla the use of this object is that of a 
striking rod (* rod gold-wrought'), i. 32027 — of a cudgel, ii. 308 
28 80-88 30910.17— of a (cudgel ? or) staff of authority, iii. 2i5i<j 
— of a staff or rod of state, being * done with silver and gilded,' 
and treated as a suitable gift to a king, 3329.10 — (riíSvölr; ri^, 
from rí^a to knit, weave, voir a stick) prop, a piece of wood 
by which the meshes of a net, when being bound, are measured, 

CUNNING (kunnusta), knowledge of sorcery, see Wizardry. 

CUNNING FOLK (fjölkunnigt folk), wizards, i. 382 

CUP (ker), full of honey-mead, a bewitched love-potion, given 
by Snowfair to Harald Hairfair, i. 1 1923 — (full) see health-cup 
— (minni) memorial toasts, * signed to the Æsir after ancient 
wont,' ii. i937.g 

CURSES : the sons of Visbur imprecate that his gold necklace 
should be the bane (death) of the best man of his kin, i. 28 
15-16 — ^"^ ^^^ witch Huld imdertakes by spell-working to 
effect that * slaying of kin by kin should ever follow the blood 
of the Ynglings,' 2819.23 

CURTFELL, Drapa by, see Poems. 

DAIS (pallr) a raised platform on which the two high-seats on 
either side of a hall were arrayed as well as other seats to 
left and right of the high-seats, i. 5929-601— dais in Thorkel 
Fosterfather's hall at Sand wick, Orkney, ii. 17728 — ^^ Thrand 
o' Gate's Thing-booth in Faroe, 307381 3o8ii----01af the Quiet 
moved the high-seat from the side wall of the hall to the 
high dais athwart it (at the upper end), iii. 1921 

DALE (dalr) : in the allegorical phrase * dale meets knoll ' the 
meaning is that Earl Thorfin will find out that it will be as 
vain for him to endeavour to baffle the power of K. Olaf 
Haraldson as it would be for a knoll to rebel against the 
valley that encompasses it (cf. Olaf's saga, 1853, 978i ^*^* "• 
17934 F"^s. iv. 22520 Laxd. 1342), ii. 18219^ 

DANE-TONGUE, Danish tongue, tongue of the Danes (dönsk 
tunga),the tongue spoken by the North-Germanic races before 

• »-1 




- — - -'-..xiiixx loana 
of Har. Hairfair, in Ireh 
leged to have dealt in a 
law, Halfdan the Black 
DESERTION by husKnd 
—of nine wives by Hara 
hild from Jutland, 114^, 

his queen, Malmfrid,iir 
of his queen, Kristin, 3 

LfiAK, an Irish word, dia = 
in the plural, is coUectivel 
of Asgarth, who were air 
sacerdotal and judicial at 
of the Vanir were raised t 
Asfolk, i4«,,i_all the Di 

.i^'P-'^jgarth to the North, 
inthedaysofNiord, 22„ 

DIE (teningr), play and mi 
Holy, 11. i66,,-i67. 

DOMAIN, j« Fief/' 

DOWER (mundr). given by t 
bur's to his first wife, thr. 

manors, and a gold necklac. 
follows with the bride froir 
the bnde by her euardian fi 


Index III 325 

dreams before great battles, i. 213^33 — dreaming procured by 
sleeping in a swine-sty, 847.1Q — Queen Ragnhild's dream, 83 
14-81 ^4321-88 — KingHalfdan the Black's, 843^ — ^Thrall Kark's, 
i. 29327.32 2942.^ 2963Q-2972 — Earl Hakon's accompanied by 
violent convulsions, 2973.12 — K. Olaf the Holy's, xl 20^^^ 
3S214-38311 3862.5 4i4g.82— K. Magnus the Good's, iiL 35 
i«9 9028-9I7— Gyrd's, 16322-1643— Thord's, 16411.33— K. 
Harald Hardredy's, 1651.14 — naany dreams and forebodings 
went before K. Harald's expedition to England, 16515.1- — 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's, 2694-27034 291^-29210 — Erlmg 
EskeVs at Rydiokul on point of being betrayed, 47522-20 — 
interpretation of dreams a highly esteemed accomplishment, 

"• 34010.11 
DRESS : I. Women's. 

Smock (serkr), i. 83^ — night-sark (nátt-serkr), iii. 42O2 
DRESS : 2. Men's. 

Boot (bóti), iii. 32421 

Breeches (brækr), linen b., strait-laced to the bone, ii. 308 
29-30 — b. with footsole-bands (ilbandabrsekr) used in run- 
ning, iii. 2984.5— blue b., 3402Y 34i2i-?2 

Cap (húfa), silken, gold-embroidered, ih. 3653.4 

Cape (kápa), grey, an over-garment, probably with sleeves, see- 
ing that the wearer was engaged in fieldwork, ii. 3514 iii. 

^ 44526 

Cloak, for want of more technical terms, serves as translation of: 
I. * Feldr,' a square kind of rug, generally about 2 yards 
by about i, of coarse homespun, or of skins, and was 
thrown over the shoulder like a shawl, or over the body 
in lying posture like a rug cover, ii. 29713 30732 — Sigvat's 
phrase: Hideous it is when Thingmen . . . thrust down 
nose into the cloak ' (stinga nösum ni^r í feldi), refers to a 
habit among Norsemen to cover up, partly at least, the 
face when beset by cares or trouble; in casu it refers to 
the general discontent of the king's subjects, iii. 241^.^^ — 
* Varar-feldr,' rug for sale, was practically the same thmg; 
we have translated it *grey cloaks,' because the king's by- 
name shows that the rugs in question were made of home- 
spun and undyed (grey) wool, black and white mixed, i. 
2o8ig 28 80 2091.2 4 (J.7 — six of these rugs or cloaks + six ells 
of wadmal (va^mál), equal in value to half a mark of silver, 


^*^**^=> X pray me,' /.f., 
the land-dues/ ii. ^2^ 

2. Hekla, an over-cl 

3. KÁPA, an over-cloa 
probably without sleevej 
cf. Cape. 

4-. Lo»-Kápa, shag-cl 

outside, i. 265, cf. Fleec 

5. Kilting, not exaci 

rangement of the kirtle 

portable things into was ] 

Thorir Hound poured th( 

cloak (kilting), ii. 262^^ 

infant king Ingi inside hi 

(where the translation *k 

... ^' MÖTTULL, cf. manth 

"»• 6725 472i4--short m, 2 

men of high degree obeye 

that their attendants sho 

shelter, sAh^r 

7;, Skikkja, a sleeveles: 
372 "• 36527— of purple, lir 
red, with tucked-up skirts, 
8. SLŒ«UR,a robe, ore 
one made of pall, much gol 
Ingigerd of Sweden tn nio 


Index III 327 

Coat (bjálfí), made by Finns of reindeer skin (hreinbjálfí), 
which through the thickness of the fur formed a protective 
kind of armour of great excellence, a quality which Snorri, 
following Sigvat, attributes to Finn-wizardry, ii. 3873*^3 
4321-15— (hjúpr) red, worn over the bymy (sur-coat), lii. 
23X15 19 ^ 21 2r7"'^^^» °^ ^^^» ytonn over the shirt (sur-coat), 
with a lion on it, cut out in silk, on back and breast, gules, 
2402^.30 S8~"^^ ordinary skin, see Doublet. 

Cope (kápa), see Fleece-cope. 

Doublet (kösungr), a jacket without sleeves, lined, iii. 1 791^ 
17 = skin-coat (skinn-hjúpr), 17923 

Fleece-cope (lc^kápa), a cape of skin with the fleece or hair 
on, iii. 2i5iy 

Hat (höttr), i. 12120 — worn over helmets for disguising pur- 
pose, i. 18527 "• 7728 ^"- ^725 47^14 — ^wide-brimmed, vííSr, 
grey, grár, ii. 3515— slouch, si«r, 22128 30823— a wide, iii. 
'3^9 18 — ^ bowl-hat (skál-hattr), peculiarity uncertain, 21517 
— Irish, 2985 

Hose (hosur), blue, ii. 3513 — Cordovan hose (kordúnahosur), 
36^4 — ^pride hosen (dramb-hosur), laced to the bone, /.^., 
quite tight fitting, iii. 1922728 

Jerkin, long (langr upphlutr), corset, or waistcoat, instead of 
jerkin, would better express the original, which means that 
Erling set the fashion of wearing kirtles with long corsets 
or waistcoats, and with long sleeves, iii. 48 ij 

KiRTLE (kyrtill), short, red, worn over a coat of mail, i. 36623 
—blue, ii. 35i8 3625 239^7 iii- i73i4— red, ii- 303io— red- 
scarlet, iii. 2167.3 — drag-kirtle (drag-kyrtill), * laced to the 
side,' where * drag * probably refers to these kirtles being 
laced (drawn) tight with cords provided for the purpose, iii. 
^92».so — short, 233i« — browned, />., dyed deep blue, 45330 
— kirtles worn over byrnies to disguise warlike intention, 

ii- 7728 

Mantle (möttull), a sleeveless over-garment: m. with cords 
(möttuU á tyglum), otherwise called * tugla-möttull,* tied 
round the neck with cords, iii. 34023 34 ig 

Mitten (vöttr), lined with down, i. 1091^ 

Raiment (klæ^i, búna^r), also translated robes and clothes, 
general terms, collectively designating dress, especially of 
persons of high degree and their household company: 

of the outlaw Arnliot ( 
i>ARK (serkr), apparently 
Amliot must have kep 
of 'hissark'concealeí 
broidered garment • he 
Seat-gore (setgeiri), iii. : 

^"K^'^JT^Vred. silker 
the Good m the battle . 

síw°^^K^?'"« 'eft o' 
Stomfordbndge, i79,,._ 

when racing with Magni 
with long sleeves, 481. 

Shoes (skór. pi. skúkrlhig: 
.all sewn with silk and so 
in vogue in Norway duri] 

(uppháir), 481, 

tight that they must bed 
dat. hand-tugli) and trui 

K^ Vi?~'°"8 sleeves to k 
by Erhng Askew, iii. 48r, 

Si •. "'*f ^Wgvison invii 
omnk bv stronv ,i„-„i, ._j 


Index III 329 

Drinking as social custom : in company (sveitar drykkja) ; 
vikings, when invited to feasts, followed the custom of drinking 
in company by themselves even where 'drinking in pairs' 
was habitual, i. 5927.29 6010-12 — ^^^^ custom broken by K. 
Hiorvard, 6012.17 — in pairs (tvimenningr), men being paired 
with women and spending the evening drinking, a custom 
observed by kings who abode at home (i.e. did not go out on 
viking cruises), i. 5922-27 — K.. Hiorvard and Hildigunna drink 
paired and become man and wife, 6010.3^ — highborn ladies 
partake otherwise also in drinking: Hildigunna drinks to 
toasts of K. Hiorvard and his Ylfings in memory of Rolf 
Kraki, i. 604.7 — Sigrid the Haughty drank through the evening 
with K. H^ald the Grenlander, i. 2842J.28 — Ingigerd, d. of 
Olaf the Swede, sat in her chamber drinkmg with many men ; 
Gizur and Ottar are entertained at drink by her, ii. 9521-22 m 
— drinkings turn and turn about, see Gilds. 

Drinking to excess : drinking a man off his settle (drekka 
mann af stokki), ii. 12531.32 — great drinkings going on when 
season was abundant, 1 2 l^x-yi — drinking bouts at winter nights 
/>. at the great autumn festivals, 193^ — at Yuletide, 195^.« 
— champion drinking (kapp-drykkja), 2962 — drinking hea^y 
the ale of departure (brottferöaröl) before going on a viking 
cruise, i. 21020.22 

Personal drunkenness: K. Fiolnir fell dead drunk (dau&- 
drukkinn) into a vat of mead and was drowned, i. 25^ — K. 
Swegdir and his men, very drunk, 26^.7 — Agni*s weddmg, a 
drunken feast, 3382*344 — K. Yngvi's habit to sit long over 
drink at night, 36^7.20 — ^^^ men very drunk with him, 3632 
— K. Ingiald Evilheart made all his court dead drunk and 
then burnt them together with himself in his hall, 641^20 — ^' 
Gudrod, Hunter king, had great drinkings on board his ships, 
7^17-21 — Great drinking by K. Sigurd Slaver and his men, 
21524 — O^^ Tryggvison feasts Thrandheim notables at Ladir 
and men were very drunk, 318,5.17 — K. Harald the Gren- 
lander full merry with drink, and exceeding drunk, 2851 7 — 
made drunk together with his men by Sigrid the Haughty, 
who then burnt them all to death, 2861^.21 — Olaf the Swede 
merry and very drunk, ii. 9612-18 — Olaf the Quiet a mickle 
drinker (drykkjumaíSr mikill), iii. 19I12-18 — ^^^ courtiers of 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer sing evensong drunk outside a 


-- — 'SA^vfi.viiiii ur ruier nt 
OE dryhten, O.H.G. tr 
or the twelve temple pi 
rulers of Sweden from C 
— Fiolmr— Swegdir— Vi 

3' 10-21 

a lady, queen, i. 5i„ 


vuf?! °" "^^'^g made 
withheld from Eric's sor 

UUKE (hertogi), a title bo 
Outhorm, the uncle of I 
"55.124« and Skuli Bare 
Tosti, iii. 184,- 

^^^ARFS (dve^ar), found 
í^- íjwegdir up in his hoi 

EARL öarl), appointedl)y 

his duties and rights defin 
descnbed, 98„, iii. ,. , 

lowered by the division oft 
1' j^TT**~*® PO^'cy of O 
and Harald Hardredy to h 

EGG — FAi] Index III 331 

EGG-LAIR (egg-ver),an outlying island or rock where sea-birds, 
especially eider-ducks, gather in the hatching season, ii. 292« 

ELF-WORSHIP (álfa-blót), ii. 14614 22 

ELL (öln, alin), i, a measure of length, 18 inches, iii. 124«^ 
1854 — 2, a unit of value, an ell of wadmal or homespun 
cloth (alin vaíSmáls) — Olaf the Holy, attempting to incorpor- 
ate Iceland in his realm, proposed that the Icelanders should 
pay him * nosegild * or poll-tax, * for every nose a penny, 10 
whereof should go to an ell of wadmal,* i.e. equal it in value, 
ii.— an ^ ^^ wadmal, value 10 pennies, was equal to 
\ of the ounce, eyrir, then (1027) current in Iceland, called 
the six ells' ounce, sex alna eyrir, which equalled 60 pennies, 
being \ of a mark of silver weighed, which contained 480 
penniesl The nosegild demanded therefore amounted in 
value to ^ of the standard currency, the ounce of silver 

EMMA, a coat of mail, so called, see Weapons, defensive. 

ERNE (öm, otherwise blood-eagle, blóíSöm), the opening of a 
man's body from the back in the form of an eagle; a cruel 
execution of a vanquished foe, described, i. 1 26^10 — an eagle, 
iii. 163^0 

EVENSONG ^aptan-söngr), vespers, li. 1253 — sung in a riotous 
fashion outside a church by intoxicated courtiers, iii. 286^.7 


EXPORT of com, malt, and meal, from Southern Norway to the 
north, where dearth prevailed, forbidden by Olaf the Holy 
in order that his ordinary feasting in the south should not be 
interfered with, ii. 2114.11 21531-2161 2183 — this law eluded 
with impunity by Erling's thralls as being beyond the pale 
of land's law and right, 2 1829- 2 193 

FAFNIR = dragon, = * Worm ' = The Long Worm, Olaf Trygg- 
vison's war- galley, i. 3703 

FAGGOT-FENCE, f.-garth (ski«gar«r), wooden fence round 
the sanctuary of the Biarmland divimty Jomali, ii. 2611Q ^^i^ 

84 2fi 26211 

FAIR (kaupstefna), held at Upsala for six days in the month 
of Goi, while Sweden was heathen; after the introduction of 
Christianity it was moved back to Candlemas, and lasted for 
three days only in the time of Snorri, ii. 1122.3 6-0 — ** Vagar 
in Halogaland, 23815 — at Tunsberg, 21023^ 2491^ 

oi peanng, or walking 

FEASTS (veizlur), banque 

Hleithra in Denmark to 

to which people were ir 

great feast given at Ups 

his father's memory, but 

^ even carried out, of 

chamber. 5724-S94-Aki, 

Kings Harald of Norwa 

—feast arrayed at Ogval 

company of three hundrt 

heathen notables of Thrar 

3í8j(^,g — Asta gives a moj 

son Olaf, ii. 33sj-37„_a 

victory over the Up/lnd 

gress through the country 

their stewards (ármenn) j 

tomajy for the kings to an 

mg)in the same district ( 

of sixty or seventy, never ej 

Holy came out with 300 = 

kin^ banquet together at I 

of K Olaf the Swede, at the 
stately feast at the bridal o: 


Index III 333 

by another the next day, iii. 8317^ 8427-86,^ — Magnus and 
Harald visit the Uplands feasting, 873^ — Magnus Barefoot 
goes banqueting about his manors in the Wick, and is feasted 
by Kolbiom, 22O22.26 so — great feast given to K. Sigurd Jem- 
salem-farer by Roger, Duke of Sicily, 25514.20 — ^* Sigurd's 
feast in entertainment of the Emperor of the East, 26oog- 
aóijg — Kings Eystein and Sigurd (Jerusalem-farer) entertam 
each other turn about, 2793-2833 — banquet of great mag- 
nificence given on the occasion of K. Magnus Erlingson's 
coronation, 46414.39 — banquet chamber on the occasion de- 
scribed, 46415.17 
FEASTS (hátí«ir), ecclesiastical festivals: 
Ascension Day (Uppstigningardagr), ii. 1313 iii. 32533 4683^ 
Bartholomewmass (Bartholomeusmessa), iii. 2401 
Blaisemass (Blasiusmessa), iii. 42317 42633 
Candlemass (Kyndilmessa), ii. 1125.9 ^S^io 2215 ^"- 207^ 

4507 4759 

Easter (Páskar), n. 1273 ^9528 20 so 22115 i»- 3392o 4381»— 
Easter-eve (Páska-aptann), i. 31334 — Easterpeace (Páska- 
friíSr), the sanctity of Holy Week, ii. 22315 — Easter- week 
(Páska-vika), iii. 32513 

John Baptist, mass of (Jons messa), iii. 390^ 

Lawrence Wake (Lafranzvaka), vigil of St. Lawrence, iii. 
3^582 32615.10 3Ö 

LuciAMASS (Lúcíumessa), iii. 34211 

Martinmass (Marteinsmessa), iii. 36131 

Marvmass (Mariumessa), Annunciation of the Virgin, Mar. 
25, iii. 3iOg — * In autumn * is a mistake in the oldest text; 
other MSS. read: *in lent,* with which the obituaria prac- 
tically agree. 

Marvmass, the latter (Mariumessa hin si^ari). Nativity of 
the Virgin, Sept. 8 th, iii. 48134 

Matthewmass (Mattheusmessa), iii. 168^ 

MiCHAELMASS (Mikjálsmessa), i. 33637 ii. 3253^ iii. 35^ 503^ 

Olaf's mass (Olafs messa), the Nativity of St. Olaf, July 29th 
established by law throughout Norway in the reign of 
Magnus the Good, iii. 1634-174 — introduced in Denmark, 
1253.33 — Olafs wake (Ólafsvaka), the vigil of Olafs-mass, 
"42 195204678 

Index III [fee — fim] 


Rogation- DAYS (gangdagar), iii. 4675^^ 46S4 cf. Ganging days* 1 
Thomasmass (Tumásmessa), * before Yule,* ii* 3543^ 

FEE- BOOT {fébœtr), offer of money in atonemeat for num*^ 
slaughter, ii, sog^j 

FELL (feldr), the short or curt of Thoraxinn Curtfell, ao object 
of mirth at K, Sigurd Jerusalem farer's court, iii. aSd^^ cf. 
Cloak. fl 

FETTERS (fjötrar), iL 224^3 ^^Sia u ^^^ð ^^7ia ^^^1 " 

FIDDLER (fiiSiari)j much m request at K. Hugleik's court at 
Upsala, i. 1%^ 

FIEF, Domain (lén), lands conferred by a sovereign aj a 
personal grant on earls or landed men on terms dictated by ™ 
custom or circumstances, ii, lóÖgj jro^^.j^ iii. iSj^j rijj^j '^^iaS 
—distinction is drawn between ién and veizla {ste Gt^iit)^ ii- 

FIGUREHEADS, see Ships, 

FIGHTING by night looked upon as an infamous mode of 

warfare: Thordts Skeggja, a wizard woman, advises Hákon 
Shoulderbroad to fight K, Ingi only by nighty iii, 424^ j^ — 
following the advice he defeats and slays K. Ingi by ntgbti 
424^^-426^, ^but manslaughter by night being account^ a 
foul murder, Hakon's deed was upheld as villainy, for which 
his party, and notably earl Sigurd of Reyr, were lef&lly 
sentenced to hell, 44919*4502 45 ^ru 

FILLET Sj silken {sílki-ræmur), possibly * ribands' would be 
a better translation ; for these silken bands may have been 
intended to tie the robe of state they accompanied round the M 
neek of the wearer, ii. 12221 as I 

FINE (gjald), of five and forty marks of gold inflicted by his 
brother Ingi on K, Eystein Haraldson for arson and cattle- 
lifting, iii, 392^.11 — of three hundred {360) head of cattle in* 
flic ted by Erling Askew on the farmers of HisÍng for disloyalty 
to his son, 459|7,ao — (leiíSvíti) which really means: a fine im- 
posed upon a person who fails to respond to summons to a 
naval expedition (leiiSangr). The translation of the pas^ge: 
' nú veit ek eigij nema ver róim lei^ngrinn ok gjaldim leilS- 
vitit,* * Now I see nought but that we are both pressed to row 
and paying the fine,* is, necessarily, obscure. The meaning is, 
* Now I fear we may be rowing (going on) the expedition, and 
(yet) be paying the penalty {of defaulters none the lass}/ In , 

FIN — FLo] Index III 335 

Hakon's thought, 'going on the expedition' meant : furnishing 
Gold Harald with means to overcome and slay the Kling of 
Norway, and thus, according to covenant, becoming King 
of Norway himself; by *pa3nng the penalty' as if they were 
defaulters, Hakon hints at Gold Harald's vow to slay Harald 
of Denmark, whose life then would be the fine that, after 
having expedited him to the throne of Norway, Gold 
Harald would exact as if his uncle had done nothing for 

FINGER-RING (fingr-guU), ii. 88^ ^^.^g 28031 iii. 332^0 cf. Ring. 

FINN-CHEAPING (finn-kaup), trade monopoly in Finnmark, 
a prerogative of the King of Norway, which he carried out 
generally in partnership with some Halogaland official (landed 
man), as did Olaf the Holy with Harek of Thiotta, ii. 19O12 
— ^and Thorir Hound, 38720-25 — and Sigurd Jerusalem-farer 
and his brothers with Sigurd Ranison, iii. 2711^ — this involved 

FINN-FARE, Finn-journey (finnfer^), in the course of which, 
besides trading, the king's partner called in the royal taxes, 
Finn-scat, ii. 349^ 38721 a lucrative and much envied em- 
ployment, iii. 27120.81 

FINN-SCAT (finn-skattr), the income that trade with, and 
taxation of, Finnmark yielded to the treasury of the Norw. 
king, ii. 27124 27524 

FINN-WIZARDRY (finngaldr), see Wizardry. 

FIRES (eldar), made along the midst of the floor of heathen 
temples, i. 1652324 — niade in the same manner in kingly and 
other halls, ii. I77i4i5 <^f- ^- ^^526 "• ^726 "'• 1925^ i93i9 3291 

FISHING in Norway, great failure of, in the reign of the sons 
of 'Gunnhild, i. '^^\i^\<^ — herring fishing, 21915.29 24228-30 "• 
2S22-23 — herring as article of trade, 7910 3321 

FISH-LAIR (fiski-ver), an outlying island where fishermen 
congregate for the pursuit of their trade, ii. 292^ 

FLAKE-HURDLES (flakar, sing, flaki), of willow twigs (vflSi- 
tágar), borne up by stout and close-set uprights, made by 
Olaf the Holy in order to serve his ships as a protecting roof 
while he was demolishing London Bridge, ii. 14^14 

FLAX (hörr), see Bowstring under Weapons, 2, offensive. 

FLOCK (floickr) — i. a band, company, party — 2. spec, a short 
poem without a refrain, or burden, also called 'drapling' 


Index III [flo — Fos 

(dræplingr), a little Mrapa '; to offer such to a king was 
garded as disrespectful, though it might do for an earl or ^si\ 
untitled magnate. Hence K. Knui's anger with ThorarinJ 
Praisetongue, it. 35^14-22 — Sigvat*s * flock' on Erling, 35617,^1 
(one strophe out of ten), 
FLOCK-MEN (flokksmenn), those of a band, partU&ns, 

FOLK-MOTE (mot), m Mote. 

FOOD. K. Sigurd Sow entertains his stepson Obf the Holy to 
fish and milk fare one day, and to flesh m^t and ale thej 
nextj turn and turn about^ ii* 4i|5,n 

FOOT (fótr), to clasp the foot of an offended person, a form 1 
praying for pardon, ti. 380J3.34 iii. 276j4^Thonirin Nefjulfson'i 
misshapen feet, il 153^^-154^ 

FOOT-BROAD (fetbreiíir), $u Weapons, offensive— Swords ÍB 

FOOT-MEN, m Infantry. 

FOOT-PACE (fótpallr), footstool (fótskör), the low seat in front 
of a king's-high seat which was occupied by earls awaiting 
investiture, i. 98^ iii. 30^ H 

FOOT-PAGE, i. 71^^ id. qu. ■ 

FOOT-SWAIN (skósveinn)ja page^ manservant, ii, r^j^j riS^ 
10-21} '^9^2 1 3^ 7s ^^' Shoe-swain. ^m 

FORE-MASS (formessa), missa nocturnai matutina, mattilta^| 
alis, a service immediately following the dttusongr, bora 
matutina, iii. 443^ 

FORE-SONG COPE (fyrir-songs kápa) ?, iii. 436^^ 

FOSTER-BROTHERS (fóstbrœ^r), Gautvid and Ingiald 
Evilheartj i. ^^^^^ — Tryggvi Olafson and Gudrod BiomsOQ, 
\át2^ — Ranithe Widefaringand Harald t he Gren lander, 21 2|^.i_j 
—spending some time in youth with Skogul Tosti In Sweden, 
Harald became the foster-brother of Sigrid the Haughty, ^i2yf 
213^ ^^4i,>iti — SigurdThorlakson andThoralfof Dimon (pos^ 
sibly pretended), ii. 272^5.1^— to shelter a foster-brother who 
had committed a criminal offence from the king^s jusdce» an 
excusable matter, ^^3ioi4 — Fhilip G>Tdson and K. Sigurd 
Haraldson, Ííi. 3915^^.31— Andreas and Onund, sons of Simon, 
foster-brothers of Hakon Shoulderbroadi 399] 1.1241611 — Gyrd* 
son of Amu ndi, foster-brother of K. Ingi, 40011.1^ 403^^0 — \r th^f 
above cases foster-brotherhood existed in virtue of the persons 

Fos — fra] Index III 337 

having been brought up together— ceremonially entered, or 
sworn brotherhood, is only mentioned in the case of Harald 
Gilli and K. Eric Everminded of Denmark, 31725^ 

FOSTER-FATHER (fóstr-fa«h-), he who either of his free will 
set another's child on his knee, or on whose knee such a 
child was set without a previously obtained leave; in this latter 
case, to kill the child was not manslaughter, but murder, i. 
14018.20 — to bring up the * knee-set child ' was the bounden 
duty of him on whose knee it had once been set — Swipdag 
the Blind, foster-father of Ingiald Evilheart, i. 5534 oi^g— 
Bovi of Gauthild, the wife of Ingiald, 631.2 — Duke Guthorm 
set Harald Hairfair's eldest son on his knee and became his 
fosterer, 1 1433- 1 153 — Thiodolf fosters Gudrod, son of Harald 
Hairfair, 121.^.3 cf. 11-1225 — Hawk High-breech set Hakon 
the Good on Athelstane's knee, saying when the king grew 
wroth at the affront, *Thou hast set him on thy knee and 
mayst murder him if thou wilt,' 14O11.20 — a foster-father, as a 
rule, looked upon as inferior in rank and position to him 
whose child he fostered, 14026.27 — K. Harald Gormson takes 
into fostering and sets on his knee Harald Greycloak, 15926-27 
23520-21 — Thorolf, foster-father of Queen Astrid and her son 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 22311.12 23015 — an infamous deed to betray 
a foster-son, 23527-2363 but cf. 23630-23914 — Thorleif the Sage, 
Earl Eric's foster-father, 20931.22 24813.19 — Rani Widefaring 
fosters Olaf Haraldson (the Holy), ii. 33 — Lawman Thorgnyr 
Earl Rognvald's foster-father, 11 720 — Edward Confessor 
Harald Godwinson's, iii. 15532^ 

FOWL (fugl), of preternatural size, representing a guardian 
spirit of the land and a family fetch at the same time, i. 2693^ 
— wild sea-birds, the catch of which gives value to outlying 
rocks and islands, ii. 2920 — the speech or voice of fowl (fugls 
rödd) was a language which it was given to but few to under- 
stand, and understanding it was a sign of marvellous wisdom. 
K. Day the Wise (like his ancestor Rig, cf. RigsJ?ula, O. Edda, 
Bugge, 44) possessed this wisdom, i. 3129.30 — ^^nd a certain 
' bonder '-carle, who made good use of it to convict K. Olaf 
the Quiet of felony, iii. 199^-2015 

FOWLER (fuglari), his services in aid of one of K. Harald 
Sigurdson's war stratagems, iii. 64^^ 

FRANKLIN (hauldr, höldr), an untitled person who takes 
VI. z 


Index III [fre — galJ 

ranic in the social scale above the * bondi,* and is a freehold^l 
by birth {óTSalsma^r, óíSdborinn); the earl's was the nextJ 
rank above him in Orkney, as is evidenced by Earl Hallad j 

becoming a 'höldr' on renouncing the dimity of earl, L 
\22^^^ 1 27^g^n Norway the next grade above boldr was tbel 
hersir's, later the landed man's, whose next superior agaiaj 
was the earl 
FREED- MEN (frelsingjar, the Icelandic law term, leysingj^J 
the Norwegian, which Snorri uses promiscu^)^ men who in a. J 
forma! manner (generally by drinking their 'ale of freedom,j 
frelsis-ol) have exchanged the status of slavery for that 
conditional or limited freedom; ninety such always in at^ 
tendance on ErLing Skialgson, ii. 24^8^ — his treatment 
them» a5gj.2& — socially the freedman constituted in the sea 
of weregild the lowest grade of free citizens, while his son| 
ranked one grade higherj next to the 'bóndi/ 
FREE LAND (óíSal), ste Odal lands, 
FREYA (freyja), a term for a woman who disposes in her 01 

right over her own, i. 24^ 
FRIDAY-FAST (frjádagsfasta), first observed in Norway by" 

Hakon the Good, i. 1Ó45 — its great sanctity, iii. sg^j^-agjuj 
FRIST (frestr), delay, stay, respite, iii* 123^» 
FRUVOR Cplur, of frúva, an older form of fruj from still older^ 
frauja), a title derived from the name of the goddess Freyja 
and given to ladies of high degree, i. 23s^ai 
FUNERAl^FEAST, giave-ale (erfi), held by Agni at the 
quest of his queen Skialf for her father Frosti, i. 3327-342^^' 
celebrated at Upsala by K. Ey stein Evilheart in memory of 
his father, at which he burnt to death six tributary kings oCh 
Sweden, 5724-5S10 2fi'594 — *^*^ interesting ceremonial of sucH^ 
a feast described, sS^^^g— joint feast held by K. Svein, the 
brothers Bui and Sigurd, and Sigvaldi of Jomsburg, in memory 
of their respective fathers K. Harald Gormson^ Veseti 
Borgundholm and Strut- Harald of Skaney^ 271-2731^ 
FURS (skinn), costly, obtained from Russia (Novgorod), 

82,t, fgrivara, 'grey wares*) 15633 
GAG (kefli), employed as an instrument of torture by Olaf 
Tryggvison for effecting the conversion to ChristiaBÍty 
Raud the Strong, i. ^^2^^ 
GALLERY(svalir,loptsvaiir,also translated porch j loft-8wale^< 




GAL— GIF] Index III 339 

' swale, a shady place,' Halliweirs Diet), a passage along the 
side of a house, under roof, but open to the front. It was of 
two kinds: i. *svalir,' in front of the ground-floor, the eaves 
of the roof being supported by uprights, perhaps joined by 
arches; to this architectural peculiarity Snorri refers in his 
description of the shrine of Olaf the Holy when he says that 
under it there were svalir, or open arches as I take it, iii. 167 
— to this kind seems to belong the * porch,' or laterally open 
archway, which is mentioned, ii. 1253 and 225^ — 2. Moft- 
svalir,' a laterally open gallery running along the fix)nt of the 
first storey, access to which was obtained by means of a flight 
of steps (rií5) at one end, i. 25^ ^ iii. 1724.26 loS^g 
GALLOWS (^gi), i. 4I12 240» h. 7225 iii. 212^ ,3 2131 30I27 
GALLOWS-TREE (galga-tré), natural tree used for gallows, 
execution taking place either by hauling the victim up by the 
rope to the branch he was hanged on, i. 349.12 or by bending 
the branch down, and, when the rope was adjusted, let it 
spring with the condemned body back to its natural position, 


GANG under one's hand (ganga á hönd emhverjum), to do 
homage to, ii. 3583^.22 

GANGING-DAYS' Thmg (gangdaga->ing). Rogation days' pro- 
cession, iii. 35822 36812 46780 4684 

GARTH (gariSr)— I. an enclosed space, a court, in fix)nt of a 
homestead of the better class, especially in towns, ii. 3431 372 g 
iii. 10920 '4380 4^231 4832 — 2. the homestead itself to which 
such a court belonged, town residence, ii. 6431 iii. 32525 3893 ^ 
4i7i3 48iig — 3. spec, a., the royal residence (konungsgar^r), 
i"- I04Í15-S6 1053.10 10^18 io9i8 11018— b., the royal court as 
centre of the administrative andfiscal interests, public treasury, 
ii. 15827 iii. 2120 

GEMSTONES (gimsteinar), precious stones, iii. 30930.31 

GHOST (andi), meaning an evil spirit out of the r^ms of 
darkness quickened in a man's body by Finnish wizardry: 
E)rvind Rentcheek's own account of his origin, i. 32815.13 

GIANTS (risar), found in Scythia, i. 1123 

GIFTS (gjafir), cf. also Yule-gifts, had anciently a far greater 
significance than in modem times: *ey sér til gildis gjöf,' gift 
alwiays looks to requital, was a maxim always present to the 
mind of the men of old. Therefore, for the receiver, it was a 

340 Index III [GIF , 

inatter of honour to return a gift, if not in kind, At loKSt in 
deed. The acceptance of a gift by an equal in s^jcial standtpg 
meant insurance of mutual goodwill ; acceptance of it by nn 
inferior involved recognition of the duty of paying it off by 
service rendered, when occasion should demand It goes 
without saying that, in certain circumstances, this custom 
should degenerate into bribery* for corrupt purposes: K, Egii 
of Sweden, breaking his treaty obligation to K. Frodi of 
Denmark, sends the latter good and great gifts every yeaj in 
lieu of the covenanted tribute, i. 455,^ ^^.^^^Aki gave great 
gifts to Har. Hairfair 'and therewithal they kiss^ad/ io7j^^ 
— Aki gives *good' gifts to K. Eric of Sweden, loy^a — *^* 
Har. Greycloak sends friendly gifts to Eari Sigxird, 203.^^ — 
and to Griotgarth his brother, 20% ^^^g — Queen Ounnhild i 
good gifts to K, Eric of Sweden, aaj^—Earl Eric: a goodly 
longship to V'agn Akison, sS^gj^^— Slgrid the Haughty sees 
her foster-brother Harald Grenlander off with great giftSj 285 i;j. 
— gifts and baili (Tries offered by K, Oh Tryggvison to Eyvind 
for abjuring paganism, all to no purpose, 338^^5— Harefc of 
Thiotta: good gifts to K. OL Tryggvison, 3^9fHf — ^* ^^ 
Tryggvison gives a cloak to Kiartan Olafson, 336«.^— -K, 
OL the Holy I a well-wrought sword to Marshal Biom, ti, 
S8^ — a finger-ring to Earl Rognvald, 88,- ^^^^^ — sends HiaJti 
Skeggison off with friendly gifts, 137^,— Earl Rognvald' a 
golden ring to Sig\at, i4$^^0laf the Holy bestows good 
gifts and great on Earl Rognvald, »53- — gives Earl Thorfinn 
a longship great and good with all gear, 176^^1.^ — Grankel 
sees Olaf the Holy off with great gifts, 1 92^^,,— Erling sees his 
nephew Asbiorn off with friendly gifts, 219^,5— Einar Tham- 
barskelfir got great gifts (bribes) from K. Knut, 2357,^ — Sigrid 
of Thrandness sees off with gifts friends who had attended 
the funeral of her son Asbiorn, 2391^ — Olaf the Holy sent 
friendly gifts to many chiefs in Iceland, behind which lurked 
political designs on the island, 241^-^423 — Einar Eyolfson 
recommends suitable gifts, such as hawks, horses, tilts, sails, 
to the Non^'Cgian king instead of *scat/ 34414.17 — *^^^^ ^^ 
Holy gives friendly gifts to chiefs of Faroe who had become 
his men, 247^j.2^ — ICnut gi\*es to Sigvat a ring weighing half 
a mark, 254^.^ ^p— and to Bersi Ska Id-Tor vason two gold rings 
weighing half a mark each and an ornamented sword^ a 54^ 



4fru ^1 

GIG — GIL] Index III 341 

1Y.18 Knut sends great gifts to K. Onund of Sweden (to win him 
over from the idliance with Olaf of Norway), 25 7^^ — Kings 
Onund and Olaf exchange gifts, 2685 — Stein Skaptison gives 
gifts to Ragnhild of Giski and her son Ey stein, 28112.18 — 
Karl o' Mere's interpretation of the meaning of friendly gifts 
from a king, 3031^ — Red of East-Dales sees K. Olaf off with 
great friend-gifts, 34029.31 — K. Knut gives a thick gold ring to 
Thorir Olvirson, 34225 343i4-i5 — and two thick such to Marshal 
Biorn, 379i2 — Kal^ Arnison receives most honourable gifts 
(bribes) from K. Knut, 37614 — K. Olaf gives a gold ring to 
Thormod for singing * Biarklay the Ancient,* 4084.7 4391^^ — 
Thormod dying gives it again to the woman surgeon attending 
him, 44211.15 — ten marks of burnt (refined) silver given to Sigvat 
by K. Onund of Sweden, iii. 1420.21 — Magnus the Good's gifts 
to his uncle Harald's following on the occasion of the division 
of Norway between them, 8320.27 — Harald's return gifts to 
Magnus' following in clothes, weapons, and other precious 
things, 854.3 — ^- Harald gives Steig-Thorir two gold rings 
weighing together one mark, 8630.31 — K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer gives all his ships to the Emperor of Constantinople, 
26127.2« — K. Nicolas of Denmark gives K. Sigurd a ship to 
take him to Norway, 2621^.20 — K. Sigurd gives three manors 
to Aslak Cock for warning him against breaking the Friday 
fast, 294i3 — K. Eric Everminded gave a shrine to K. Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer for Cross Church at Kings'-Rock, 30931-3 lOi 
— the Patriarch of Constantinople gave a plenary written in 
golden letters to K. Sigurd, 3102.3 — K. Eric Everminded gave 
to Harald Gilli eight longships, unrigged, 3 1 732 — Harald Gilli 
gives to bishop Magnus Einarson a board-beaker which after- 
wards served as chalice in the Cathedral of Skalaholt, 
335i2i5 8o'33^8 — ^- Harald and Queen Ingirid give the bishop 
the bolsters they sat on done over with pall, of which were 
made fore-song's copes, which were still to be seen in Skala- 
holt in Snorri's days, 33522 27 33^8ii — ^- ^"8^ Haraldson gives 
Gregory Dayson a ship his brother K. Sigurd had owned, 
39^9-10 — ni^'^y and great gifts given on K. Magnus Erlingson's 
coronation day, 4642^.09 

GIG (gigja), fiddle, played at court dinners in Sweden in Olaf 
the Swede's reign, ii. 1593 

GILDS (gildi) — I. convivial assemblies, of which drinking was 


Index III [gla — goi 

the proBHinent feature. Before the days of K. Olaf the Quie 
these assemblies had no fixed meeting place, or dub, 
apparently met at private houses, beingj in Nidoyce at le 
called together by the guild bell called * Town-boon/ iil 
1923^^^— the gild itself bore the name of 'hvirfingr/a round, 
circle, coterie, or club, translated^ with a view to the constant^ 
changing of meeting place, 'turnabout -drinking/ 192^, — a 
the members of it, collectively, were called Gild- or Drinkbg 
Brothers (hvírfingsbræ^r), 1923^ — while the act of so meet 
together for drinking purposes was called ^ drekka hvirfiogS 
to drink * Giid-brother-wise,' ii, lo^^^^^^m respect of th 
manner in which store was supplied to such a drinking motj 
it was called * samburiSar-ol,' or 'ale brought together,* trans 
lated * gild-ale drinking/ ' gild-drinking/ because each of 1 
partakers of the conviviality brought his own provisions to it; 
*i- 1 9335-21* íí^' 5^224 4^^4 — 2- ^ gild-house, guild-hall, first ^tab 
lished in Norway during the reign of Olaf the Quiet, whfil 
* set up ' in Nidoyce the * Great Gild ' (mrkla gildi), which 
was hallowed or consecrated to Olaf the Holy, 19^^^^^ '97f'l 
^H 2864 38617 — these clubs bote the general name of skyt* 
ningar, * skot-houses/ 1 92^5 _^^ 

GLAD (glöíS), the name of the bell that Olaf the Holy ha^fl 
given to St. Clement's Church in Nidoyce, iii. 353^ ^^ 

GODDESS, -es (dfs, disir), or rather fairies, sacrifice to, L SOg^^ 
the hall hallowed to them at Upsala, 50^5-515 

GOI, the eighth month of the heathen year, corresponding ' 
Feb, 8-15 — March io-i6, ii, tirj^ 

GOLD (guil), poured through one of the three windows 
Frey's mound at Upsala in payment of taxes, i. 23^^ — K. 
Halfdan Eystein's son paid in war wages as many pennies of 
gold as other kings paid pennies of silver, og^^j-jo^ — used focH 
ornamenting idols, ii. 205^14 206^^,^^ 2o8|^ j^ — and figure-heads^^ 
of warships, %u Ship — much wealth of gold appropriated by 
Olaf Tryggvison from Raud the Strong after torturing him t0 
death, 553u^ia 

GOLD EN HILT (gullinhjalti), a name sneenngl^r given hy 
Thormod to the sword K. Olaf the Holy had given to Sigvat 
as a Christmas present, ii, 4o8^jj cf, 3377^ 

GOLD PORT {GuUvarta^ ^ -^^^ Trdprir), *the gate of honou 
through which the Emperor had to enter Constajitinop 
when he returned in triumph to the city, iii. 25911.^^ 


GOL — gra] Index III 343 

GOLD-RING (gullhringr, for the arm, while a finger-ring is 
called fingrguU, * fingergold % given by Olaf Tryggvison to 
an Irish peasant for the dog Vigi, i. 26712.18 — ^ golden ring, 
taken by Olaf Tryggvison from the door of the temple of 
Ladir, and presented by him to Sigrid the Haughty, found 
out, much to her indignation, to be all of base metaJ inside, 
309i9:ii 3109-12 1629— Earl Rognvald gives a golden ring to Sig- 
vat, li. 1485 — a thick gold ring K. Knut's gift to Thorir 01- 
virson, 34226 343i4i5 — ^^^ such, his gifts to Marshal Biom, 
379i2 — ^o rings weighing together half a mark given by 
Harald Hardredy to Thorir of Steig, iii. 8630.31 — Magnus the 
Blind lays down as a wager against Harald Gilli's head his 
gold ring, 29721-24 29968 — ^a golden ring of K. Magnus's hidden 
in bishop Reinald's boot, 32421 

GOLDSMITHS (gullsmi^ir), their way of distinguishing be- 
tween base and precious metals, i. 31015.27 

GOOD HANDS (hendr gó^r), * said about those men who are 
much endowed with ' the art of healing * that they have good 
hands,' ii. 38432.33 

GOODLY WEB (gu«vefr), the costly stuff which in O.E. is 
known as godweb, in O. Sax. as goduwebbi, Fris. godwob, 
O.H.G. gotawebbi, goduweppi, gottweppe, terms which cover 
a variety of Latin appellatives for costly fabrics, i. i20ig 

GOODMAN, see Bonder. 

GOSSIP, to become, to be (gera gu^sifjar vií5, veita gu^ifjar, 
to be sponsor, pater spiritualis, in baptism), Olaf Tryggvison 
acting as such at the baptism of Olaf the Holy, i. 3111^ and 
Hallfred the poet, 3385 

GRAM (gramr), name given to leaders of armed followers in 
old days, while the host they commanded were called *gramir,' 
infestus, iratus, sævus, i. 3222.23 

GRAITHE (grei^r), expeditious, iii. 21312 

GRANTS (veizlur) — i. landed properties belonging to the king 
placed at the disposal of favourites, and as a rule chiefly of the 
so-called * landed men,' for their maintenance, in return for 
which they yielded the king military and other services. Of 
exceptional character were the large grants conferred by K. 
Olaf Tryggvison on his brother-in-law Erling Skialgson, the 
hersir, i. 30812.15 ii. 7415 25 cf. 2 1 27 — ^and also the grants con- 
ferred by the Earls Eric and S vein on their brother-in-law Einar 
Thambarskelfir, 2227.23 — likewise, probably, the 'great grants ' 



Index HI [gra — gro 

bestowed on him by King Olaf of Sweden, siimg — Askk and 

Skialg, sons of Erling, received at the hands of K. Knut * large 
grants' in England, taut of what nature is not slated, ^SSs^^^ 
— Harek of Thiotta became Olaf the Holy's landed man, and 
received from him the same grants as he had held before* 
^9^iii 18 ^^' ^" 3^9evT — be, together with Thorir Hounds on be- 
coming Knut's landed men, received 'great grants' from htm, 
and Finnfare besides, 349^.^5— Kalf Am ison had a landed man's 
grants and other honours besides, 2851,1 i"* 1203.1^*-!!* Olaf 
the Holy conferred on Aslak Skull o* Fitiar * a large fief (lén) 
and great grants,* the lén meaning administrative, chiefly 
fiscal, jurisdiction in addition to the landed property for per- 
sonal usu fruit ion, ii. 3i2i(j.jg — Magnus the Good made grants 
to men of might on coming to the throne of Norway, iii. iS^^ 
— with landed man^s right VVolf the Marsha) received from 
K. Harald Sigurdson agrant of twelve marks and half a folk- 
land in Thrandheim beside, io4;(^.^j-— Hakon Ivarson received 
great grants from Svein Wolfson and took over command of 
his army, n6;,,^23^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ gives fiefs (lén) and grants 
(increased grants) to landed men in order to secure their 
services of war, 31831-3191—2. Of different kinds were the 
grants, ' verzlur,' which K, Harald of Denmark bestowed on 
the sons of Eric Bloodaxe, they were appanages, and there- 
fore we have translated, * veizlur/ by ' lands,' and, less exactly, 
by * fiefs/ i. 159^^ 3371 
GRAPNEL (stafnlé), perhaps better, 'hook/ Lat. falx, ii, oo^^ 

iii. 4I2;i^ 

GRASS-GARTH (grasgariSr), an orchard* a garden, i, 83^7 

GRAVE (gröQí the, of our Lord, see St. Sepulchre. 

GRAVE-ALE (erfi), see Funeral feast. 

GREVE (greifi), sheriff, iii, 230J, 

GREYGOOSE (grágás), the name of the code of law which 

K- Magnus the Good caused to be writteni and which was 

still in Snorri's days in existence in Thrandheim, iii. ^^^^ 
GREY SKINS {gra skinn) = grey wares, 
GREY- WARES (gra-vara), calabar skins, skins of the squirrel 

as distinct from beaver and sablet ii. a6o^ 29X1^5^ 
GRIPPINaXONGS (spenni^töng), a kind of pair of pincers 

used in surgery, ii. 442^ i^, 
GROUT (grautr), a mess, porridge, a name given in scorn by 


GUA — hal] Index III 345 

Thormod the poet, at the point of death, to a decoction of 
leek and other herbs for medicinal purposes, ii. 4423 

GUARD, see Body-guard. 

GUARD ON HORSEBACK (hestvör«r), ii. 53^ 

GUESTS (gestir), a division of the king's household, so called 
because they were self-bidden guests wheresoever the king 
chose to send them on his errands, which frequently were of 
obnoxious and hazardous nature. They were commanded by 
a 'captain of the guests' (gestahöfSingi), ii. 772^ — ^they were 
under special regulations, and had fixed wages, 6729.30 — Olaf 
the Holy had thirty of these men at his court, while Olaf the 
Quiet had sixty, 6729 iii. 1944 — Olaf the Holy has Swedish 
tax-gatherers hanged by his guests, ii. 7231^7 — he sends six of 
them to slay Eilif the Gautlander, 7725-789 — a party of them 
told off at Sticklestead to slay Ram of Vigg, 40917.23 — Sigurd 
Sigurdson's advice to Magnus the Blind to send his guests 
to slay any landed men that should hang back from coming 
to the kipg's aid, iii. 32035.30 — K. Har. GiUi's guests attempt 
the life of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 340,9-34125 

GUILD, see Gilds. 

HAILSTONE (hagl-kom), weighing an ounce, i. 27913.19 

HAIR (har), Harald Haiifair's, by vow, left uncombed and un- 
cut for ten years, i. 951.4 1175-9 — Olaf the Holy's growing 
after death, ii. 45531 — regarded by Alfiva a holy relic if it did 
not burn in fire, especially if unhallowed, 45614.3^ — cut by 
bishop Grimkel, 45724 — by K. Magnus the Good, iii. 8720 — 
and the last time, six-and-thirty years after death, by K. 
Harald Sigurdson, 16311 

HAIR-DRESSING performed by Earl Rognvald on Harald 
Hairfair, i. 1 1 73.13 

HALL OF THE GODDESSES (disar salr; disar, gen. sing., is 
probably a scribal error, which disa blot (disa, gen. plur.) 
immediately preceding seems to show, apparently a temple 
where the goddesses, or rather the fairies, female guardian 
spirits, Norns, or even * valkyrjur' were worshipped i. 511 

HALLOWED, * that there it was hallowed ' (at |>ar var heilagt), 
/>., that worship of the gods was going on, that it was a 
* holy-tide;' the place where this happened was called Hof, 
Temple, ii. 1462 

HALLOWED FIRE (vig«r eldr), set to tinder which was fixed 



346 Index in [hal — h 

to the point of an arrow that was shot at a heathen Wend \ 
whom on account of his sorcery * no weapon bit^' took such 
an effect that he fell down dead, iii» 330ar33is ^ 

HALLOW, Hallowing, su Consecration and Coronation. jH 

HALSE (háls), the neck of the stout and aged Thorir Homwf" 
torn asunder when 'up-reared the ^llows-tree* on which he 
was hanged, iii. ^i^xtx^ 

HAMMER (hamarr) of Thot: men who confessed belieiringi 
nothing but their 'might and main* were in the habit, before"" 
quaffing festive cups, to make over them the sign of Thorns 
hammer, i. tÖg^g^^ cf. ii, 395^.^ — the image of Thor at the 
temple of Hof in Gudbrandsdale held a hammer in its han 
ii. 2 OS 10 

HAND- BATH {hand-laugar), washing of hands, a habit of Oil 
the Holy as he dressed in the morning, ii. öS^ 

HANDFASTING {handfestr), taking hands, in the presence < 
witnesses, for an assurance of faithful execution of a verbal 
promise, Íii. ii^n 

HANDSEL (hand-sal), formally agreeing by joining hajids 
an oral contract^ covenant, or demand (in most cases accoo 
panied by oaths), ii. 47^3^ 18533 iii, 4311 4S9£s 

HAND-SHOT (hand-skot), hurhng a cast-weapon, opp. 
* bow-shot,' a feat at which Oíaf the Holy excelled all me 
ii. 4^ — his son, Magnus the Good^ *shot hand*shot^ 
through the night at the battle of Holy-ness, iii. 463^,23 

HANGING, su Gallows and Gallows-tree. 

HANGINGS (tjold), of costly web done round the body 
Olaf the (Holy on the occasion of his translation^ ii. 4563,- 

4S7i ^^ 

HARALD S STICK (Haralds stiUti), a short poem on I M 

Harald Sigurdson of the kind called 'stikkt ' (meaning of tl^| 

term uncertain), iii. 16S0. ^ |H 

HARBOUR {höfn)» a fortified, built by K* EyBtein Magmjsson 

at Agdirness, Íii. 263^3.15 
HARP (harpa), played at court dinners in Sweden in Olaf the 

Swede's time, ii. 159^ 
HARP-PLAYERS (harparar, sing, harpari), at the Swedish 

court already in the ancient times of the Ynglings, \'^^^ 
HARP-SHELL (harpa, short for horpu-skel, in order to give 

enigmatic brevity to Sveinki's proverbial utterance). 


HAU — hea] Index III 347 

scallop, pecten, iii. 21513 — ^^ point of the sa3áng, * No need 
of roller, quoth fox, drew harp-(shell) o'er ice,' as applied 
by Sveinki to Sigurd Woolstring is this : as the feeble vain 
fox boasts of wanting no roller to drag a scallop along smooth 
ice, so you come swaggering hither with the light message of 
the king; but you are the feeble vain fox all the same/ 
HAUNT (ver, also, for want of a better word, translated * lair,' 
the Icelandic term is applied to islands out at sea, where, in 
consequence of the absence of man, seals congregate and 
breed, sel-ver, and birds gather and lay their eggs (egg-ver), 
and where, also, in the season, fishermen take up a tem- 
porary abode for the pursuit of their industry (fiski-ver), ii. 

2924-10 «938^ 
HAWK, see Sports. 

HAWKS (haukar), considered suitable gifts for kings, ii. 24419 
HAYFORK (hey-tjúga), shot by a thrall at K. Day, killing him, 

i. 3^17 
HAZELLED FIELD, to pitch a (hasla voll), to stake off a field 

with hazel poles, and thus mark it off for a field of battle, i. 

1774 2461^ ' 

HEARTH-INGLE, see Arinn under House, B. 

HEALTH-CUP (full), i. 5922 60^.7— drunk at blood-offerings, 
signed by the temple lord : Odin's cup for victory and kingly 
dominion; Niord's and Frey's, for plentiful seasons and peace; 
Bragi's cup; kinsmen's cup, called 'memories' (minni) to 
departed noble relatives, i. 16520-1663 16914.13 1715^ — Svein 
Twibeard's memory cup to his departed father, 2725.3 — the 
Jomsburg lords' to their deceased fathers Strut Harald of 
Skaney and Veseti of Borgundholm, 27213.53 — ^all cups signed 
to the Æsir at heathen religious festivals, ii. 1937.3 — cup to 
Christ, i. 272ig — cup to Michael, 27213.00 

HEATHCOCK (orri, tetrao tetrix), hunted by hawk, ii. 14023- 

HEAT HCOCK'S BRUNT (orrahri«), the last effort of the 
Norw^ians to retrieve the disaster of Stamfordbridge, lead 
by Eystein Heathcock, iii. 1 7813-1 793 

HEATHEN BLUEMEN (hei^nir blámenn), blackamoors, iii, 

25221 «541 
HEATHEN FOLK, MEN (hei«it folk), the Moors of Spain, 

iii- 25030 2511025 2523 


Index III [hea — h laJ 

HEATHEN SPAIN (Spann heiíSni), the part of Spain occupied] 
by MoorSj iíL 251 „.^g ^ — Heathen Sidon, by Sarace 

HE-GOAT (bukkT), saddled as a riding horse by Olaf HamldsQa 
for his stepfather, Sigurd Sow, li, 3,|>-4a 


HElDSÆVrS THING, rif Thing. 

HEIRSHIP FEAST (erfi), see Funeral feast 

HELL (hel), the name of Olaf the Holy's battíe-axe, us 
Magnus the Good at the battle of Lyrshawheath, iiL 36^^ ,<^ 1 

HERSIR, the head of a * her,' U.^ of a hundred (i 20 familics?)il 
whose dominion was a * heraS/ the territory inhabited by hiii 
* her/ or tribe. His dignity was hereditary, cf Erling's answer 
on being offered an earldom by his brother-in-law, * Hersiis 
have all my kin been/ i, 308^.3— the ' hersij ' seems to haw 
combined in his person the offices of war-commander andn 
religious head of his tribe, i, 7S33 ^ 92^ ii- ^^^^^i^tii fpll-— ^ 
his position, duties, and rights under Harald Hairfair de^ 
fined, J. 961115 *^^' ^*^73T 373^^— hersirs mentioned; Gudbrand 
of Gudbrandsdale, Í, 7832 ^g—Thorir Roaldson, liSi^ — Klyp* 
2i52o^Arinbiorn, 21*}^ — Skopti Skagison^ 24^33 — '^^^^^^ 
Skialg and Erling his son, ^oZ^^y^ — Bodvar, 334^^— Gudbn 
a-Dales, ii. zoo.^^ foil* 

HEWING-BLOCK (hoggstokkr), 'block/ ii. 223^^ 

HIERARCHY in Norway making itself felt for the first ! 
in bishop Magni's dealings with K. Sigurd }erusalcm-£ 

iii. 307-3090 

HIGH -MASS, se€ Mass. 

HIGH-TIDE {hátfS, O.E. heahtld), church festival, feast^^ 
ii. 131^, 

HIPPODROME {paiSreimr, iWíjÍjoo^oc), at Constantinop^ 
description of the place and the games performed there, 

HLAUT, the blood of antoials sacrificed at blood oifering 
which was let run into a special bowl or basin, called hiaut- 
bolli- The word seems to mean * lot,' that whkh is allotted 
to the temple^ the ahars of the gods and the worshippers, all 
of which were besprinkled with the hlaut by means of a 
sprinkler, the hlaut-teinm This explanation of hlaut is stjp- 
ported by the regular ' ablaut ' relation in which it stands to 

HLA — hol] Index III 349 

the verb 'hljóta,' to get by lot, to obtain by allotment, i. 

HLAUT-BOWL (hlaut-bolli), see Hlaut 

HLAUT-TEIN (hlaut-teinn), made in the shape of a sprinkler 
(stökkull), see Hlaut. 

HNEITIR, * Striker,* the name of the sword — its grip wrapped 
about with gold — with which Olaf the Holy fought at Stickle- 
stead, and which he threw away on receiving his mortal 
wound, ii. 41312-14 4267 43^1^ lo-u (in poetry an appellative 
for sword, iii. 3io 473) — Eindrid the Young's account of the 
history of the sword until it found its way to St. Olafs church 
in Constantinople, where it was put up as a trophy, 4283- 

HOGMANY NIGHT (hökunótt): it is, of course, very doubtful 

how far hökunótt, defined as midwinter night, corresponds 
to Hogmany night, the last day of the year. Another form is 
höggunótt, Fris. 71 31 which comes nearer to the English 
form. But as midwinter night in Norway was the 9th of Jan- 
uary, it is possible that the resemblance between the Engl, 
and Icel. term is accidental, yet höku, höggu defies etymo- 
logical explanation, and has all the appearance of a loanword, 
i. 1643 
HOLM-GANG (hólmganga), lit. * the going on to the holm or 
islet,* the standing term for a wager of battle, a duel, fought 
out under recognized formalities, no matter whether the action 
took place on a holm or not These formalities the Kormak 
saga, ch. x., sets forth in the following manner: "This 
was the law of holmgang; there was a rug (feldr) ^\t, ells 
between each skirt, with loops in the corners through which 
should be driven pegs with a (human ?) head at one end, the 
which were called tjösnur (plur. of tjasna). He who made 
things ready should go to the tjösnur in such a manner that 
he might see the sky between his legs holding to the lobes of 
his ears, and should utter the formulary which since (sííSan) 
is imitated in the rite (blot) called " the sacrifice of the tjasna 
(tjösnublót)." * Round the rug there must be three borders, 

• The wording of the passage: * He who made things ready,* etc., shows 
that once upon a time it was the custom, when the tjösnur were adjusted, to 
atter some sort of a formulary, what it was like is unknown. This formulary, 
we are told, vi2& afterwards imitated in that rite which was called tjosnublot. 


Index III 


must bef^B 

each a foot in width, and outside the borders there must be' 
four polesj which are called hazels (hösltir)/ This btring 
done, that is a hazelled field. Each man shall have three 
shields, and when they are done for they shall step upOTi the 
rug, though before they should have happened to leave it. 
Thenceforth their weapons shall be shield to them. He who 
is challenged shall have the first blow. If one of them be 
wounded so that blood falls on the rug» there is no need of 
further fighting. If either step with one foot outside the 
hazels, he " fares a- heel,'' if with both, he *' runs " (away)* Be- 
fore each fighter his own man shall hold a shield. He who á^ 
the more wounded shall pay as " holm-ransom " (hólmlausnT™ 
three marks of silver," 

Concerning Egil's holmgang with Liot the Bleak the Egil's 
saga, ch. LXIV, says : " So they break up and go to the island 
of Vors, There was a fair field (fagr vollr) a short way up 
from the sea, where the 'holm-meeting' (holm stefna) should 
be. A 'holm-spot' (holm staiSr)^ space for duelling, was 
marked off there, and stones were laid down around it. 
These were the laws of * holm-gang ' at the time that he, 
who challenged any man for anything, and should the chal- 
lenger gain the day, then should he have that as a trophy of 
victory on which the challenge had been issued, but should 
he bide defeat, he must ransom himself with as much money 
as had been settled beforehand; but should be fall on the 
holm, he had forfeited all his property to him who felled him 
on the holm." These lociclassici on holm-gang show clearly 
that there is no ' holm ^ in question. The reconj from Kor- 
mak*s saga shows that the law there stated does not apply to 

a rite obvioualy a later outgrowth of an eftrlier ceremony, and cle^ly a 
caricature of it in the form of some popolar game, in which the master of 
tht ceremonies went through the clownish periomiance which ncvrf could 
have formed an item in the serious ritual of real duelling* What the teal 
meaning is of the stem tjas- in tjas-na, is* we believe, ttnknown* Formally 
it seems to be identicnl with tjos- in tjos-uH, Skirn. mál 59, of iinc«rtaÍB 
meaning. Possibly there is etymological relationship betweeii liittDE 
(= Ijastna ?) and Norw, dial list, tistn, * a little thio splmier/ ' ^ fibte tiUli 
loose on a tree,* * a small sliver torn up in the skin * {Aasen, cL Hoss). 

* This shows the foreign (Norwegian) origin of this description. No huel 
ever grew in Iceland, so no duelling fíeld could ever be hatellcd oif m thjU 
country, while in Norway and other foreign iands the hdzelling-in oísi^id 
a/ húittf^ not of a duelling spott is cocpmon eaoaglu 

HOL — hor] Index III 


Iceland at ali, where there never grew a hazel from which 
hazel poles could be made. The Egilssaga holmgang is 
avowedly a Norwegian performance- A wager of battle being 
contested somewhere inland on an island did not make it a 
holm-gang — an island was no more a holm than a mountain 
was a knoll — though it was a duel The fact is that hdlmganga 
is a purely Icelandic term^ derived from the holm or tiny islet 
in the Axe river at Thingvellir, where, until the abolition of 
duels, A,D, 1006, it was lawful and customary to decide certain 
cases by judicial combats. The public sanction of this spot 
for the purpose was probably as old as the establishment of 
the Althing, A,D. 930, which would naturally account for the 
use Icelandic writers make of holmgang for any formal dud 
under any local conditions. — From the hotmgang mentioned 
in Heimskringla, i* 264^^ ^66^,,^ which took place in Eng- 
land, we gather no information as to the nature of the locality. 
See Single fight. 

HOLY'DAV (helgr), Lat. festum^ church festival^ ii. t%^^ 

HOLY-TI DE (helgr)^ id., rung in before canonioilly it began, 
in order to save a criminaFs life, ii, 1^6^ g^ 

HOLY WATER (vigt vatn), sprinkled over things in order to 
counteract the effects of sorcery on them, i. 33130-3321 

HOMAGE (handgatiga), done in due form when he, whose 
homage was desired, took by the grip the sword reached him 
on behalf of him who desired to be his liege lord, i, 13837- 

»3910 "' 'S^ís ^'434 
HONEY (hunang), ill. 342^5 

HORN (horn). 

1, A drinking vessel: used for infants to drink of, i. 43^2 
— ordinary drinking cup^ sometimes adorned with gold, 
10625J.55 and fair graven and shining as gíassj iö7,.5j^used at 
sacrificial feasts, 1691^— customary for kings of Norway to 
drink of deeT*homs until the days of Olaf the Quiet (when 
beakers were introduced), iii. 1931017 ^^^20 

2. Instrument for blowing signals (lúlSr), also translated 
trumpet: in use among the Biarms, ii. 2^t^ — war- signal, 

424.1J iii. 35^« 7i>B joifiw 344s 4434 44Sn 
HORN- SWAIN (IdiSrsveinn), trumpeter, iii. 3013^ 
HORSE — I. (hross), occurs in Heimskringla only when the 

animal is treated as a victim at sacrificial feasts (in one case. 


Index III [hor^ — ^hoí 


íii. 19933 25 ti^^^ ^ ^^^ (men), 200^ wantonly cut do 
at a king's behest), i, 16515 i»^ í93*.io 

HORSE — 2- (hestr), always signifies the animal living andacti' 
in the service of man^horses fit for presents to a king, 
244^7^horses of Gautland known for swiftness, iii. ^^Sj^.^e— 
horse-guard (hestvorlSr), mounted guard, i, So^,^ iii. 316^., — 
horse training for riding purposes (ri^a hesta), a kingly tt^at 
i. 35^.j^--horse trappings; forgiided saddle (gyltr söíSullí^ 
ii. 34,^^14 — bit beset with smalta and done with gold (bitur 
settt smeltum steinum ok gyltr), 3424.35 — crupper, or rath* 
saddle-straps, i- ii6._j^ — girth {gagntak), iii. 29814— horsrs 
named: Slinger (Slöngvir), Raven (Hrafn), the sire of another 
Raven, all owned by King Adils of Upsala* i, soj^i.^ts^^^^'** 
blamed horse, K. Harald Sigurdson's charger at the battle 
Stamford bridge, iii. 173^ 

HORSE-FLESH (hrossa-slátr), with heathen worshippers 
favourite repast at sacnlicial festivities, to Christians an 
abomination, as was also the broth (soiS) and the dripping 
(flot) thereof, i, 1693^-170^ 1713,511. 69^— horseliver (hros slilrj, 
i. 171^ 

HORSE-WARD, see Horse^ard, Horse, 3. 

HOSPITALITY, Thorgnyr's servants receive Earl RognvaM| 
taking charge of his horses and baggage, ii, 1 1 6.^,^, ,., — ^he f 
welcomed by his host^ Thotgnyr, and led to the seat whc^n 
while he was at fostering with Thorgnyr, be used to sit, iii 
1 1 72^Ragnhild, daughter of Eriing Skialgson, shelters ail 
entertains the gossip of her daughter Thora^ Stein Skaptisool 
in spite of his being the slayer of a king^s official, and \ 
de&ance of her own husband, ii. 280^28625— the outlaid 
Thorir's hospitality to Thorod Snorrison, 2931^-2991^^ — ^Krisdn 
king's-daughter offers to Gregory Day son, a fugitive from K, 
Eystein's revenge, whatever he wishes for, providing him wit^ 
a longship for his journey, iii. 39ig.i5 

HOST, sec Hosting. 

HOSTAGE (gisl, gislar), exchanged between the As-folk anj 
the Vanir, i. 13^3-14^ — Earl Sigurd, on conversion to Chrb 
ianity, gives his son as hostage to Olaf Tryggvisonj 29 1^^- 
Upper Thrandheitn chiefs, accepting Christianity, give Oil 
Tryggvison in hostage a son, or brother or other near kin** 
man, i. 31920.'^^ — Olaf the Holy takes hostages from newly-coQ 

Hos — Hou] Index III 353 

verted chiefs about Lesiar and Dofrar, iL i99m.m — K« Knut 
exacts hostages from Norwegian bonders in pledge of their 
loyalty, 348^3 — and from landed men and mighty yeomen 
sons, brothers and near kinsmen, 34919^.45134 — K. Harald 
Sigurdson receives hostages from the men of Yorkshire in 
guaranty of loyal subjection, iii. 16925^ — "^ guaranty of 
peace between Norway and Denmark Erlmg Askew abides a 
hostage with K. Valdimar, who sends Asbiom Snare in the 
same capacity to K. Magnus Erlingson of Norway, 47382'473s 
HOST-BOUND MEN, hosting-bound folk (lei«angrsmenn), 
men summoned out for a naval expedition, iii. 4437 4591s 

HOSTEL, see Sáluhús under House. 

HOSTING (leiiSangr), a levy of the service-bound naval arma- 
ment of the country, ii. 287^ iiL 26,5^1 129,3 — (h^samna^r), 
a host of disaffected subjects, iii. 22^ 
HOUND (hundr), see Saur. 
HOURS (tftSir), horae canonicae, ii. 5710 206^ cf. 20^y^j^ 

327„ iii. 47Sii 

DvNGjA, 'bower' [the translation (i. 1099) should read: 
Loathed warm bower, varma dyngju] the women's apart- 
ment, which the poet's epithet varma mdicates as the warm 
house of a homestead. Etymologically it must be connected 
with M.H.G. tunc, * hypogeum, textrina, gyneceum,* a term 
which still survives in southern Germany and Switzerland 
for 'under-ground weavers' shops.' Already, speaking of 
the spinning and weaving of flax, Pliny, XIX. i, 2, avers. In 
Germania autem defossi atque sub terra id opus agunt; and 
Tacitus, Germ. 19, i, says: solent et subterraneos specus 
aperire eosque multo insuper flmo onerant suffugium hiemi 
et receptaculum frugibus, a statement which has given rise 
to the possibly correct etymology that M.H.G. tunc, Engl- 
Germ. dung, and Icel. dyngja, are all cognate terms. In 
Icel. dyngja means a heap, not necessarily of dung, repre- 
senting the shape of a flattened beehive; dyngju-fjöU is the 
name given in Iceland to flatly dome-shaped volcanoes; 
some of these mountains go under the name of trolladyngja, 
Le, troUwives' bower, which must be of early date. This 

VI. A A 


Index HI 


fonn of house seems to come down from times when man 
had not yet discovered the art of building overground, i» 
1 09fl This kind of house is unknown to the authors of the 
Eddie poems, 
HuRBERGiy * chamber/ * lodging' (not a purely Scandinavian 
term, though it is common to all the Scand. idioms: Norw. 
her-b3nrge, O.Sw, har-barghe, O.Da. hær-bærghe^ 0,E, here- 
beorga, O.H,G. heri-berga) does not indicate any particular 
room, but merely room or apartment in general, i. 3511^ 
ii. ia5j^ 2oog passim 

HlR©STOFAj S€€ Stofa* 

Hla^a, kornhla^Aj "^barn,* *cornbam/ in Jamtlrmd, 
^9^0-7 — ^t Sticklestead turned into a temporary hospitd 
for wounded men^ ii. 439^ g^ 

HöLL, *hair {0,E* heal, orig. shelter, from helan, to cover) 
occurs only as a name of palatial residences of kings: K* 
Alfs at Upsala, i, 363^; King Olaf the Holy-s at Sarpsburg, 
B* i49gand K. Eystein Magnusson's great hall erected at 
Bergen, iii. ^H^xx 

HtJSKYTjA, * house-cot,' a small outhouse; the body of Olaf 
the Holy hidden in one such at Sticklestead immediately 
after his fall, ii. 444^ 

LoPT, 'loft,' an upper storey, the first floor; also a compart- 
ment or division of such a storey. In K. Frodi's great home- 
stead at Hleithra, Fiolnir, K. of Sweden, slept in one 
division or compartment of the first storey, and in the dark 
of night lost his way by an outside gallery into another 
division, loft, of the same, and there, falling through an 
open trap-door, found his death in a great mead-vat, i 24^ 
25^— Raud the Strong was sleeping in a loft in his house 
in Godisle when Oiaf Tryggvison surprised him, i, 33217— 
at Ness, in Upper Gud brand's dale, K, Olaf the Holy slept 
* in a certain loft . . . which stands yet to^iay and nought 
hath been done to it since,' ii. 200^.^ — Erling slept in a loft 
at his manor of Soli when Skialg his son brought the news 
of the peril of his nephew Asbiorn at OgvaJdsnesSj ii* 2241^ 
— ^loft on tie- beams in a hostel in the Wilderness, ii, 300^.1^ 
— Nicolas Skialdvorson chooses the loft in bis residence at 
Nidoyce for a fort wherefrom to defend himself agmnst the 
Birchlegs, iii. 482^-483^ 



Index III 355 

MÁLSTOFA, see Stofa. 

Naust, see Boat-shed under Ships, 4. 

Ofnstofa, su Stofa. 

Salerni, * privy,* large, on posts, admittance by a flight of 

steps, ii. I272,.j5 

Salr, *hair (O.H.G. sal, G. saal, O.E. salu, sele, Fr. salle, 
It. and Sp. sala), a large, palatial building, a royal hall. 
The typical hall with this name was * Upsalr,* i. 5727.38 5812 
in imitation of which Ingiald Evilheart erected the seven 
kings' salr at Upsala, 572^.80 5^8 10 ss — ^ * synonym for 
höll, a king's palace, ii. 149^1 

SXluhús, * hostel,' lit. * salvation house,' a shanty erected by 
the roadside in wildernesses to serve as shelter for benighted 
travellers, ii. 30O1 ^^ 30I3.8 

Sel, ii. 36420 and 

Setr, * mountain-bothy,' where, in summer, a part of the family 
went from the homestead to keep the dairy stock on 
mountain pasture, and to store up dairy produce, which 
was flitted home as it accumulated, the bothy being evacu- 
ated at the end of the summer season, ii. 3663 ^ ^4 24 

Skáli, ' hall,' probably from ' skál,' a bowl (upside down), the 
bowl-shaped house, the dome-formed habitation. If this 
is right, the name would relegate the original architecture 
of the skáli to the primitive times, when the dyngja style 
was in vogue. The original sense of the word seems to 
imply an unfurnished shed. In Heimskringla the skáli does 
service chiefly as a large dormitory: that of Haki in Hada- 
land being the sleeping apartment of his house-carles, i. 
^^17-18 — ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ sleeping accommodation of the 
house-carles of Raud the Strong in Godisle, i. 33220^1 — Olaf 
the Holy built within his residence at Nidoyce a large skáli 
for a dormitory to his body-guard, ii. 683 — on account of its 
size this skáli could easily on occasion be turned into a 
banqueting hall or guest-chamber, for which purpose, how- 
ever, it also seems to have been specially built. To this 
kind must be referred the great hall of Thorkel Foster-father 
at Sandwick in Orkney, with doors at either end, and fires 
burning on the floor, ii. 177^ 14^ — of this class of halls, 
were ako the two banqueting halls of the wealthy goodman 
Aki in Vermland, where he entertained the Kings of 


Index HI 


Norway and Sweden, L io6„-i073 — in one caseit isappljedl«! 
in its more primitive sense, to an almost unfurnished hostel 

in the wilderness, the above-mentioned sáluhús, ii, 30 ij^ 
Skemma, * bower/ the short house, from skammr, short; the| 
reason for the name probably being that, in comparisoai 
with the skUi, or the stofa, this storehouse was always of a 
much smaller sÍ2e, even as the case is still in Iceland. 
Imprisoned in Jamtland in such a skemma, with a grof, 
pit, or cellar in the floor, locked by a door, ue. a trap- 
door, gluggr, Thorod Snorrison found there, amongst other 
household articles, both raiment and reindeer skins, which 
points to the use this storehouse served, il 296^-398^ — at 
Sticklestead, a skemma ' outhouse ' with fires on the floor 
was turned into a temporary military hospital, ii. 440^^, 
when a house had an upper storey, and the ground fl'oor 
wholly, or in part, was reserved for other purposes than 
occupation by the family, it was called undir- skemma, 
under-croft— at K, Frodi's it was a sort of wine-cellar, L 
2450^1 — in Oslo, in the winter of 1062-3, an undir- skemma 
is mentioned as a sort of tavern, iil. 1433^— the ^ti -skemma, 
* out-bower/ beside other purposes, also served that of 
sleeping apartment, i- 136^ 
Stofa, Stuka, variously translated 'chamber,' 'guest-cham- 
ber,' *hall/ 'house,* Modging;' a building, the name ofj 
which is found, in various forms, not only throughout the 
Germanic languages, but far and wide beyond. (Dan, stuve, 
stue; Sw, stobo, stuga; Norw. Faro, stova : 0,E. stofa; cf. E. 
stove; Duch. stoof; O.H.G, stuba; M.H.G, stube; Low 
Lat* stuba; It stufa; Fr* étuvej as a Germ, loanword: Fin^ 
tupa; Lith. stuba ý O. Slov. istuba, i^ba; Hung, szoba; 
Turk, soba — KJuge,) This was the principal house in the, 
complex of buildings which constituted a hom^tead in 
the country; in towns it was the chief apartment in ^ 
house, or it was built separately as a stoía^ 

In general the stofa was the sitting and dining-room of the 
family, i. 35x13 ii. 445^1 Hi 1393 4851^ — it also did servicel 
as a sleeping apartment, chiefly for guests, i< 92^^ a 86^3. J 
ifl ii* 344i6 *it* 475i» 47610 — fí'öm its size it naturally serveal 
as the room where occasionally entertainments and banqueta] 
were given to invited guests^ veiilu-stofa — as when Sigridl 



Index III 357 

the Haughty entertained in her ^ old ' stofa and burnt with- 
in it Handd the Grenlander and Vissavald, her two wooers, 
i. 2869^1 — and when the common room at K. Sigurd Sow's 
manor was turned into banqueting hall to receive Olaf the 
Holy and his company, the decorations, hangings, bankers, 
etc., being got out and put up for the occasion, ii. 34imo 
372 — of tins description seems also to have been the stoS 
of the priest at Rydiokul, in which he gave a banquet to 
Earl Erling Askew, iii. 47513 47610 — likewise that of Rafn- 
ness, where K. Magnus Erhngson repaired with many men 
after the battle of Re, iii. 48513 — specially built for social 
gatherings were the * drinking-chambers,' drykkju-stofur, 
guild-houses, iii. 2864 25^ — and for banqueting purposes, 
the halls, stofur, of the kings, both those at the royal 
manors in the country and those in the towns where the 
kings set up their chief residence. Manorial halls are 
mentioned at Fitiar in the island of Stord, i. i8iij — at Og- 
valdsness in the isle of Kormt, ii. 22 2^ ^ — besides one the 
locality of which is not mentioned, ii. 1253.5 — l^tly, there 
were the palaces, * court-halls,' hiriSstofur, in the towns 
where the kings had a more or less constant residence: 
Olaf the Holy's at Nidoyce, of large dimensions, with a door 
at either end, which seems to mean, through the side-wall 
that faced the ordinary approach to the house, near to 
either gable end, but not through the gables themselves; 
this hall was built in the old fashion with the two high- 
seats, the upper (nobler) and the lower (less noble) set up 
against the middle of the side-walls, and directly feeing 
each other, ii. 671^.20 — the old arrangement of the *coiut- 
hall ' underwent, at the instance of Olaf the Quiet, a radical 
change, in that the royal high-seat was removed from the 
middle of the side wall up to the centre of the dais at the 
further gable end, while the lower high-seat was moved 
away from the side-wall into the middle of the floor, out 
from the * trapeza,' where it acquired the name of Marshals'- 
stool, stallara-stóll, iii. 1923.7 19313.14 — K. Olaf changing the 
mode of warming up the hall from fires burning on hearths 
along the floor to ovens heated for the purpose, halls so 
warmed were called halls with ovens, ofn-stofur, iii. 1923 — 
distinct from the banqueting hall was the málstofa or 


Index III [hou — thi 

council chamber where kings and magnates gave audience 
and judicial decisions; such was the large hall that Olaf the 
Holy had built at Nidoyce adjoining his residence, where 
he used to hold court councils, hir^stefnur, ji, 68^5 — this 
is the same hall which further on is called Thing-house, 
þínghúSj and where K. Olaf gave audience to emissaries from 
Sweden, li, 70gg — this, too, was probably the same málstofa, 
with a luffer over which a shutter, fjol, could be turned 
so as to darken the room, in which Harald Hardredy had 
Einar Thambarskelfir slain, iii. log^^jg— ThorgnyTj the 
great lawman of Tenthland, gave audiences and heard cases 
in a separate málstofa, ii.ii?^^ — strange enough, the terra 
stofa or stufa never occurs in ðae Eddie poems* 

SVKFN-Ethij * sleeping-bower,' the baresark's Haki of Hada- 

land, L 82^^ 

ARiiítí, ' hearthj* name of the oblong rectangular fireplaces 
which anciently ran along the middle of the floor in 
northern halls, i. 513^ — (arins hom), fireplace comer, 
, * hearth-ingle,' fireside, Íb* 

AsSj ' roof-tree,* * sooty ' because the smoke from the h^rlh 
gathered on the rafters of the hall- roof, i. Srsaa* 

BoR^i 'board/ 'table/ (matboriS), meat-board, lii. ig^g 118« 
cf, ^ — movable, set up for meals, and removed when mea^ 
were finished; setja boriS, to set the table up, lay out the 
table, i, 83^ ii, 34jg iii, i39^i(> ^ — also: setja borS fram, 
iii- 29422 — *^^^ o\dkt\. boriS, to take away the board, \. 1 82| — 
boriS em uppi (boards are drawn), tables are removed, lit. ao^ 
267^, cf. ii. 226gp where 'the tables still standing' should 
read * the tables being removed/ In front of the high -seat 
was the hásætis'borlS, high-seat table, Li. 222^3 j^—^with the 
table went the 

BoRÍS-BÚNA^R, * board-array/ * table-gear/ * table service,' i* 
10628 *^' ^3^32 34 Í 30— table service of great magnificence 
secured for Olaf the Holy from Holmgarth (Russia), ii. 
^^^'^^ — ^^ objects constituting the ' board-array * there are 



mentioiied only 
BORíS-oÚKR, * table-cloth,' ii 

'39^0— ^nd 
BoRlS-fCER, or simply kzr, * board-bowls/ ' board-beakers,' as 

222gg ^ — (dlikr) 'toweV iil 


Index III 359 

well as (horn) ' horns,' sometimes ' gilt and fairly fashioned/ 
or 'all done about with gold, fair-graven and shining as 
clear as glass,' i. loójg-ioyg — the 'board beakers' of the 
king were held, and fiUed at need by royal pages standing 
before the high-seat table, ii. 38511 iii. 193^, SSSisis so-si 
(3361^. On festive occasions the hsdl, skáli or stofa, as the 
case might be, was ' dressed up ' with the 

BiJNA^R or hósbunaÍSr, 'gear,' * house-gear,' which was got 
out from the household wardrobe and put up in the shape 
of (tjöld) ' hangings ' and bankers or seat-coverings (búna^r 
um bekki), i. 10624^ "• 34i6 — ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ Olaf the Holy 
at Sarpsburg Sigvat notices as a striking addition to the 
'húsbúnaSr' that the walls were hung with 'bymies and 
helms,' ii. 1498.17 

Dyrr. Access to the hall was obtained by the dyrr ' door,' 
doorway, some halls having a door at either end. This 
cannot mean that the doors led in through the gable ends 
of the house, but that they were on the wall which formed 
the frontage of the house, at either end near to the gables. 
This is stated to have been the case with the hir^tofa of 
Olaf the Holy in Nidoyce, ii. 67,7.18 — ^^^ ^^^ Thorkel 
Fosterfather's skáli at Sandwick in Orkney, 1 77iie — ^^ ^^^^ 
was locked by a (hur^) [Goth, haurds, O.E. hyrdel, M.E. 
hurdel, M.H.G. hurt, G. hiirde, Du. horde], ii. 222^ — the 
door of a sáluhús, ii. 30X1^ — the door of the Temple of 
Ladir, where the hur% was adorned with what was supposed 
to be a massive ring of gold, i. 3091^ — the door of a bed- 
room bolted from within, iii. 3435 — in houses it was fitted 
in a door-frame; * door-posts' (gætti), ii. 30I17 

Eldar, ' fires,' burning on the arinn, the fuel being firewood, 
ski% ii. 44019.^ 44i7.}0) by which, 'litten,' ale should be 
drunk, and round which ale was borne from the high-seat 
to those whom the occupier of the high-seat wished to toast, 
67m i77i4-i6 "Í- 1925-6 I93i9— and against which it was 
customary to ' bake ' one's self (bakask), iiL 4851^ 

FjöL, * shutter,' by means of which the liiflfer could be shut 
and opened, iii. 10921 

FoRSTOFA, * porch,' 'forehall,' mod. Eng. *hall,' the entrance 
hall into which admission was obtained through the ' door,' 
and which in its turn communicated directly with the main- 
hall, ii. 222io 34422 


Index III 


Gluggr, 'window,' originally an opening through which thing! 
were dropped into the house^ — ^such were the windows 
(gluggar) of Frey's mound at Upsala, i. 231^-^kler the 
windows served the purpose of admitting aij and light into 
the building, as probably did the lopt-gluggar, loft-windows^ 
fli, windows on the first floor, mentioned, iii. jBgui^ 
gluggr stands for a trap-door leading down to a gröíi * pit * 
or cellar in an ouE-house, ii* 3963^^8, ^^Ix^ s* 

GOLF, *fioor/ of a hall was covered with balmr * haulm/! 
straw, iL 341^-17 — ^"^^ ^^ floors of royal halls were 'strawed' 
in that manner through the winter, but after the mode of 
heating by open fires was changed to warming by means of 
stoves by Olaf the Quiet, the floor was straw-covered both 
winter and summer, iii, 192^ — golf is otherwise also used 
of the floor of an upper storey, ii. 297^0 

Gröf , * pit/ a cellar under a skemma, admission to which wa* 
by a trapdoor, cf. gluggr, ii. 396^0 397b »1» «< m 

HXsÆTi and Öndugi, high-seat- In Heimsknngia the dis- 
tinction is maintained throughout, that hásæti is the seat 
of a king, while öndugi is that of untitled persons, ThuSt 
while in the new-built ball of Olaf the Holy his own seat 
is called a hásæti, the seat of his marshal opposite goes by 
the name of öndugi {the expression f ö^ru ondugi, in the 
other high-seat, indicating that now the hásætt of the king 
was where formerly the öndvegi on the higher, more 
noble, bench or dais, ondvegi á œíSra bekk, had its place) 
ji. 67^3.3^ — Thorgnyr the great *lawman*s' high -seat is called 
ondugi, not hásæti, 1 16^^— it seems to have become fashion 
in the eleventh century to distinguish the seat of a king and 
an earl by the term hásæti from that of untitled dignitaries, 
which went under the traditional and time-honoured title 
of Ondugi, cf. Burnt Nial, ii. laij^.^^ where Flosi remon- 
strates : * I am neither king nor earl, and there is no need 
to make a high^seat, hásfeti, for me to sit on .. , to make 
a mock of me*' 

The hásætí occupied the place in the haU where the 
ondugi always had been, and stil! remained in haUs 
generally after the distinctive term hásseti had been intro- 
duced. Its place was the centre of that bench or dais which 
ran along one of the side-walls of the ball. This old petition 

THi] Index III 361 

of the high-seat was shifted by K. Olaf the Quiet to the 
dais athwart the hall at its upper end. The lower high-seat, 
which hitherto had stood opposite to the king's seat, was 
now moved from the side-dais unto the middle of the floor, 
and exchanged the name of annat öndugi for that of 
Marshal's stool, stallara-stóll, the occupiers of which faced 
those in the high-seat. This radical change in the disposi- 
tion of the seats of honour was really due to the adoption 
of a new method of warming halls, which was effected by 
means of ovens, built of stones (iii. 38912-18)» whereby the 
long-fires (langeldar), burning on an oblong hearth (arinn) 
along the middle of the floor, were done away with. High- 
seats (hásæti) in royal halls are mentioned as early as the 
days of K. Alf, i. 3630 — seven high-seats in the Seven Kings' 
Hall built by Ingiald Evilheart, 5726-30 5^7-« — ^^8 Granmar 
shows his guest K. Hiorvard to the high-seat (here called 
hásæti, not öndvegi) opposite to his own, 5929.51 — at blood- 
oflferings the chief or lord of the people occupied the high- 
seat in the temple, 16910.14 ^7^« — Olaf the Holy is led to 
the high-seat in K. Sigurd's stofa on returning to Norway 
to claim the kingdom, ii. 3714.15 — the high-seat arrange- 
ments in his new hall at Nidoyce described, 671«^ — he 
shares his high-seat with his bhnded kinsman, K. Kœrek, 
1 23iy — William of Normandy admits Harald Godwinson to 
the high-seat occupied by himself and his spouse, iii. 15615.17 
— Olaf the Quiet's alterations of the high-seat arrangement 
in the hall, 1923.3 19313.10 — K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer seized 
with frenzy in the high-seat, 2881^-28912 29-2907 

The high-seat as a point to which symboHc ceremonies 
were linked : K. Hrollaug of Naumdale rears a kingly high- 
seat on the mound where as kings he and his brother used 
to be sitting, and rolls himself from it unto the cushioned 
foot-pace whereon earls where in the habit of sitting, where 
he took his seat and gave himself the name of earl, then 
volunteered to become K. Harald Hairfair's man, who * led 
him into the high-seat' and appointed him his Earl of 
Naumdale, i. ^1^'^\^—on the decease of a king or titled 
lord the high-seat must be left unoccupied until the suc- 
cessor had given his heirship-feast and drunk the cup of 
Bragi, when he was free to take possession of it, L 5812.22 


Index HI 


^IH'% — ^^ appointing his son Eric over-king over Norway,' 
K. Har. Hairrair led him into the high-seat in tymboUc 
ratification of the act, 1412^.37 cf. ^^^^ — on appointing his 
son Horda-Knut King of Denmark, K. Knut the Mighty 
observes exactly the same ceremony, ii. 349>7.i9 — on ii 
vesting Svein Wolfson with earldom over Denmark, 
Magnus the Good leads him from tiie foot-stool inio t] 
high'Seat beside himself, following a ceremony closely 
sembling that observed by K, Harald Haírfair in the 
of Hrollatig, iii. 30^.^ g^^ 31^10 

Hlid, 'gate/ closed wtth a door, in a wooden fence round 
heathen sanctuary, ii. i6i]g ^ 

Ker, st€ Bordker, 

HuRD, se€ above, under * Dyrr/ 

HvÍLA, 'bed/ i. 2S425 (where * chamber' goes out), jii^^ 

LjÓRi, * luffer,* opening in roof to let out smoke, and to 
in light, wide enough for a man to creep through, i, 3134— 
provided with a shutter, fjol, which could be turned om 
it at will to darken the room, HL 109^ 

MatboríS, * meat- board/ 1« Bor^- 

Ofn, ' oven,' introduced in Norway by Olaf the Quiet, líi, 19 
built of stones, 3891^3 4^3a*r 

Ondugi, s€€ High-seat. 

Fallr, ' dais,' iii, 3383^ 339^5— (annan pallr) * lower bend 
or the less honourable daís^ ii. 12515 — (lang-pollr) *lo3 
dais,* the elevation running along either side of a haO 
which the seats of the hall were arranged, iii. 1 92^— (hápallr) 
' high-dais,' the elevation athwart a hall, at the upper a 
of it on which, at the instance of K. Olaf the Quiet, 
high-seat was set up instead of in the centre of the long dats, 
192^— (krok-pallr) 'cross-dais,* seems to refer to the angie 
where high-dais and longniais joined, 48533 — (pallstokkr) 
dais-stock, the stock or plank that formed the outer edge 
of the pallr, 486., 

Rekkja, 'bed * [perhaps connected with rakkT,Sw. rak, stwghi, 
stretched, cf Engl stretcher], i. 31 s^^ 323 j^ ii. 300^ — some- 
times a rekkja was fronted by a fötaskör * foot-board ' ti 
could serve for a seat, Í. 31525 

Sæng, 'bed,' hung with pall (tjoldulS, pellum), and arrays 

THi — Hou] Index III 363 

with dear-bought clothes, búin dýrligum klssSum, i. 

Set, ' settle,' used for a bed in a wayside hostel in the wilder- 
ness, ii. 29V«i 30ÖÍ6 

Skapker, ' a large bowl,' from which drink was poured into 
drinking vessels and served out to the company, ii. 34171s 

Slagbrandr, ' bolt ' of a gate in the fence of a rustic sanctu- 
ary, ii. 26lj|8 

Stallara-stóll, ^ marshal's-stool,' the seat which in the royal 
halls of Norway, from the reign of Olaf the Quiet, was substi- 
tuted for the old high-seat on the middle lower bench. The 
Marshal's seat was placed in the middle of the floor further 
down than the trapeza; it was occupied, besides the Mar- 
shal, by those of the court dignitaries who came in rank 
next after those who sat on either side of the king in his 
high-seat on the dais at the upper end of the luill, iii. 

193181« Cf- "• 67l824 

TjÖLD (sg. tjald), * hangings,' 11. 341« 

Trapiza, r/)dircia, * table,' on which was placed the * skapker,' 
or ^ great bowl,' and at which washing of hands before and 
after meals probably also took place (cf. Fms. viii. 1312-16) 
— it stood on the floor some way down the hall, and after 
the changes in the seat arrangements of the hall introduced 
by Olaf the Quiet, it occupied a position between the king's 
high-seat and the marshal's chair, ii. 3417 iii. i93i8 
þEKjA, * thatch,' of (reyr) * reed ' or (halmr) * straw ' (in Sicily), 

iii. 6421^ 
þvERTRE, cross- Or tie-beams, on which, in a wayside hostel, 
a loft was built for sleeping accommodation, ii. 30O10 
HOUSE-CARLES (hiiskarlar), i. generally: free-born men in 
service, attending on their master, often in the capacity of 
fighting men; Haki's house-carles were provided with his hall 
for dormitory, i. 82ig — Eyvind's house-carles and tenants at- 
tend him on a ' row-boat ' trip in quest of household supplies, 
2i9i7 — Raud the Strong had many house-carles and a nume- 
rous retinue of Finns, 32913.15 — Ketil of Ringness took with him 
forty of his own house-carles for the surprise of the Upland 
kings, ii. 107^ 12.18 — Lawman Thorgnyr's house-carles form a 
sort of body-guard round him at Upsala Thing, ii. ii8j„ — 
Thorir Hound mans a longship ofhis with wellnigh eighty house- 


Index III 


carles, 2593.^ — Thrand o' Gate's house-carles, ten or twelve of 

them, taie a ship of his on a risky voyage to Norway, ^*io^^^ 
— Harek of Thiotta sends a row-ferry manned with a dozieii 
of his house-carles to rob an island belonging to Asinurd 
G ran ke! so n ^ 2 93^- 2 94^ cf 2 9 2 ^ .^ ^ — -he goes i n to vík in g warfare 
on a cutter of twenty benches manned with his house-carles, 
29325-29 — Thorir Hound mans a longship with his house- 
carles in order to oppose Olaf the Holy, 387^5^ S^^iii-* 
Olaf the Holy quotes the Icelandic custom of masters giving 
their house-carles a harvest treat by slaughtering a wether for 
them, 409^0^ — Thorir Hound selects a body of eleven of 
his house-carles to form his guard at the battle of Stickle- 
stead, 421 j^^.^j — Kalf Arnison ranges his house-carles under 
his own banner at the battle of Sticklestead, 423^ — houses 
carles stand firm in battle with landed men when * bonders' 
flee, 4285^ — Kalf Arnison mans a twenty- bencher with his 
house-carles, 4631^— he flees from Noni-ayj going on viking 
cruise in a ship manned by his house-carles, iii. 20^^.^^ gj-^ij, 
— Einar Thambarskelfir had more house-carles even timo an 
earl, 1083^^ — Finn Arnison has a following of well nigh eighty 
house-carles of his own, r 134.5 — ^- Sigurd Jerusalem-farer 
summons to him landed men and their house-carles on the 
chance of having to give battle to his brother, 2741^.1« — houses 
carles are referred to, in King Ingi*s state-paper to the men of 
Thrandheim, in respect of political franchise as on the level 
with 'landed men * and 'court men,' 35 934 — Gregory Dayson 
treated his house-carles better than other landed men^ making 
them drink with him at gilds, and providing them with helmets 
when they attended him at Things, 386^^3^, cf 3873^.33— feud 
between the house-carles of Gregor>' and K, Sigurd Haraldson^ 
3^7e-ii — 3^i*^y between house<:ar]es at Biorgvin, 4i7j'4t8. — 
the house-carles of Hal dor of Vettland hewn down fighting 
with their master, 4i9gi' — after the faU of Gregory Dayson 
and K. Ingi, Erling Askew appeals to the house-carles of the 
former to join the party opposed to Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
43Sh — '^^y» ^^ '^^ ^^ ^*^ house-carles of Erling, join K, 
Magnus Erlingson going on a state visit to K. Waldimar 
Denmark, 43722^24 — Earl Sigurd of Keyr's war-host in fighting 
for Hakon Shoulderbroad consisted of his house- carles, 4401 
— ^2. the lowest section of the kmg*s household of free-bora 


Hou — how] Index III 365 

men, thirty in number at the court of Ölaf the Holy, sixty at 
the court of Olaf the Quiet, engaged in doing * ail needful 
service ' within the royal establishment, and * at whatso in- 
gatherings were needful,' ii. oy^Q-oSj iii. 1944.7 — the devotion 
of the house-carles of Magnus the Good praised in song by 
Odd Kikina-skald, iii. 91 25.26 

HOUSECARLES'-WHETTING (húskarla-hvöt),aname given 
by the army of K. Olaf at Sticklestead to 'Biarklay the 
Ancient,* when Thormod had sung it out to them at the 
dawn of the day, ii. 4084 

HOUSE-FREYA (húss-freyja), a lady who rules a household, 

HOUSEWIFE'S TOW (rykkjartó; possibly rykkjar was meant 
to stand in the original for * rukkjar,' gen. of * rukkr,' a * rock,' 
* spinning-wheel ' ; but as rygjar, gen. of rygr, an archaic term 
for woman, is the reading both in the oldest saga of Olaf the 
Holy, ed. 1849, P- ^Ose ^^^ ^"^ ^^^ older law of Frosta-Thing, 
xvi. 2, 3, Norg. gamle Love, p. 257-8, we thought it safer to 
follow the reading rygjar-tó), a bundle of undressed flax, as 
much as might be spanned by the biggest finger, the thumb, 
and the longest, a tax payable at Yule, imposed by Svein 
Alfivason on every mistress of a house in Norway, ii. 450^.2^ 

HOWE (haugr), a burial mound, a barrow; in Snorri's view 
the historical landmark of a new era, * the mound-age,' fol- 
lowing that of burning, i. 4^7.30 — Frey was the first lord in 
Sweden, and Dane the Proud in Denmark, to be laid in howe, 
4ii«» — Frey's howe was built with a door and three windows 
(gluggar), through which votive offerings were dropped in 
gold, silver and copper, 2318.32 — ^* Gudlaug of Halogaland 
was laid in mound at Streamisleness, 3910.12 — of ^^ Ynglings 
kings Aun, Egil Foe-of-Tunni and Adils were laid in 
mound at Upsala, 43^ 4617 515^ — Yngvar, in Adalsysla (in 
Esthonia), 532228 — Eystein s. of Halfdan, and Halfdan his 
son at Borro (Westfold), 6912 yog 20-81 — Olaf Geirsteadelf at 
Geirstead (Westfold), 732.3 18-19 — ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^- Herlaug of 
Naumdale took three years ouilding, being made of stone 
and lime and roofed with timber, 9720-^ — to sit on a howe, 
an ancient custom of kings (connected with worship of ances- 
tral spirits), 9780-81 '^^8-4 — ^^"^^ Sigurd Eysteinson's howe at 
Oikel Bank, iiógg — Biom Seafarer's at Seaham above Tuns- 


Index III [how — ini 


berg, 135^4 — Harald Hairfajr*s on Kormt Sound, 143^ — the 

howes of 01 af (II,) Geirsteadelf and Sigurd his brotber, on 
the brent east of Tunsberg, i44.j^^.,^^howes on the island crfj 
Frædi heaped over ships with fallen warriors laid in theniilj 
i8og.ii — Hakon the Good laid in a great howe at Seaham m 
North-Hordland 'all armed with the best of his array,' 
1 8825^ — K.' Ogvald laid in howe near Ogvaldsn€Ss,3T5^4,,^- 
howes at Upsala, ii, 11833 — howes among the Biarms 
for storing in that portion of dead men's property which b] 
law was theirs after death, 260.^^ 26 1^,^,^— while Hak^ 
Shoulderbroad, on the eve of his faJl^ en^ges in play, 
landed men * sat on a certain howe,* Ui. 444^ (from sup^^t 
stitious motive?). 
HOWE-STEAD (baugsta^r), the place at or n^r to which 
man has been laid in howe{Snorri's statement that the *bowe- 
stead ' of each of the ancestors of the Ladir Earl Hakon the 
Mighty is recorded in Eyvind^s poem * The Haloga Tale ' is 
not borne out by the fragments we now possess of that poemX 

HUNDRED (hundra^), num. ^ 120, passim. 

HUNTER. HUNTING (veiíSrmaíSr, veiíSr), K, Egil the Fofr 
of-Tunni, a mighty hunter, who oft rode day-lopg throöL 
the woods hunting wild deer, x, 46 j.^ — Atti the Foors buni 

HUSBANDRY (biSsýsla), K. Sigurd Sow, a great hushandmin.' 
gives heed to his workmen, acres, meadows^ live stock and 
smiths, ii. 3,21^ 

HYLL (hylja), to cover, iiL ^i^ 

ICE- HEWING (fshögg), Harald Hardredy's ice-bound 
in the lake Venern set free by cutting away the ice until open 
water was reached, iii* 1511^,27 ^SSm* 

IMMORALITY, even In a popular and illustrious ruler, 
resented by the ' bonders ' as to count for a capital crím^' 
i. 288^1^ 292^^-294^ 29655-297^^ 298... 

INCENSE {reykelsi, from O.E. recels), employed as a counter- 
magic (beside * candles ' kindled, the ' rood,' * the gospd,' 
* many prayers ' and * holy water ') to Raud the Strung^ 
wizardry, i 33ia5-B& 

INCOMINGS (tokur, from taka, now tekjur, sg. tekja), income, 
revenue, iii. 183^4^ 



INF — kin] Index III 367 

INFANTRY (fótgönguli«, fótgangandi menn), * footmen,' 'foot- 
folk,' the men on foot in the army of Emperor Otto and in 
that of Harald Godwinson, as distinct from the men on 
horseback, the ' riders,' cavalry, an arm still imknown in the 
north, where, consequently, * fótgöngu- ' is never prefixed to 
' \ÝS ' when native levies are in question, i. 255^^ iii. 173^ 

IRON-BEAK, see Ships, 2. 

IRONS (jam), iron chains into which were cast: heathens re- 
fusing to accept Christianity, i. 32417.13 — great criminals, ii. 
i25i4 2265— traitors, 343i(w7 "i- "727-28 so— or even lesser 
o£fenders, iii. 223^4 

JIG-PLAYERS (gigarar, sg. gigjari), much in request at the 
court of K. Hugleik of Sweden, i. 37,3 

JOINTURE (tilgjöf ), a marriage settlement on the bride made 
by her father (guardian), in addition to what the bridegroom's 
dower, mundr, amounted to, ii. 1532 21 

JUDGMENT (dómr), passed at the instance of Erling Askew 
at a Thing in Tunsberg which in due form committed Earl 
Sigurd of Reyr and his following both alive and dead to the 
devil — severely censured by Snorri, iii. 44919-4507 

KETTLE-BOW (ketil-hadda, the handle of a pot used for cook- 
ing sacrificed meat), i. 1701 4.5 

KILT (kilting), su Dress. Cloak, 5. 

KING (konungr), the title first used by Kings Danp in Den- 
mark and Dyggvi in Sweden, L 31 14.19 — the king(s) of Sweden 
supreme judge(s) in a court of law where twelve judges 
assisted as assessors, ii. 15917.19 — king's dues (konungs 
skyldir), crown revenues, ii. 6712 752» 7^24-26 — king's bertíi 
(konungs lægi) and king's bridge (konungs bryggja), ix, pier, 
landing-stage or quay, prerogatively provided in harbours 
where kings with a fleet or otherwise might be calling, iii. 
849.10 ^^26 c^- "^- 34322 — ^^ relative right of Magnus the GÍDod 
and Harald Sigurdson to this prerogative defined, 844.1^ — 
Harald's breach and Magnus' firm vindication of thb covenant, 
88^-9020 — Earl Hakon the Mighty's observance of this right 
of oerth, i. 24715.1925-24818 — king's fines (konungs sakeyrir), 
that part of fines inflicted for offences against the law which 
belonged to the king, iii. 14613 — king's garth (konungs garVr), 
the royal palace or residence, as a nucleus of a capital with the 
seat of government, first erected by Olaf Tryggvison at Nidoyce 

308 Index III [kin — ^kni 

(a.d. 997), i. 32 12627 ii- 5^20 (whcrc konungsgar^r is tr. ^king's 
house ') — neglected during the rule of the Earls Eric and Svein 
it was found in a tumble-down state and partially restored by 
Olaf the Holy (a.d. 1015), but shortly afterwards destroyed 
when Nidoyce was burnt down by Earl Svein and Einar 
Thambarskelfir, ii. SOgo-Sii SJu-ie — again K. Olaf erected it 
in a stately manner (1016-17), 67^^^ — K. Magnus his son 
built a new one to which K. Harald Hardredy added a stone- 
hall, which he did not live to complete, 10455.26 í8-so ^^Ss-ii — 
the old, Olaf the Holy^s, palace had acquired the name of 
Skuli's-garth (Skiila-gar^r) in 1093, when Magnus Barefoot 
succeeded his father, doub